List of chancellors of Austria

Portrait of Renner (1905)
Dollfuss pictured as Kaiserschütze (1933)
Kreisky at an elections campaign (1983)
Kurz with Russian President Putin in the Kremlin (2018)
Clockwise from top left:
  • Renner was the first Chancellor of German-Austria, the First Republic and the Second Republic
  • Dollfuss turned the First Republic into a dictatorship and is a key figure in fascism
  • Kreisky is known as one of the world's perhaps most successful socialist leaders
  • Kurz was on inauguration the youngest head of government in the world

The chancellor of Austria is the head of government of the Austrian Republic, appointed by the president and regarded as the country's de facto chief executive. The chancellor chairs and leads the Cabinet, which also includes the vice chancellor and the ministers.[1]

Following World War I, the office was originally established by the Provisional National Assembly on 30 October 1918 as state chancellor of the Republic of German-Austria, and its first holder, Karl Renner, was appointed by the State Council. After the Allies declined a union between Austria and Germany,[2] German-Austria established the First Austrian Republic and soon afterwards renamed the office from state chancellor to federal chancellor – the first federal chancellor was Michael Mayr. Ten chancellors served under the First Republic up until Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss established the authoritarian and dictatorial Federal State of Austria.[3] Following Dollfuss's Assassination by Austrian National Socialists,[4] Kurt Schuschnigg succeeded him as chancellor and upheld the dictatorship.[5] Schuschnigg in turn was replaced by Arthur Seyss-Inquart, a Nazi caretaker who held the office for two days, until Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany.[6]

Austria under National Socialism lost its original, republican system of government and was administered by Reichsstatthalter Arthur Seyss-Inquart (1938–1939), Reich Commissioner Josef Bürckel[7] (1939–1940) and Reichsstatthalter Baldur von Schirach[8] (1940–1945). In 1940, the country was renamed Ostmark, completely lost its autonomy and became an administrative division of Nazi Germany.[9][10] After the liberation of Vienna and the dissolution of Nazi Germany, Austria reinstated its republican form of government.[11] However, the country remained under allied occupation until 1955[12] and thus the country's ultimate sovereignty was still held by the Allied Control Council.

Since the establishment of the republic, the People's and the Social Democratic Party have largely dominated Austrian politics. The People's Party/Christian Social Party led nineteen cabinets and was the second largest party in eight coalition cabinets, the Social Democratic Party/Social Democratic Workers' Party led eleven cabinets and was the second largest party in five coalition cabinets. The following parties never held the chancellorship but participated in coalition cabinets: the Greater German People's Party in five, the Freedom Party and the Landbund in four, the Alliance for the Future and the Communist Party in one.

If the chancellor dies, resigns or is otherwise incapable of exercising the powers and duties of the office, the vice chancellor automatically becomes acting chancellor; that is if the president has not already found a permanent replacement. If the vice chancellor is unavailable, the other members of the government take over in order of seniority.[13] The unavailability of an elected chancellor does not automatically call for a new election. If the president in turn dies, resigns or is otherwise incapacitated, the chancellor assumes all the powers and duties of the presidency, but only for twenty days.[14]

Bruno Kreisky was the longest serving chancellor with 4778 days in office and Arthur Seyss-Inquart was the shortest serving chancellor with 2 days in office.

First Republic of Austria (1918–1938)

Party Portrait Name Tenure Election Governing party or coalition Ref.
1 SDAPÖ Portrait of Karl Renner (1905) Karl Renner
(1870–1950)
[a][b]
30 October 1918

7 July 1920
1919 SDAPÖ CS GDVP [15][16][17]
2 CS Photograph of Mayr (before 1922) Michael Mayr
(1864–1922)
[c]
7 July 1920

21 June 1921
1920 CS SDAPÖ [18]
3 IND Portrait of Schober (circa 1922) Johannes Schober
(1874–1932)
21 June 1921

26 January 1922
CS GDVP Experts [19]
4 CS Portrait of Walter Breisky (1927) Walter Breisky
(1871–1944)
26 January 1922

27 January 1922
CS GDVP [20]
(3) IND Portrait of Schober (circa 1922) Johannes Schober
(1874–1932)
27 January 1922

31 May 1922
CS GDVP Experts [21]
5 CS Portrait of Seipel Ignaz Seipel
(1876–1932)
31 May 1922

20 November 1924
1923 CS GDVP Experts [22]
6 CS Illustration of Ramek (1924) Rudolf Ramek
(1881–1941)
20 November 1924

20 October 1926
CS GDVP [23]
(5) CS Portrait of Seipel Ignaz Seipel
(1876–1932)
20 October 1926

4 May 1929
1927 CS GDVP Landbund
7 CS Portrait of Streeruwitz (1929) Ernst Streeruwitz
(1874–1952)
4 May 1929

26 September 1929
CS Landbund [24]
(3) IND Oil painting of Schober (1931) Johannes Schober
(1874–1932)
26 September 1929

30 September 1930
CS
8 CS Photograph of Vaugoin (circa 1932-03) Carl Vaugoin
(1873–1949)
30 September 1930

4 December 1930
CS [25]
9 CS Photograph of Ender (1929) Otto Ender
(1875–1960)
4 December 1930

20 June 1931
1930 CS [26]
10 CS Portrait of Buresch (1932) Karl Buresch
(1878–1936)
20 June 1931

20 May 1932
CS Landbund [27]
CS Dollfuss pictured as Kaiserschütze (1933) Engelbert Dollfuss
(1892–1934)
20 May 1932

25 July 1934
CS Landbund Heimwehr
20 May 1932 – 1 May 1934

VF
1 May 1934 – 25 July 1934
[28]
11 VF
12 VF Photograph of Schuschnigg (1936) Kurt Schuschnigg
(1897–1977)
25 July 1934

29 July 1934
VF [29]
29 July 1934

11 March 1938
13 NSDAP Photograph of Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart
(1892–1946)
11 March 1938

13 March 1938
NSDAP [30]

Austria was part of Nazi Germany from 12 March 1938 to 13 April 1945

Second Republic of Austria (1945–present)

Political party

  SPÖ   ÖVP /   ÖVP   None

Party Portrait Name Tenure Election Governing party or coalition Ref.
SPÖ Portrait of Karl Renner (1905) Karl Renner
(1870–1950)
as Staatskanzler
27 April 1945[d]

20 December 1945
SPÖ ÖVP KPÖ [31][32][33]
1 ÖVP Photograph of Figl (after 1962) Leopold Figl
(1902–1965)
20 December 1945

2 April 1953
1945 ÖVP SPÖ [34]
1949
2 ÖVP Photograph of Raab (1961) Julius Raab
(1891–1964)
2 April 1953

11 April 1961
1953 ÖVP SPÖ [35]
1956
1959
3 ÖVP Photograph of Gorbach (1965) Alfons Gorbach
(1898–1972)
11 April 1961

2 April 1964
1962 ÖVP SPÖ [36]
4 ÖVP Photograph of Klaus (1964) Josef Klaus
(1910–2001)
2 April 1964

21 April 1970
ÖVP SPÖ [37]
1966 ÖVP
5 SPÖ Kreisky at an elections campaign (1983) Bruno Kreisky
(1911–1990)
21 April 1970

24 May 1983
1970 SPÖ [38]
1971
1975
1979
6 SPÖ Photograph of Sinowatz Fred Sinowatz
(1929–2008)
24 May 1983

16 June 1986
1983 SPÖ FPÖ [39]
7 SPÖ Photograph of Vranitzky Franz Vranitzky
(born 1937)
16 June 1986

28 January 1997
1986 SPÖ FPÖ [40]
1990 SPÖ ÖVP
1994
1995
8 SPÖ Photograph of Klima (1988) Viktor Klima
(born 1947)
28 January 1997

4 February 2000
SPÖ ÖVP [41]
9 ÖVP Photograph of Schüssel (2006) Wolfgang Schüssel
(born 1945)
4 February 2000

11 January 2007
1999 ÖVP FPÖ
4 February 2000 – 3 April 2005

ÖVP BZÖ
3 April 2005 – 11 January 2007
[42]
2002
10 SPÖ Photograph of Gusenbauer (2008) Alfred Gusenbauer
(born 1960)
11 January 2007

2 December 2008
2006 SPÖ ÖVP [43]
11 SPÖ Portrait of Faymann (2008) Werner Faymann
(born 1960)
2 December 2008

9 May 2016
2008 SPÖ ÖVP [44]
2013
ÖVP Photograph of Mitterlehner (2015) Reinhold Mitterlehner
(born 1955)
Acting
9 May 2016

17 May 2016
SPÖ ÖVP [45][46]
12 SPÖ Portrait of Kern (2016) Christian Kern
(born 1966)
17 May 2016

18 December 2017
SPÖ ÖVP [47]
13 ÖVP Kurz with Russian President Putin in the Kremlin (2018) Sebastian Kurz
(born 1986)
18 December 2017

28 May 2019
2017 ÖVP FPÖ
18 December 2017 – 22 May 2019

ÖVP
22 May 2019 – 28 May 2019
[48]
ÖVP 2017 Finanzminister Hartwig Löger (39136614571) (cropped).jpg Hartwig Löger
(born 1965)
Acting
28 May 2019

3 June 2019
ÖVP [49][50]
14 IND Brigitte Bierlein 2018 (coloured portrait crop).jpg Brigitte Bierlein
(born 1949)
3 June 2019

7 January 2020
Independent [51][52]
(13) ÖVP Kurz with Russian President Putin in the Kremlin (2018) Sebastian Kurz
(born 1986)
7 January 2020

11 October 2021
2019 ÖVP Greens [53]
15 ÖVP Alexander Schallenberg (51029203647).jpg Count
Alexander Schallenberg
(born 1969)
11 October 2021

present
ÖVP Greens [54]

Statistics

The median age at which a chancellor first takes office is 50 years and 168 days (falling between Christian Kern and Walter Breisky). The youngest person to ever assume the office is Sebastian Kurz, who took office at the age of 31 years, 113 days. The oldest person to become chancellor for the first time is Brigitte Bierlein at the age of 69 years, 343 days. Karl Renner served two nonconsecutive terms; at the beginning of his second term he was 74 years, 134 days old.

The oldest living former chancellor is Franz Vranitzky, born 4 October 1937, (aged 84 years, 11 days). The youngest living former chancellor is Sebastian Kurz, born 27 August 1986, (aged 35 years, 49 days).

The longest living chancellor was Josef Klaus, who died on 26 July 2001 at the age of 90 years, 345 days. Franz Vranitzky, the oldest living former chancellor, will surpass Klaus if he lives beyond 14 September 2028. The shortest living chancellor was Engelbert Dollfuss, who was assassinated in office on 25 July 1934 at the age of 41 years, 294 days.

The chancellor with the longest retirement is Kurt Schuschnigg. He left office on 11 March 1938, and died 39 years, and 252 days later on 18 November 1977.

Living former chancellors

There are eight living former Austrian chancellors:

Oldest living chancellors

Not all chancellors live to become the oldest of their time. Of the 20 deceased chancellors, 8 eventually became the oldest of their time, while 12 did not. On one occasion the oldest living chancellor lost this distinction not by his death, but due to the appointment of a chancellor who was older. Karl Renner lost this distinction when Michael Mayr was appointed, but when Mayr died in 1922, Renner regained it again until his own death in 1950 for a record total period of 30 years and 110 days. Ernst Streeruwitz became the oldest living chancellor after the death of Karl Renner, but he survived Renner by only 1 year and 293 days.

Otto Ender was the oldest to acquire this distinction at the age of 76 years, and 300 days. Bruno Kreisky, who was 79 years, and 188 days old when he died, on 29 July 1990 was the oldest and most recent chancellor to die without ever acquiring this distinction.

Chancellor Period when oldest living chancellor Age Duration
Start date End date at start at end
Karl Renner 30 October 1918 7 July 1920 47 years, 320 days 49 years, 206 days 1 year, 251 days
Michael Mayr 7 July 1920 21 May 1922 56 years, 88 days 58 years, 41 days 1 year, 318 days
Karl Renner 21 May 1922 31 December 1950 51 years, 158 days 80 years, 17 days 28 years, 224 days
Ernst Streeruwitz 31 December 1950 19 October 1952 76 years, 99 days 78 years, 26 days 1 year, 293 days
Otto Ender 19 October 1952 25 June 1960 76 years, 300 days 84 years, 184 days 7 years, 250 days
Julius Raab 25 June 1960 8 January 1964 68 years, 209 days 72 years, 40 days 2 years, 19 days
Kurt Schuschnigg 8 January 1964 18 November 1977 66 years, 25 days 79 years, 339 days 13 years, 314 days
Josef Klaus 18 November 1977 25 July 2001 67 years, 95 days 90 years, 344 days 23 years, 249 days
Fred Sinowatz 25 July 2001 11 August 2008 72 years, 170 days 79 years, 188 days 7 years, 17 days
Franz Vranitzky 11 August 2008 70 years, 312 days 13 years, 65 days
Chancellor Start date End date Age at start Age at end Duration

[56]

See also

Copyright