List of heads of state of Sudan

Chairman of the Transitional Sovereignty Council of the Republic of the Sudan
رئيس مجلس السيادة الإنتقالي جمهورية السودان
Presidential Standard of Sudan.svg
Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, 2019 (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Abdel Fattah al-Burhan

since 25 October 2021
Residence Republican Palace, Khartoum
Formation 17 November 1958
First holder Five-member Sovereignty Council (collective presidency)
Salary 29,320 USD annually[1]
Website www.presidency.gov.sd/eng/

This article lists the heads of state of Sudan since the country's independence in 1956.

History of the office

Since independence was proclaimed on 1 January 1956, six individuals (and three multi-member sovereignty councils) have served as head of state of Sudan, currently under the title President of the Republic of the Sudan. Prior to independence, Sudan was governed as a condominium by Egypt and the United Kingdom, under the name Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. As such, executive power was vested in a dyarchy consisting of both countries' heads of state – at the time of independence, the Queen of the United Kingdom (Elizabeth II) and the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council (headed by Gamal Abdel Nasser). Immediately following independence, the role of head of state was filled by a five-member Sovereignty Council, with rival nationalist factions unable to agree on a single candidate. In November 1958, General Ibrahim Abboud led a military coup d'état, assuming the role of head of state as Chairman of the Supreme Council. Assuming the title of president in 1964, he resigned later that year due to general discontent around the rule of the military regime. Abboud was succeeded by a senior civil servant, Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa, who served as acting president for 18 days before transferring executive authority to a Committee of Sovereignty.

Ismail al-Azhari, the leader of the National Unionist Party, was made president in July 1965; he ruled with limited power until he was deposed in a 1969 military coup. The military officers responsible for the coup established the National Revolutionary Command Council, chaired by Jaafar Nimeiry. Nimeiry, the leader of the newly formed Sudanese Socialist Union, assumed the position of president in 1971, and subsequently established a one-party state, which existed until 1985, when a group of military officers overthrew his government and established the 1985 Transitional Military Council, led by Field Marshal Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab. Ahmed al-Mirghani succeeded to the relatively powerless position of Chairman of the Supreme Council in 1986, after multi-party election held that year. He was deposed in a 1989 military coup led by Lieutenant-General Omar al-Bashir. Al-Bashir served as head of state, under the title of Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation from 1989 to 1993 and as president from 1993 to 2019 (and from 1996 as the leader of the National Congress Party). Al-Bashir was removed from power by the Sudanese Armed Forces on 11 April 2019, amid the Sudanese Revolution after holding the office for nearly 30 years. Lieutenant-General Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf took control of Sudan without becoming head of state, established the 2019 Transitional Military Council, but resigned the following day in favor of Lieutenant-General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan.[2] The Transitional Military Council was replaced with the Sovereignty Council on 20 August 2019, under the chairmanship of al-Burhan. The Sovereignty Council, an 11-member civilian-military collective head of state, is designed to lead the country for 39 months in the transition to democracy, which is supposed to end with the next general election.[3] The Sovereignty Council was dissolved by al-Burhan on 25 October 2021, following a coup d'état.[4]

Titles of heads of state

Heads of state of Sudan (1956–present)

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Republic of the Sudan (1956–1969)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Coat of arms of Sudan (1956–1970).svg Sovereignty Council
[a]
1 January 1956 17 November 1958
(deposed.)
2 years, 320 days Multipartisan
2 AABOUD.jpg Ibrahim Abboud
(1900–1983)
17 November 1958 16 November 1964
(resigned.)
5 years, 365 days Military
Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa.jpg Sirr Al-Khatim Al-Khalifa
(1919–2006)
Acting President
16 November 1964 3 December 1964 17 days National Umma Party
3 Coat of arms of Sudan (1956–1970).svg First Committee of Sovereignty
[b]
3 December 1964 10 June 1965 189 days Multipartisan
4 Coat of arms of Sudan (1956–1970).svg Second Committee of Sovereignty
[c]
10 June 1965 8 July 1965 28 days Multipartisan
5 Ismail al-Azahri.jpg Ismail al-Azhari
(1900–1969)
8 July 1965 25 May 1969
(deposed.)
3 years, 321 days Democratic Unionist Party

Democratic Republic of the Sudan (1969–1985)[edit]

6 Gaafar Nimeiry 1981.jpg Jaafar Nimeiry
(1928–2009)
[d]
1971[e]
1977
1983
25 May 1969 6 April 1985
(deposed.)
15 years, 316 days Military /
Sudanese Socialist Union
7 Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab.png Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab
(1934–2018)
6 April 1985 10 October 1985[5] 187 days Military

Republic of the Sudan (1985–present)[edit]

(7) Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab.png Abdel Rahman Swar al-Dahab
(1934–2018)
10 October 1985[5] 6 May 1986[f] 208 days Military
8 No image.png Ahmed al-Mirghani
(1941–2008)
6 May 1986 30 June 1989
(deposed.)
3 years, 55 days Democratic Unionist Party
9 Omar al-Bashir, 12th AU Summit, 090202-N-0506A-137 cropped.jpg Omar al-Bashir
(born 1944)
1996
2000
2010
2015
30 June 1989 11 April 2019
(deposed.)
29 years, 285 days Military /
National Congress Party
10 No image.png Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf
(born 1957)
11 April 2019 12 April 2019
(resigned.)
1 day Military /
National Congress Party
11 Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, 2019 (cropped).jpg Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
(born 1960)
12 April 2019 20 August 2019 130 days Military
12 Emblem of Sudan.svg Sovereignty Council
[g]
20 August 2019 25 October 2021
(deposed.)
2 years, 66 days Multipartisan
(FFC and TMC)
(11) Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, 2019 (cropped).jpg Abdel Fattah al-Burhan
(born 1960)
25 October 2021 Incumbent 33 days Military

Timeline

Sovereignty Council of SudanAbdel Fattah al-BurhanAhmed Awad Ibn AufOmar al-BashirAhmed al-MirghaniAbdel Rahman Swar al-DahabHashem al AttaJaafar NimeiryIsmail al-AzhariSirr Al-Khatim Al-KhalifaIbrahim Abboud

Latest election

Copyright