List of Allied World War II conferences

This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II. Conference names in boldface indicate the conferences at which the leaders of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were all present. For the historical context see Diplomatic history of World War II.

Name
(CODE NAME)
City Country Dates Major participants: Major results
U.S.-British Staff Conference
(ABC-1)
Washington, D.C.  United States January 29 – March 27, 1941 American, British, and Canadian military staff Set the basic planning agreement for the U.S. to enter the war.
First Inter-Allied Meeting London  United Kingdom June 12, 1941 Representatives of Britain, 4 Dominions, Free France and 8 Allied governments in exile Declaration of St James's Palace.[1]
Atlantic Conference
(RIVIERA)
Argentia  Newfoundland August 9 – 12, 1941 Churchill and Roosevelt Atlantic Charter; proposal for a Soviet aid conference.
Second Inter-Allied Meeting London  United Kingdom September 24, 1941 Eden, Maisky, Cassin, and representatives of 8 Allied governments in exile Adherence of all the Allies to the Atlantic Charter principles.[2][3]
First Moscow Conference
(CAVIAR)
Moscow  Soviet Union September 29 – October 1, 1941 Stalin, Harriman, Beaverbrook, Molotov Allied aid to the Soviet Union.
First Washington Conference
(ARCADIA)
Washington, D.C.  United States December 22, 1941 – January 14, 1942 Churchill, Roosevelt Europe first, Declaration by United Nations.
Inter-allied Conference, St. James Palace London  United Kingdom January 14, 1942 Sikorski, representatives of Poland, Belgium, Greece, Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, Norway, Yugoslavia, Free France and Luxemburg. Four-point declaration regarding the punishment of Nazis responsible for atrocities committed against civilian populations.
Second Washington Conference
(ARGONAUT)
Washington, D.C.  United States June 20 – 25, 1942 Churchill, Roosevelt Make first priority opening a second front in North Africa, postpone cross-English Channel invasion.
Second Claridge Conference London  United Kingdom July 20 – 26, 1942 Churchill, Harry Hopkins Substitute Operation Torch, the invasion of French North Africa, for US reinforcement of the Western Desert campaign.
Second Moscow Conference
(BRACELET)
Moscow  Soviet Union August 12 – 17, 1942 Churchill, Stalin, Harriman Discuss reasons for Torch instead of cross-Channel invasion, Anglo-Soviet pact on information and technological exchanges.
Cherchell Conference Cherchell  French Algeria October 21 – 22, 1942 Clark, Vichy French officers including Mast A clandestine conference before the Torch landings, in which some Vichy French commanders agreed not to resist the Allied landings in Morocco and Algeria.[4]
Casablanca Conference
(SYMBOL)
Casablanca French Morocco January 14 – 24, 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, de Gaulle, Giraud Plan Italian Campaign, plan cross-Channel invasion in 1944, demand "unconditional surrender" by Axis, encourage unity of French authorities in London and Algiers.
Potenji River Conference Natal  Brazil January 28 – 29, 1943 Roosevelt, Vargas Creation of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force
Adana Conference Yenice  Turkey January 30 – 31, 1943 Churchill, İnönü Turkey's participation in the war.
Bermuda Conference Hamilton  Bermuda April 19 – 30, 1943 American and British delegations separately led by Harold W. Dodds and Richard Law Jewish refugees freed by Allied forces and those still in Nazi-occupied Europe discussed. US immigration quotas not raised and British prohibition on Jews seeking refuge in Mandatory Palestine not lifted.
Third Washington Conference
(TRIDENT)
Washington, D.C.  United States May 12 – 25, 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, Marshall Plan Italian Campaign, increase air attacks on Germany, increase war in Pacific.
First Quebec Conference
(QUADRANT)
Quebec  Canada August 17 – 24, 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, King D-Day set for 1944, reorganization of South East Asia Command, secret Quebec Agreement to limit sharing nuclear energy info.
Third Moscow Conference Moscow  Soviet Union October 18 – November 11, 1943 Foreign ministers Hull, Eden, Molotov, Fu; and Stalin Moscow Declaration.
Cairo Conference
(SEXTANT)
Cairo  Kingdom of Egypt November 23 – 26, 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, Chiang Cairo Declaration for postwar Asia.
Tehran Conference
(EUREKA)
Tehran  Persia November 28 – December 1, 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin First meeting of the Big 3, plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, set date for Operation Overlord.
Second Cairo Conference
Cairo  Kingdom of Egypt December 4 – 6, 1943 Churchill, Roosevelt, İnönü Agreement to complete Allied air bases in Turkey, postpone Operation Anakim against Japan in Burma.
British Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference London  United Kingdom May 1–16, 1944 Churchill, Curtin, Fraser, King, and Smuts British Commonwealth leaders support Moscow Declaration and reach agreement regarding their respective roles in the overall Allied war effort.
Bretton Woods conference Bretton Woods  United States July 1 – 15, 1944 Representatives of 44 nations Establishes International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference Washington, D.C.  United States August 21 – 29, 1944 Cadogan, Gromyko, Stettinius, and Koo Agreement to establish the United Nations.
Second Quebec Conference
(OCTAGON)
Quebec City  Canada September 12 – 16, 1944 Churchill, Roosevelt Morgenthau Plan for postwar Germany, other war plans, Hyde Park Agreement.
Fourth Moscow Conference
(TOLSTOY)
Moscow  Soviet Union October 9 – 18, 1944 Churchill, Stalin, Molotov, Eden Establishing post-war spheres of influence in Eastern Europe and Balkan peninsula.
Malta Conference
(ARGONAUT and CRICKET)
Floriana Crown Colony of Malta January 30 – February 2, 1945 Churchill, Roosevelt Preparation for Yalta.
Yalta Conference
(ARGONAUT and MAGNETO)
Yalta  Soviet Union February 4 – 11, 1945 Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Final plans for defeat of Germany, postwar Europe plans, set date for United Nations Conference, conditions for the Soviet Union's entry in war against Japan.
United Nations Conference on International Organization San Francisco  United States April 25 – June 26, 1945 Representatives of 50 nations United Nations Charter.
Potsdam Conference
(TERMINAL)
Potsdam  Allied-occupied Germany July 17 – August 2, 1945 Stalin, Truman, Attlee, Churchill (in part, until election defeat of the Conservative Party) Potsdam Declaration demanding unconditional surrender of Japan, Potsdam Agreement on policy for Germany.

In total Churchill attended 16.5 meetings, Roosevelt 12, and Stalin 7.

For some of the major wartime conference meetings involving Roosevelt and later Truman, the code names were words which included a numeric prefix corresponding to the ordinal number of the conference in the series of such conferences. The third conference was TRIDENT, the fourth conference was QUADRANT, the sixth conference was SEXTANT, and the eighth conference was OCTAGON. The last wartime conference was code-named TERMINAL.

See also

References

  1. ^ "St. James Agreement; June 12, 1941". Avalon Project. Yale Law School. 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  2. ^ "The Inter-Allied Council Meeting in London." Bulletin of International News 18, no. 20 (1941): 1275-280. Accessed April 5, 2020. www.jstor.org/stable/25643120.
  3. ^ "Inter-Allied Council Statement on the Principles of the Atlantic Charter : September 24, 1941". Avalon Project. Yale Law School. 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  4. ^ David H. Lippman, WORLD WAR II PLUS 55, World War II Notes, November 8, 1942 (Operation Torch) Archived June 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

Copyright