List of Ottoman Grand Viziers

Grand Vizier of
the Ottoman Empire
Sadrazamlik-nisanlari.svg
Seal of the Grand Vizier
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha chair.jpg
Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Style His Excellency
Residence Bab-ı Ali
Appointer The Sultan
Formation 1328
First holder Alaeddin Pasha
Final holder Ahmet Tevfik Pasha
Abolished 1 November 1922

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Vezir-i Azam or Sadr-ı Azam (Sadrazam); Ottoman Turkish: صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم) was the de facto prime minister of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself in the classical period, before the Tanzimat reforms, or until the 1908 Revolution. He held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state in the Imperial Council; the viziers in conference were called "kubbe viziers" in reference to their meeting place, the Kubbealtı ('under-the-dome') in Topkapı Palace. His offices were located at the Sublime Porte.

History

During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "Vizier" was the only title used. The first of these Ottoman Viziers who was titled "Grand Vizier" was Çandarlı Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha (also known as Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder). The purpose in instituting the title "Grand Vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the Sultan's seal from other viziers. The initially more frequently used title of vezir-i âzam was gradually replaced by sadrazam, both meaning grand vizier in practice. Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have also been termed sadr-ı âlî ('high vizier'), vekil-i mutlak ('absolute attorney'), sâhib-i devlet ('holder of the state'), serdar-ı ekrem ('gracious general'), serdar-ı azam ('grand general') and zât-ı âsafî ('vizieral person') and başnazır,[1] literally "prime minister" in Ottoman Turkish.

In the late periods of the Ottoman Empire, especially during and after the 19th century, the Grand Vizier began to hold a position almost identical to that of a Prime Minister in other European states.[2] Reforms seen during and after the Tanzimat (1838), the First Constitutional Era (1876–1878), and the Second Constitutional Era (1908–1920) further brought the office of the Grand Vizier in line with the European standard, making the incumbent the head of a Cabinet of other ministers. During the two constitutional eras, the Grand Vizier also served as the speaker of the Senate, the upper house of the bicameral Ottoman Parliament. With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Prime Minister of Turkey took on the roles of the former office.

Grand Viziers were often replaced or resigned in rapid succession, frequently leading to political instability. In the final 10 years of the Empire alone, the office of the Grand Vizier changed hands 13 times between 12 men; some, such as Ahmed Izzet Pasha and Salih Hulusi Pasha, held office for less than a month.

Popular Officers

The ottoman Empire in its 600 year rule witnessed many great Grand Viziers. But some had a much more greater value than many others. Some were known for their political reforms while others for their wealth and civil status. Some well known officers are : Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha for his extreme influence in the empire during his time. He had close relations with the greatest ruler in the history of the empire Suleiman the Magnificent. He is also known as one of the wealthiest Grand viziers of the Empire. Another well known Grand Vizier is Damat Rüstem Pasha who also served during the reign of Suleiman. Rustem was known for his wealth and his influence over the sons of the sultan. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha is also well known in the Ottoman history as he served for three Ottoman sultans Suleiman The Magnificent. Selim II and his son Murad III. He was also married to one of the daughters of Selim II and he had played a major role in the enthronement of Selim.

List of Grand Viziers

See also

References

  1. ^ Archivum Ottomanicum, p. 240, at Google Books
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, p. 235, at Google Books
  3. ^ a b Dânişmend 1971, p. 7.
  4. ^ Yücel 1991, p. 310.
  5. ^ a b c Dânişmend 1971, p. 8.
  6. ^ a b c d e Danişmend (1971), p. 9. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  7. ^ Stavrides 2001, p. 55.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Danişmend (1971), p. 10. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  9. ^ a b Faveyrial, Jean-Claude (1888). Histoire de l'Albanie (in French). archives of the House of the Lazarite Missionaries in Paris. p. 215."Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2010-10-12.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) [better source needed]
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Danişmend (1971), p. 11. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  11. ^ Theoharis Stavrides (2001). The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic (1453-1474) ISBN 978-90-04-12106-5. Brill Academic Publishers. templatestyles stripmarker in |title= at position 104 (help)
  12. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 12. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  13. ^ Inalcik, Halil (1991). "Mesīḥ Pasha". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume VI: Mahk–Mid. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 1025–1026. ISBN 90-04-08112-7.
  14. ^ Türkçülük ve Türkçülük mücadeleleri tarihi. 1969. p. 53. 11 - Koca Mustafa Paşa (Rum)
  15. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 13. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  16. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 14. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  17. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 15. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  18. ^ Alper, Omer Mahir, "Yunus Paşa", (1999) Yaşamları ve Yapıtlarıyla Osmanlılar Ansiklopedisi, İstanbul:Yapı Kredi Kültür Sanat Yayıncılık A.Ş. C.2 s.678 ISBN 975-08-0072-9
  19. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 16. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  20. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 17. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  21. ^ A military history of modern Egypt: from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War by Andrew James McGregor p.30 [1]
  22. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 18. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  23. ^ Samarčić, Radovan (2004). Sokollu Mehmet Paşa (3rd ed.) Istanbul: Aralik. ISBN 975-8823-62-0
  24. ^ Kočan, Ismet (Dec. 21, 2005). Mit i stvarnost - Mehmed-paša Sokolović, Večernje Novosti Online.
  25. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 19. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  26. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 25. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  27. ^ Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p. 65. Nëna e tij, Aishe Humashah, ishte mbesa e Sulltan Sylejmanit. [better source needed]
  28. ^ Kim Mehmeti. Fara e bimes se keqe. p. 64. Nëna e Shemsi Ahmed Pashait, thuhet se ishte me origjinë familjare një pasardhës i drejtpërdrejtë i Halid Ibni Velidit, komandantit të famshëm të ushtrisë islame, i cili pushtoi Sirinë në kohën e profetit Muhamed, në shekullin e 7-të. [better source needed]
  29. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 21. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  30. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 22. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  31. ^ Necipoğlu 2005, p. 403.
  32. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 23. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  33. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 24. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  34. ^ Islamic Desk Reference: Compiled from "The Encyclopaedia of Islam", E. J. Van Donzel, BRILL, 1994, p.165. Bosnian origin
  35. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 26. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  36. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 27. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  37. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 28. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  38. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 29. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  39. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 30. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  40. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 31. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  41. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 32. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  42. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 33. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  43. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 34. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  44. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 35. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  45. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 36. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  46. ^ Uzunçarşılı & Karal 1954, p. 393.
  47. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 37. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  48. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 38. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  49. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 39. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  50. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 40. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  51. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 41. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  52. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 42. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  53. ^ Server Rifat İskit (1960). Resemli-haritalı mufassal Osmanlı tarihi. 4. İskit Yayını. p. 2067.
  54. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 33. (Turkish)
  55. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 44. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  56. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 45. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  57. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 46. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  58. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 47. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  59. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 48. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  60. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 49. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  61. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 50. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  62. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 51. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  63. ^ Evg Radushev, Svetlana Ivanova, Rumen Kovachev - Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. Orientalski otdel, International Centre for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations, Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (2003). Inventory of Ottoman Turkish documents about Waqf preserved in the Oriental Department at the St. St. Cyril and Methodius National Library. Narodna biblioteka "Sv. sv. Kiril i Metodiĭ. p. 224. ISBN 954-523-072-X. Hasan Pasa (Damad-i- Padisahi), Greek convert from Morea. He began his career as imperial armourer and rose to the post of Grand Vezir (1703). He married the daughter of Sultan Mehmed IV, Hatice Sultan, fell into disgrace and was exiled with his wife to izmit.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  64. ^ Catharine Theimer Nepomnyashchy; Nicole Svobodny; Ludmilla A. Trigos (2006). Under the sky of my Africa: Alexander Pushkin and blackness. Northwestern University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-8101-1971-4. Shortly afterward a new grand vizier, Hasan, came to take the place of the old one, and he held his post during the period we are interested in: from November 16, 1703, to September 28, 1704. He was the new sultan's son-in-law… "he was a very honest and comparatively humane pasha of Greek origin and cannot be suspected of selling the sultan's pages to a foreigner."
  65. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 52. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  66. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 53. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  67. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 54. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  68. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 55. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  69. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 56. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  70. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 57. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  71. ^ a b c d e Danişmend (1971), p. 58. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  72. ^ a b c d e Danişmend (1971), p. 59. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  73. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 60. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  74. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 61. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  75. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 62. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  76. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 63. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  77. ^ Mehmed Süreyya (haz. Nuri Akbayar) (1996), Sicill-i Osmani, İstanbul:Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları ISBN 975-333-0383 C.III s.607-608 [2]
  78. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 64. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  79. ^ a b Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman (eds.), Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Beşiktaş, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, pp. 848–849
  80. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 65. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  81. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 66. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  82. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 67. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  83. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 68. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  84. ^ Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman (eds.), Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Beşiktaş, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, p. 849
  85. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 69. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  86. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 70. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  87. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 71. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  88. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 72. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  89. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 73. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  90. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 74. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  91. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 75. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  92. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 76. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  93. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 77. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  94. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 78. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  95. ^ History and identity among the Hemshin -HOVANN H. SIMONIAN -172
  96. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 79. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  97. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 80. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  98. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 81. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  99. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 82. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  100. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 83. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  101. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 84. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  102. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 85. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  103. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 86. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  104. ^ a b c d Danişmend (1971), p. 87. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  105. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 88. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  106. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 89. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  107. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 90. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  108. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 91. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  109. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 92. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  110. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 93. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  111. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 94. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  112. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 95. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  113. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 96. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  114. ^ a b c Danişmend (1971), p. 97. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  115. ^ Gawrych, George (2006). The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. London: IB Tauris. pp. 23, 26, 132, 153. ISBN 9781845112875.
  116. ^ Prothero, George Walter (1920). Peace Handbooks: The Balkan states. H. M. Stationery Office. p. 45. OCLC 4694680. Hussein Hilmi Pasha, descended from a Greek convert to Islam in the island of Mitylene, was sent to Macedonia as High Commissioner.
  117. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 98. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  118. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 99. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  119. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 100. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  120. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 101. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  121. ^ a b Nâzım Tektaş, Sadrazamlar: Osmanlı'da ikinci adam saltanatı, Çatı Kitapları, 2002, p. .
  122. ^ Ali Bilgenoğlu, Osmanlı Devleti'nde Arap milliyetçi cemiyetler, Müdafaa-i Hukuk Yayınları, 2007, p. 87.‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  123. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 102. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  124. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 103. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  125. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 104. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  126. ^ a b Danişmend (1971), p. 105. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
  127. ^ Danişmend (1971), p. 106. ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)

Sources

Copyright