List of vice presidents of the United States

There have been 48 vice presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789. Originally, the vice president was the person who received the second most votes for president in the Electoral College. However, in the election of 1800 a tie in the electoral college between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr led to the selection of the president by the House of Representatives. To prevent such an event from happening again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution, creating the current system where electors cast a separate ballot for the vice presidency.[1]

The vice president is the first person in the presidential line of succession and assumes that presidency if the president dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office.[2] Nine vice presidents have ascended to the presidency in this way: eight (John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, and Lyndon B. Johnson) through the president's death and one (Gerald Ford) through the president's resignation. In addition, the vice president serves as the president of the Senate and may choose to cast a tie-breaking vote on decisions made by the Senate. Vice presidents have exercised this latter power to varying extents over the years.[1]

Prior to adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the office of the vice president could not be filled until the next post-election inauguration. Several such vacancies occurred—seven vice presidents died, one resigned and eight succeeded to the presidency. This amendment allowed for a vacancy to be filled through appointment by the president and confirmation by both chambers of the Congress. Since its ratification, the vice presidency has been vacant twice (both in the context of scandals surrounding the Nixon administration) and was filled both times through this process, namely in 1973 following Spiro Agnew's resignation, and again in 1974 after Gerald Ford succeeded to the presidency.[1] The amendment also established a procedure whereby a vice president may, if the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office, temporarily assume the powers and duties of the office as acting president. George H. W. Bush did so once on July 13, 1985. Dick Cheney did so twice on June 29, 2002 and on July 21, 2007.

The persons who have served as vice president were born in or primarily affiliated with 27 states plus the District of Columbia. New York has produced the most of any state as eight have been born there and three others considered it their home state. Most vice presidents have been in their 50s or 60s and had political experience prior to assuming the office.[1] The youngest person to become vice president was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age while the oldest was Alben W. Barkley at 71 years of age. Two vice presidents—George Clinton and John C. Calhoun—served under more than one president.

There are currently five living former vice presidents. The most recent former vice president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.

List

  Pro-Administration (1)    Federalist (1)    Democratic-Republican (6)    Nullifier (1)    Democratic (17)    Whig (2)    Republican (21)    National Union (1)
Vice presidency Vice President[a] Prior office[b] Party Election President
1 April 21, 1789[c]
–
March 4, 1797
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg John Adams
1735–1826
(Lived 90 years)
[3][4][5]
Minister to the Court of St. James's
(1785–1788)
  Pro-Administration[d] 1788–89 George Washington[e]
Federalist 1792
2 March 4, 1797
–
March 4, 1801
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas Jefferson
1743–1826
(Lived 83 years)
[6][7][8]
1st secretary of state
(1790–1793)
Democratic-Republican 1796 John Adams[f]
3 March 4, 1801
–
March 4, 1805
Vanderlyn Burr.jpg Aaron Burr
1756–1836
(Lived 80 years)
[9]
Member of the New York State Assembly
(1784–1785 and 1798–1799)
Democratic-Republican 1800 Thomas Jefferson
4 March 4, 1805
–
April 20, 1812
(Died in office)
George Clinton by Ezra Ames.jpg George Clinton
1739–1812
(Lived 72 years)
[10]
1st governor of New York
(1777–1795 and 1801–1804)
Democratic-Republican 1804
1808 James Madison
Office vacant April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813[g]
5 March 4, 1813
–
November 23, 1814
(Died in office)
Elbridge-gerry-painting.jpg Elbridge Gerry
1744–1814
(Lived 70 years)
[11]
9th governor of Massachusetts
(1810–1812)
Democratic-Republican 1812
Office vacant November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817[g]
6 March 4, 1817
–
March 4, 1825
Daniel D Tompins by John Wesley Jarvis.jpg Daniel D. Tompkins
1774–1825
(Lived 50 years)
[12]
4th governor of New York
(1807–1817)
Democratic-Republican 1816 James Monroe
1820
7 March 4, 1825
–
December 28, 1832
(Resigned from office)
George Peter Alexander Healy - John C. Calhoun - Google Art Project.jpg John C. Calhoun
1782–1850
(Lived 68 years)
[13]
10th secretary of war
(1817–1825)
Democratic-Republican 1824 John Q. Adams
Nullifier[h]
Democratic
1828 Andrew Jackson[i]
Office vacant December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833[g]
8 March 4, 1833
–
March 4, 1837
Francis Alexander - Martin Van Buren - Google Art Project.jpg Martin Van Buren
1782–1862
(Lived 79 years)
[14][15][16]
Minister to the Court of St. James's
(1831–1832)
Democratic 1832
9 March 4, 1837
–
March 4, 1841
RichardMentorJohnson.jpg Richard M. Johnson
1780–1850
(Lived 70 years)
[17]
Representative for Kentucky's 13th district
(1833–1837)
Democratic 1836 Martin Van Buren
10 March 4, 1841
–
April 4, 1841
(Became President)
Johntyler.jpg John Tyler
1790–1862
(Lived 71 years)
[18][19][20]
Senator from Virginia
(1827–1836)
Whig 1840 William H. Harrison
(Died in office)
Office vacant April 4, 1841 – March 4, 1845[g] John Tyler
11 March 4, 1845
–
March 4, 1849
George Mifflin Dallas 1848 crop.png George M. Dallas
1792–1864
(Lived 72 years)
[21]
Minister to Russia
(1837–1839)
Democratic 1844 James K. Polk
12 March 4, 1849
–
July 9, 1850
(Became President)
Millard Fillmore -13th president of the United States.jpg Millard Fillmore
1800–1874
(Lived 74 years)
[22][23][24]
14th New York state comptroller
(1848–1849)
Whig 1848 Zachary Taylor
(Died in office)
Office vacant July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853[g] Millard Fillmore
13 March 4, 1853[j]
–
April 18, 1853
(Died in office)
William R. D. King Vice President.jpg William R. King
1786–1853
(Lived 67 years)
[25]
Senator from Alabama
(1819–1844 and 1848–1852)
President pro tempore
(1850–1852)
Democratic 1852 Franklin Pierce
Office vacant April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857[g]
14 March 4, 1857
–
March 4, 1861
John C Breckinridge-04775-restored.jpg John C. Breckinridge
1821–1875
(Lived 54 years)
[26]
Representative for Kentucky's 8th district
(1851–1855)
Democratic 1856 James Buchanan
15 March 4, 1861
–
March 4, 1865
Hannibal Hamlin, photo portrait seated, c1860-65-retouched-crop.jpg Hannibal Hamlin
1809–1891
(Lived 81 years)
[27]
Senator from Maine
(1848–1857 and 1857–1861)
Republican 1860 Abraham Lincoln[k]
(Died in office)
16 March 4, 1865
–
April 15, 1865
(Became President)
President Andrew Johnson.jpg Andrew Johnson
1808–1875
(Lived 66 years)
[28][29][30]
15th governor of Tennessee
(1853–1857)
Military Governor of Tennessee
(1862–1865)
National Union 1864
Office vacant April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869[g] Andrew Johnson
17 March 4, 1869
–
March 4, 1873
Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg Schuyler Colfax
1823–1885
(Lived 61 years)
[31]
Representative for Indiana's 9th district
(1855–1869)
Speaker of the House
(1863–1869)
Republican 1868 Ulysses S. Grant
18 March 4, 1873
–
November 22, 1875
(Died in office)
HenryWilson.jpg Henry Wilson
1812–1875
(Lived 63 years)
[32]
Senator from Massachusetts
(1855–1873)
Republican 1872
Office vacant November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877[g]
19 March 4, 1877
–
March 4, 1881
VicePresident-WmAlWheeler.jpg William A. Wheeler
1819–1887
(Lived 67 years)
[33]
Representative for New York's 19th district
(1875–1877)
Republican 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes
20
March 4, 1881
–
September 19, 1881
(Became President)
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg Chester A. Arthur
1829–1886
(Lived 57 years)
[34][35][36]
10th chairman of the New York State Republican Executive Committee
(1879–1881)
(No prior elected office)
Republican 1880 James A. Garfield
(Died in office)
Office vacant September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885[g] Chester A. Arthur
21 March 4, 1885
–
November 25, 1885
(Died in office)
Thomas Andrews Hendricks.jpg Thomas A. Hendricks
1819–1885
(Lived 66 years)
[37]
16th governor of Indiana
(1873–1877)
Democratic 1884 Grover Cleveland
Office vacant November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889[g]
22 March 4, 1889
–
March 4, 1893
Levi Morton - Brady-Handy portrait - tight 3x4 crop.jpg Levi P. Morton
1824–1920
(Lived 96 years)
[38]
Minister to France
(1881–1885)
Republican 1888 Benjamin Harrison
23 March 4, 1893
–
March 4, 1897
Adlai Ewing Stevenson I head-on-shoulders.jpg Adlai Stevenson
1835–1914
(Lived 78 years)
[39]
First assistant postmaster general
(1885–1889)
Democratic 1892 Grover Cleveland
24 March 4, 1897
–
November 21, 1899
(Died in office)
GHobart.jpg Garret Hobart
1844–1899
(Lived 55 years)
[40]
Vice Chairman of the Republican National Committee
(1892–1896)
Republican 1896 William McKinley
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901[g]
25 March 4, 1901
–
September 14, 1901
(Became President)
Theodore Roosevelt circa 1902.jpg Theodore Roosevelt
1858–1919
(Lived 60 years)
[41][42][43]
33rd governor of New York
(1899–1900)
Republican 1900
Office vacant September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905[g] Theodore Roosevelt
26 March 4, 1905
–
March 4, 1909
CharlesWFairbanks.jpg Charles W. Fairbanks
1852–1918
(Lived 66 years)
[44]
Senator from Indiana
(1897–1905)
Republican 1904
27 March 4, 1909
–
October 30, 1912
(Died in office)
James Sherman, Bain bw photo portrait facing left.jpg James S. Sherman
1855–1912
(Lived 57 years)
[45]
Representative for New York's 27th district
(1903–1909)
Republican 1908 William H. Taft
Office vacant October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913[g]
28 March 4, 1913
–
March 4, 1921
Thomas Riley Marshall headshot.jpg Thomas R. Marshall
1854–1925
(Lived 71 years)
[46]
27th governor of Indiana
(1909–1913)
Democratic 1912 Woodrow Wilson
1916
29 March 4, 1921
–
August 2, 1923
(Became President)
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777 (cropped).jpg Calvin Coolidge
1872–1933
(Lived 60 years)
[47][48][49]
48th governor of Massachusetts
(1919–1921)
Republican 1920 Warren G. Harding
(Died in office)
Office vacant August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925[g] Calvin Coolidge
30
March 4, 1925
–
March 4, 1929
Chas G Dawes-H&E.jpg Charles G. Dawes
1865–1951
(Lived 85 years)
[50]
1st director of the Bureau of the Budget
(1921–1922)
(No prior elected office)
Republican 1924
31 March 4, 1929
–
March 4, 1933
Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg Charles Curtis
1860–1936
(Lived 76 years)
[51]
Senator from Kansas
(1907–1913 and 1915–1929)
President pro tempore
(1911)
Senate majority leader
(1925–1929)
Republican 1928 Herbert Hoover
32 March 4, 1933
–
January 20, 1941[l]
JohnNanceGarner.png John N. Garner
1868–1967
(Lived 98 years)
[52]
Representative for Texas's 15th district
(1903–1933)
House minority leader
(1929–1931)
Speaker of the House
(1931–1933)
Democratic 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Died in office)
1936
33
January 20, 1941
–
January 20, 1945
Henry-A.-Wallace-Townsend.jpeg Henry A. Wallace
1888–1965
(Lived 77 years)
[53]
11th secretary of agriculture
(1933–1940)
(No prior elected office)
Democratic 1940
34 January 20, 1945
–
April 12, 1945
(Became President)
Harry S. Truman.jpg Harry S. Truman
1884–1972
(Lived 88 years)
[54][55][56]
Senator from Missouri
(1935–1945)
Democratic 1944
Office vacant April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949[g] Harry S. Truman
35 January 20, 1949
–
January 20, 1953
Alben Barkley.jpg Alben W. Barkley
1877–1956
(Lived 78 years)
[57]
Senator from Kentucky
(1927–1949)
Senate majority leader
(1937–1947)
Senate minority leader
(1947–1949)
Democratic 1948
36 January 20, 1953
–
January 20, 1961
Richard Nixon official portrait as Vice President.tiff Richard Nixon
1913–1994
(Lived 81 years)
[58][59][60]
Senator from California
(1950–1953)
Republican 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower
1956
37 January 20, 1961
–
November 22, 1963
(Became President)
LBJBioguide.jpg Lyndon B. Johnson
1908–1973
(Lived 64 years)
[61][62]
Senator from Texas
(1949–1961)
Senate majority leader
(1955–1961)
Senate minority leader
(1953–1955)
Democratic 1960 John F. Kennedy
(Died in office)
Office vacant November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965[g] Lyndon B. Johnson
38 January 20, 1965
–
January 20, 1969
Hubert Humphrey crop.jpg Hubert Humphrey
1911–1978
(Lived 66 years)
[63]
Senator from Minnesota
(1949–1964)
Senate majority whip
(1961–1964)
Democratic 1964
39 January 20, 1969
–
October 10, 1973
(Resigned from office)
Spiro Agnew.jpg Spiro Agnew
1918–1996
(Lived 77 years)
[64]
55th governor of Maryland
(1967–1969)
Republican 1968 Richard Nixon
(Resigned from office)
1972
Office vacant October 10 – December 6, 1973[m]
40 December 6, 1973
–
August 9, 1974
(Became President)
Gerald Ford presidential portrait (cropped).jpg Gerald Ford
1913–2006
(Lived 93 years)
[65][66][67]
Representative for Michigan's 5th district
(1949–1973)
House minority leader
(1965–1973)
Republican
Office vacant August 9 – December 19, 1974[m] Gerald Ford
41 December 19, 1974
–
January 20, 1977
Nelson Rockefeller.jpg Nelson Rockefeller
1908–1979
(Lived 70 years)
[68]
49th governor of New York
(1959–1973)
Republican
42 January 20, 1977
–
January 20, 1981
Vice President Mondale 1977 closeup.jpg Walter Mondale
Born 1928
(91 years old)
[69]
Senator from Minnesota
(1964–1976)
Democratic 1976 Jimmy Carter
43 January 20, 1981
–
January 20, 1989
Vice President George H. W. Bush portrait.jpg George H. W. Bush
1924–2018
(Lived 94 years)
[70][71][72]
11th director of Central Intelligence
(1976–1977)
Republican 1980 Ronald Reagan
1984
44 January 20, 1989
–
January 20, 1993
Dan Quayle crop.jpg Dan Quayle
Born 1947
(72 years old)
[73]
Senator from Indiana
(1981–1989)
Republican 1988 George H. W. Bush
45 January 20, 1993
–
January 20, 2001
Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg Al Gore
Born 1948
(71 years old)
[74]
Senator from Tennessee
(1985–1993)
Democratic 1992 Bill Clinton
1996
46 January 20, 2001
–
January 20, 2009
46 Dick Cheney 3x4.jpg Dick Cheney
Born 1941
(78 years old)
[75]
17th secretary of defense
(1989–1993)
Republican 2000 George W. Bush
2004
47 January 20, 2009
–
January 20, 2017
Joe Biden official portrait crop.jpg Joe Biden
Born 1942
(76 years old)
[76]
Senator from Delaware
(1973–2009)
Democratic 2008 Barack Obama
2012
48 January 20, 2017
–
Incumbent
Mike Pence official Vice Presidential portrait (cropped).jpg Mike Pence
Born 1959
(60 years old)
[77][78]
50th governor of Indiana
(2013–2017)
Republican 2016 Donald Trump

Subsequent public office

Twenty-five vice presidents held other high state or federal government positions after leaving the vice presidency. Fourteen went on to become president, namely John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard Nixon, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford and George H. W. Bush (nine of them did so following their predecessor's death or resignation); and six served in the Senate, namely John C. Calhoun, John C. Breckinridge, Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson, Alben W. Barkley and Hubert Humphrey. Several served as a member of the Cabinet or as an ambassador in later administrations, or in state government. Additionally, two former vice presidents, Tyler and Breckinridge, served in the government of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.

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