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List of loanwords in Tagalog
The Filipino language incorporated Spanish loanwords as a result of 333 years of contact with the Spanish language. In their analysis of José Villa Panganiban's Talahuluganang Pilipino-Ingles (Pilipino-English dictionary), Llamzon and Thorpe (1972) pointed out that 33% of word root entries are of Spanish origin. As the aforementioned analysis didn't reveal the frequency of the usage of these words by native speakers, a study was conducted by Antonio Quilis in order to understand the percentage of Spanish-derived words used by Filipinos in their daily conversations. Through his studies, the results of which were published in 1973 in the case of Tagalog and in 1976 in the case of Cebuano, it was found out that 20.4% of the lexicon used by Tagalog speakers were of Spanish origin, while it was 20.5% in the case of Cebuano.:391–393 According to Patrick O. Steinkrüger, depending on the text type, around 20% of the vocabulary in a Tagalog text are of Spanish origin.:213 In an analysis of a Tagalog-language corpus consisting of randow news, fiction and non-fiction articles published between 2005-2015, Ekaterina Baklanova found out that Spanish-derived words constitute 20% of the lexicon used. An example is the sentence below in which Spanish–derived words are in italics (original in parentheses):
- Tagalog: " Puwede ( Puede) ba akóng umupô sa silya ( silla) sa tabi ng bintana ( ventana) hábang nása biyahe ( viaje) táyo sa eroplano ( aeroplano)?"
- Translation in English: (" May I sit on the chair near the window during our voyage in the aeroplane?")
The adoption of the Abakada alphabet in 1940 changed the spelling of the Spanish loanwords present in the Filipino language. The spellings of Spanish loanwords were reformed according to the new orthographic rules. Examples include:
- agila (from Sp. águila), alkalde (from Sp. alcalde), bakuna (from Sp. vacuna), banyo (from Sp. baño), baso (from Sp. vaso), biktima (from Sp. víctima), bintana (from Sp. ventana), bisita (from Sp. visita), biyahe (from Sp. viaje), braso (from Sp. brazo), demokrasya (from Sp. democracia), diyaryo (from Sp. diario), estudyante (from Sp. estudiante), heneral (from Sp. general), hustisya (from Sp. justicia), kama (from Sp. cama), kambiyo (from Sp. cambio de marcha), keso (from Sp. queso), kutsara (from Sp. cuchara), kuwarto (from Sp. cuarto), kuwento (from Sp. cuento), lababo (from Sp. lavabo), mensahe (from Sp. mensaje), meryenda (from Sp. merienda), mikrobyo (from Sp. microbio), niyebe (from Sp. nieve), panyo (from Sp. paño), pila (from Sp. fila), plema (from Sp. flema), presyo (from Sp. precio), prinsesa (from Sp. princesa), reseta (from Sp. receta médica), reyna (from Sp. reina), serbisyo (from Sp. servicio), sinturon (from Sp. cinturón), teklado (from Sp. teclado), telebisyon (from Sp. televisión), tinidor (from Sp. tenedor), trabaho (from Sp. trabajo), tuwalya (from Sp. toalla) and yelo (from Sp. hielo).    
Other loanwords underwent phonological changes. Vowel changes can be observed to some of the Spanish words upon adoption into the Filipino language, such as an /i/ to /a/ vowel shift observed in the Filipino word paminta, which came from the Spanish word pimienta, and a pre-nasal /e/ to /u/ vowel shift observed in several words such as unano (from Sp. enano) and umpisa (from Sp. empezar). Prothetic /a/ is added in the loanwords alisto (from Sp. listo) and aplaya (from Sp. playa). Other words underwent vowel deletion, e.g., pusta (from Sp. apostar), tarantado (from Sp. atarantado), kursonada (from Sp. corazonada), Pasko (from Sp. Pascua) and labi (from Sp. labio).
Consonant shifts can also be observed to some of the Spanish words upon their adoption into the Filipino language. The [r] to [l] consonant shift can be observed in the following words:
- albularyo (folk healer, from Sp. herbolario), alma (from Sp. armar), almusal (from Sp. almorzar), asukal (from Sp. azúcar), balbas (from Sp. barba), bandila (from. Sp. bandera), dasal (from Sp. rezar), hibla (thread or strand, from Sp. hebra), hilo (dizzy, from Sp. giro), hulmá (to mould, from Sp. ahormar), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), lagadera (from Sp. regadera), litratista (photographer, from Sp. retratista), litrato (photograph, portrait or picture; from Sp. retrato), multo (from Sp. muerto), nunal (from Sp. lunar), pastol (from Sp. pastor) and pasyal (from Sp. pasear).
The loss of the /l/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino word kutson derived from the Spanish colchón. The loss of the /t/ phoneme can be observed in the Filipino words talino (intelligence or wisdom, from Sp. talento) and tina (dye, from Sp. tinta). Some Spanish-derived words have also undergone consonant or syllable deletion upon introduction to Tagalog like in the case of limos (from Sp. limosna), masyado (from Sp. demasiado), posas (from Sp. esposas), restawran (from Sp. restaurante), riles (rail, railway or railroad; from Sp. carriles), sindi (from Sp. encender) and sintunado (from Sp. desentonado).
The Spanish digraph [ll] is pronounced by the Spaniards as /j/ during the Renaissance era and this reflected on the pronunciation and the spelling of Spanish-derived loanwords in Tagalog introduced before the 19th century, where the digraph [ll] becomes [y] in Tagalog. Such is the case of the words barya (from Sp. barrilla), kabayo (from Sp. caballo), kutamaya (from. Sp. cota de malla), lauya (a stew of meat and vegetables, from Sp. la olla), sibuyas (from Sp. cebollas) and tabliya or tablea (from Sp. tablilla de chocolate). Spanish loanwords in which the digraph [ll] is pronounced as /lj/ in Tagalog might have been introduced (or reintroduced) during the 19th century.:308 Examples include apelyido (from Sp. apellido), balyena (from Sp. ballena), kalye (from Sp. calle), kutsilyo (from Sp. cuchillo), makinilya (from Sp. maquinilla de escribir), sepilyo (from Sp. cepillo de dientes), silya (from Sp. silla) and sigarilyo (from Sp. cigarrillo). There are also rare cases of Tagalog doublets coming from the same Spanish etymological root which exhibit both the influences of the Renaissance /j/ and the latter /λ/ sounds, like in the case of the Tagalog word pair laryo and ladrilyo, both from Sp. ladrillo. There are also instances of the Spanish digraph [ll] being transformed into [l] upon adoption by Tagalog. Such is the case of the following words: kulani (lymph node, from Sp. collarín:318–319), kursilista (from Sp. cursillista) and úling (coal, soot or charcoal; from Sp. hollín.:86
Vestigial influences of Middle Spanish voiceless palato-alveolar fricative /ʃ/ are evident in some of the Spanish-derived loanwords in Tagalog, where the /ʃ/ sound is transformed into the Tagalog /s/. Examples include relos (clock or wristwatch, from Sp. reloj, pronounced as /reˈloʃ/ in Middle Spanish), sabon (soap, from Sp. jabón, pronounced as /ʃaˈbon/ in Middle Spanish), saro (pitcher or jug, from Sp. jarro, pronounced as /ˈʃaro/ in Middle Spanish), sugal (to gamble, from Sp. jugar, pronounced as /ʃuˈgar/ in Middle Spanish) and tasa (to sharpen, from Sp. tajar, pronounced as /taˈʃar/ in Middle Spanish).:307 Loanwords which have the pronunciation that reflects the transition from Middle Spanish /ʃ/ to Modern Spanish /x/ are also present in Tagalog. The Modern Spanish /x/ sound is rendered in Tagalog as [h], which is the standard pronunciation in other Spanish dialects. Example cases include ahedres (from Sp. ajedrez), anghel (from Sp. ángel), halaya (from Sp. jalea), hardin (from Sp. jardín), hepe (police chief, from Sp. jefe), kahera and kahero (cashier, from Sp. cajera and cajero respectively) and kahon (from Sp. cajón). There are also rare cases of doublets that exhibit influences of both the Middle Spanish /ʃ/ and Modern Spanish /x/ like for example in the cases of Tagalog muson and mohon (both from Sp. mojón) and relos and relo (both from Sp. reloj).
The compound word batya't palo–palo, a phrase in the laundry business where many Spanish words proliferate. The words were taken from the Spanish batea for "washing tub" and palo for "stick", something a typical Filipino might think had no Spanish provenance at all because of the Tagalog verb palo which means "strike".
Some loanwords have been associated to new meanings, such as kursonada (corazonada, originally meaning '"hunch"), which means "object of desire"; sospetsoso (sospechoso) is the "suspicious person" and not the "suspect" as in the original; insekto ("insecto"), which still means "insect" but also refers to a "pesty clownish person"; or even sige (sigue), a Spanish word for "continue" or "follow", which is popularly understood to mean "all right" or "go ahead".
Some Spanish affixes are combined with Tagalog words to make new words. For example, pakialamero (from Tag. pakialam, "to meddle" and the Sp. suffix –ero, masculine subject); majongero ("mahjong", ultimately from Chinese, and the Sp. suffix –ero); basketbolista, boksingero. Daisysiete is a word play and portmanteau of the English "daisy" and the Spanish diecisiete ("seventeen"), now meaning a sweet and sexually desirable underaged (17 year-old) female. Bastusing katawán (Sp.: basto -> bastos & Tag.: katawan) is an example of a two-word term for a bombshell body.
Tagalog still uses Spanish language influence in coining new words, e.g., alaskadór ("Alaska" + Sp. suffix '–ador'); bérde ("verde"="green", nuanced to "toilet humour" or "blue joke", a literal Tagalog translation of Philippine English term "green(-minded)".); which are not readily understood in Spain or any Latin American country.
Spanish influences on Tagalog morphosyntax
Although the overall influence of Spanish on the morphosyntax of the Tagalog language was minimal,:211 there are fully functional Spanish-derived words that have produced syntactic innovations on Tagalog. Clear influences of Spanish can be seen in the morphosyntax of comparison and the existence of Spanish-derived modals and conjunctions,:211 as will be discussed in more detail below.
All of the interrogative words used in Tagalog are not related to Spanish, with the exception of kumusta. The word kumusta is derived from the Spanish ¿cómo está? and it functions as a Tagalog interrogative word used as a substitute for an adjective of quality or condition equivalent to the English how. Kumusta can also be used as a greeting (similar to English "Hello!") or as a verb with the meaning of "to greet" or "to say hello".
Tagalog has several comparative markers that are etymologically derived from Spanish. The particle mas (meaning "more", from Sp. más), in conjunction with the various Tagalog counterparts of the English "than" (kaysa + sa-marker, sa, kay), is used as a comparative marker of non-equality. Another comparative marker of non-equality is kumpara (from Sp. comparado), usually followed with the appropriate sa-marker and used as the Tagalog equivalent of the English "compared to". Lastly, the word pareho (from Sp. parejo), commonly employed with the Tagalog linker -ng, is used as a comparative marker of equality.
There are several Spanish-derived words that have acquired function as modals upon adoption in Tagalog. Tagalog modals, including those that are etymologically derived from Spanish, can be classified into two main groups: words realizing deontic modality (i.e. modals concerned with expressing inclination, obligation and ability) and words realizing epistemic modality (i.e. modals concerned with degrees of reality).
Deontic modality in Tagalog is realized through words which are grammaticized by Paul Schachter and Fe T. Otanes as "pseudo-verbs". An example of a Spanish-derived Tagalog deontic modal is gusto (from Sp. gusto), which is used to denote preference or desire. Gusto is considered to be more commonly used than its other counterparts newly adapted to this usage such as nais or ibig, since these two words are usually perceived as more formal than gusto and are more commonly used in literature than in colloquial speech. Another example is puwede (from Sp. puede), which can be translated in English as "can" and is thus used to express permission or ability. The word puwede co-exists with its equivalent maaárì and the two pseudo-verbs are deemed to have little semantic difference, with puwede only being considered usually as more colloquial and less formal than maaari.
Epistemic modality in Tagalog is realized through words functioning as adverbials. These words, when used as modals, are typically linked to the clause that they modalize through the Tagalog linker -ng or na. An example of a Spanish-derived epistemic modal used for expressing high degree of probability is sigurado + -ng (from Sp. seguro + -ado), with the meaning of "surely" or "certainly", and is considered as a synonym of Tagalog tiyak, sigurado is derived from "asegurado", "assured". The word siguro (from Sp. seguro) is an epistemic modal marking moderate degree of probability, with the meaning of "maybe", "probably" or "perhaps". The word siguro is also identified by the linguist Ekaterina Baklanova as a Spanish-derived discourse marker in Tagalog, thus contrasting the claims of other scholars such as Patrick Steinkrüger that none of the numerous discourse markers in Tagalog are of Spanish origin. Similarly to Tagalog, the word siguro is also considered as an adverbial clitic in Cebuano and in Masbateño. Posible + -ng (from Sp. posible), which can be translated to English as "possibly", is a Tagalog epistemic modal marking low degree of probability. Examples of Spanish-derived Tagalog epistemic modals marking excessive degree of intensity include masyado + -ng (from Sp. demasiado) and sobra + -ng (from Sp. sobra) while medyo (from Sp. medio) marks moderate degree of intensity.
Several conjunctions in Tagalog have Spanish-derived etymological roots. The Tagalog disjunctive conjunction o (from Sp. o, meaning "or") has completely substituted the old Tagalog equivalent "kun", rendering the latter obsolete. Two Spanish-derived counter-expectational adversative conjunctions used in Tagalog are pero (from Sp. pero) and kaso (from Sp. caso), both of which are considered as synonyms of the Tagalog counterparts ngunit, subalit, etc. The Tagalog ni (from Sp. ni) can be used as a negative repetitive conjunction, similar to the English "neither...nor" construction. When not repeated, ni assumes a scalar focus value stripped of all its conjunction function, translatable to English as "not even". Basta (from Sp. basta), when used as a conditional conjunction, assumes a meaning similar to English "as long as" or "provided that". Maski (from Sp. mas que) is a synonym of Tagalog kahit and both are used as Tagalog concessive conjunctions. Porke (from Sp. porque) assumes the function of causal conjunction in Tagalog and it is used to express an ironic or critical attitude, translatable to English as "just because" or "only because". The Tagalog puwera kung (from Sp. fuera) is used as a negative exceptive conditional conjunction, translatable in English as "unless" or "except if", used alongside "maliban sa" or "liban sa". The Tagalog oras na (from Sp. hora) is a temporal conjunction which can be translated in English as "the moment that". The Tagalog imbes na (from Sp. en vez) is used as an implicit adversative conjunction and it can be translated in English as "instead of". The Tagalog para (from Sp. para), when used to introduce verb-less or basic-form predicates, assumes the role of a purposive conjunction. However, if followed by the appropriate dative sa-marker, para assumes the role of a benefactive marker in Tagalog.
Loanwords that underwent semantic shift
Upon adoption into Tagalog, a number of Spanish-derived terms underwent a process of semantic shift or change in meaning. A loanword is said to have undergone a semantic shift if its meaning in Tagalog deviates from the original meaning of the word in the source language (in this case, Spanish). A type of semantic shift is the so-called semantic narrowing, which is a linguistic phenomenon in which the meaning of a Spanish-derived word acquires a less general or inclusive meaning upon adoption into Tagalog. Semantic narrowing occurs when a word undergoes specialization of usage. For example, the word kuryente (meaning "electricity" or "electric current") comes from the Spanish word corriente, which is a general term to refer to any current, whether electric or not. Upon adoption of the word corriente into Tagalog as kuryente, it underwent a semantic narrowing and its usage became restricted to refer only to an electric current, unlike its Spanish counterpart. Another example of a semantic narrowing is the Tagalog word ruweda (meaning "Ferris wheel"), a term derived from the Spanish word rueda which refers to any kind of wheel. Upon adoption into Tagalog, ruweda underwent usage specialization and its meaning became restricted to the Ferris wheel.
Semantic shift may also occur through semantic interference by another language, usually the English language. This phenomenon can result into reinterpretation of a Spanish-derived term by attributing to it an English meaning upon assimilation into Tagalog. An example is the Tagalog word libre, which is derived from the Spanish translation of the English word free, although used in Tagalog with the meaning of "without cost or payment" or "free of charge", a usage which would be deemed incorrect in Spanish as the term gratis would be more fitting; Tagalog word libre can also mean free in aspect of time, like "Libre ang oras" ("The time/hour is free", in the sense that the time is available). Another example is the Tagalog word iskiyerda, derived from the Spanish term izquierda meaning "left" as opposed to "right", although used in Tagalog with the meaning of "to leave".
Here is the list of Spanish-derived words which underwent semantic shift upon assimilation into Tagalog:
|Tagalog||Spanish-derived word||Meaning in Tagalog||Spanish equivalent|
|alahero||alhajero ("jewel case")||jeweller; jewel-maker||joyero|
|algodon||algodón ("cotton")||false trevally (Lactarius lactarius)||pagapa; pez blanco|
|alpahor||alfajor (Spanish traditional confection)||bilo-bilo (sticky rice balls in coconut milk)||gacha dulce de arroz con leche de coco|
|almohadilya||almohadilla ("cushion" or "small pillow")||mousepad||alfombrilla para el ratón o mouse|
|almusal:26||almorzar ("to have lunch")||breakfast||desayuno|
|asar||asar ("to roast")||to annoy||molestar|
|bahura||bajura ("coastal"; "shallow-water")||coral reef||arrecife coralina|
|barako:14||verraco ("male boar")||manly; fearless; strong and bitter (as coffee)||varonil|
|barkada:15||barcada ("boatload"; "boat trip")||group of friends; clique||pandilla de amigos o camaradas|
|basta||basta ("enough")||just so that; as long as||siempre y cuando; siempre que|
|biskotso||bizcocho ("sponge cake")||toast bread||pan tostado|
|bulsa||bolsa ("bag")||pocket in garments||bolsillo|
|dehado||dejado ("left behind", "careless")||underdog; at a disadvantage||desfavorecido; desaventajado|
|delikado :38||delicado ("delicate")||dangerous||peligroso|
|dilihensiya:39||diligencia ("diligence"; "errand")||act of asking for a loan or debt; act of borrowing money||pedir un préstamo|
|disgrasyada:39||desgraciada ("unfortunate"; "miserable")||unwed mother||madre soltera|
|diskarte:39||descarte ("discard")||resourcefulness||ingeniosidad; capacidad de improvisación|
|engkanto||encanto ("spell", "enchantment")||fairy, elf, or spirit||hada; duende|
|harana||jarana ("commotion", "partying", "revelry")||serenade||serenata|
|hepe||jefe ("chief", "boss")||police chief||comisario; jefe de policía|
|impakto||impacto ("impact", "shock")||evil spirit||espíritu maligno|
|inutil||inútil ("useless")||impotent||sexualmente impotente|
|iskiyerda:62||izquierda ("left")||to leave||irse de; abandonar|
|kabayo||caballo ("horse")||ironing board||tabla de planchar|
|kabisera||cabecera (meaning "head", "heading" or "headboard")||capital city or town||capital; ciudad cabecera|
|kakawate||cacahuate ("peanut")||Gliricidia sepium||madre de cacao|
|kasilyas||casillas ("cubicles")||toilet; restroom||baño|
|kasta:73||casta ("caste"; "lineage")||breeding; mating; sex act or making love||crianza; apareamiento; acto sexual|
|kódigo:76||código ("code")||cheat sheet||apunte escondido; acordeón; chuleta|
|konyo||coño (vulgar, offensive)||socialite; belonging to the upper-class||de clase alta|
|kubeta:174||cubeta ("bucket")||toilet; restroom||baño|
|kulebra||culebra ("snake")||shingles||culebrilla; herpes zóster|
|kursonada||corazonada ("hunch")||object of interest or desire||deseo del corazón|
|kuryente||corriente ("current")||electricity; electric current||electricidad; corriente eléctrica|
|labakara||lavacara ("washbasin")||face towel||toalla de tocador|
|lakwatsa:81||cuacha ("excrement")||truancy; act of loafing around or roaming||vaguear; holgazanear; hacer novillos|
|lamyerda:81||mierda (vulgar: "excrement")||truancy; out loafing; out roaming||vaguear; holgazanear; hacer novillos|
|libre||libre ("free")||free of charge||gratis|
|liyamado||llamado ("called", "named", "destined")||favorite (as in betting, races, etc.); at an advantage||favorecido|
|mantikà||manteca ("lard", "butter")||cooking oil||aceite|
|palengke||palenque ("stockade", "palisade")||market||mercado|
|palitada||paletada ("shovelful", "trowelful")||plaster||yeso|
|parol||farol ("lantern", "lamp", "streetlight")||Christmas lantern||estrella navideña|
|parolero||farolero ("lamplighter")||Christmas lantern maker||artesano de estrellas navideñas|
|pasamano||pasamano (meaning "handrail")||window sill||alféizar, repisa de la ventana|
|pitso||pecho ("chest", "bosom")||chicken breast||pechuga de pollo|
|poso negro||pozo negro ("cesspit", "cesspool", "soak pit")||septic tank; holding tank||fosa séptica|
|putahe:470||potaje ("vegetable stew or soup")||dish; course||plato|
|rekado||recado ("message", "errand")||spices; condiments||especia; condimiento|
|ruweda||rueda ("wheel")||Ferris wheel||noria; rueda de la fortuna|
|semilya||semilla ( "seed")||semen||semen|
|sentido||sentido ("sense", "meaning")||temple (anatomy)||templo; sien|
|siguro||seguro ("surely")||maybe; perhaps; probably||quizás; probablemente|
|sintas:133||cinta ("ribbon", "tape", "belt")||shoelace||cordón de zapato; cintas para zapatos|
|siyempre||siempre ("always")||of course||por supuesto|
|sosyal:132||social ("social"; "societal")||high society; belonging to the upper class||de clase alta|
|suplado||soplado ("blown", "inflated")||snobbish; haughty||presuntuoso, arrogante|
|suporta:166||soportar ("to withstand"; "to bear")||support||apoyo|
|sustansiya||sustancia ("substance")||nutrient||sustancia nutritiva; nutriente|
|todas:143||toda ("all")||completely killed or exterminated||matar|
|todo||todo ("all", "entire", "each", "every", etc.)||all-out; fully; maximum||al máximo|
|tosino||tocino ("bacon")||sweet cured meat||carne curada endulzada|
|tsamporado||champurrado ("chocolate-based atole")||sweet chocolate rice porridge||arroz al chocolate|
|turón||Turrón ("nougat")||fried banana roll||rollo de platano frito|
|tuwalya||toalla ("towel")||tripe||mondongo; tripa; callos|
Tagalog words derived from pluralized Spanish nouns
Some of the Spanish loanwords in Tagalog appear in their pluralized form, marked with -s or -es. However, in Tagalog, such words are not considered as plural and when they are pluralized in Tagalog, they need to be pluralized in the way that Tagalog pluralizes native words, i.e., by placing the pluralization marker mga before the word. For example, the word butones (meaning button used in clothing, from Sp. botones) is considered singular in Tagalog and its plural form is mga butones.
|Tagalog||Spanish||Meaning in Spanish||Meaning in Tagalog|
|alahas||alhaja (plural form: alhajas)||jewel; jewelry||jewel; jewelry|
|alkatsopas||alcachofa (plural form: alcachofas)||artichoke||artichoke|
|arátiles||dátil (plural form: dátiles)||date (Phoenix dactilyfera)||calabur or Panama cherry (Muntingia calabura)|
|armás||arma (plural form: armas)||weapon; arm||weapon; arm|
|balbás||barba (plural form: barbas)||beard (facial hair)||beard (facial hair)|
|banyos||baño (plural form: baños)||bath; bathroom||sponge bath|
|bayabas||guayaba (plural form: guayabas)||guava||guava|
|beses||vez (plural form: veces)||time (repetition)||time (repetition)|
|boses||voz (plural form: voces)||voice||voice|
|butones (var. bitones)||botón (plural form: botones)||button (clothing)||button (clothing)|
|datos||dato (plural form: datos)||fact; detail; piece of Information; data||data|
|garbansos||garbanzo (plural form: garbanzos)||chickpea||chickpea|
|gastos||gasto (plural form: gastos)||cost; expense; spending||cost; expense; spending|
|gisantes||guisante (plural form: guisantes)||pea||pea|
|guwantes||guante (plural form: guantes)||glove||glove|
|kalatás||carta (plural form: cartas)||letter; chart; charter||paper; white paper; letter; written message|
|kamatis||tomate (plural form: tomates)||tomato||tomato|
|kasilyas||casilla (plural form: casillas)||cubicle; booth||toilet|
|kastanyas||castaña (plural form: castañas)||chestnut||chestnut|
|kostilyas||costilla (plural form: costillas)||rib||rib|
|kubyertos||cubierto (plural form: cubiertos)||cutlery; silverware||cutlery; silverware|
|kuwerdas||cuerda (plural form: cuerdas)||rope; string; chord||string (of a musical instrument)|
|kuwintas||cuenta (plural form: cuentas)||bead (jewelry)||necklace|
|kuwitis||cohete (plural form: cohetes)||rocket||skyrocket (firework)|
|labanós||rabano (plural form: rabanos)||radish||radish|
|lansones||lanzón (plural form: lanzones)||langsat (Lansium domesticum)||langsat (Lansium domesticum)|
|letsugas||lechuga (plural form: lechugas)||lettuce||lettuce|
|manggas||manga (plural form: mangas)||sleeve||sleeve|
|mansanas||manzana (plural form: manzanas)||apple||apple|
|materyales||material (plural form: materiales)||material||material|
|medyas||media (plural form: medias)||sock||sock|
|opisyales||oficial (plural form: oficiales)||officer||Officer|
|oras||hora (plural form: horas)||hour (unit)||hour (unit of time); time|
|panderetas||pandereta (plural form: panderetas)||tambourine||tambourine|
|palanas||plana (plural form: planas)||plain||flat area along a river|
|papeles||papel (plural form: papeles)||paper||document|
|patatas||patata (plural form: patatas)||potato||potato|
|pares||par (plural form: pares)||pair||(noun) pair; (adjective) similar|
|pasas||pasa (plural form: pasas)||raisin||raisin|
|pastilyas||pastilla (plural form: pastillas)||pill; tablet; candy||Sweet milk candy|
|peras||pera (plural form: peras)||pear||pear|
|perlas||perla (plural form: perlas)||pearl||pearl|
|pilduras||pildora (plural form: pildoras)||pill; tablet||medicinal pill|
|pohas||foja (plural form: fojas)||sheet||sheet|
|posas||esposa (plural form: esposas)||handcuffs||handcuffs|
|presas||presa (plural form: presas)||strawberry||strawberry|
|prutas||fruta (plural form: frutas)||fruit||fruit|
|pulbos||polvo (plural form: polvos)||dust; powder||powder|
|pulseras||pulsera (plural form: pulseras)||bracelet||bracelet|
|puntos||punto (plural form: puntos)||dot; period; point (sports)||score; points|
|rehas||reja (plural form: rejas)||bar; railing||bar; railing|
|riles||carril (plural form: carriles)||lane; track||rail; railroad; railway|
|rosas||rosa (plural form: rosas)||rose||rose|
|salas||sala (plural form: salas)||hall; living room||living roon|
|sapatos||sapato (plural form: zapatos)||shoe||shoe|
|sardinas||sardina (plural form: sardinas)||sardine||sardine|
|senyales||señal (plural form: señales)||sign; signal||sign|
|senyas||seña (plural form: señas)||sign; signal||sign; signal|
|sibuyas||cebolla (plural form: cebollas)||onion||onion|
|sigarilyas||seguidilla (plural form: seguidillas)||(Philippine Spanish) winged bean||winged bean|
|silahis||celaje (plural form: celajes)||cloudscape; skylight||sunray; bisexual (slang)|
|singkamas||jícama (plural form: jícamas)||Mexican turnip (Pachyrhizus erosus)||Mexican turnip (Pachyrhizus erosus)|
|sintas||cinta (plural form: cintas)||ribbon; tape; lace||shoelace|
|sintomas||síntoma (plural form: síntomas)||symptom||symptom|
|sopas||sopa (plural form: sopas)||soup||soup dish|
|sorbetes||sorbete (plural form: sorbetes)||sorbet||ice cream|
|tsinelas||chinela (plural form: chinelas)||slippers; flip-flops||slippers; flip-flops|
|tsismis||chisme (plural form: chismes)||gossip||gossip|
|ubas||uva (plural form: uvas)||grape||grape|
|uhales||ojal (plural form: ojales)||buttonhole||buttonhole|
|uhas||hoja (plural form: hojas)||leaf||sheet metal|
Tagalog words derived from Spanish verbs
Several Spanish verbs are also adopted into Tagalog. Most of them are in their infinitive form characterized by the deletion of their final /r/, like for example in the case of the Tagalog intindi (to understand) derived from the Spanish verb entender. This feature is also found in Chavacano verbs which have a Spanish origin and it can be argued that an already restructured form of Spanish (Chavacano or a pidgin) was the origin of these Tagalog words.:209 A list of these loanwords can be viewed below.
Alternatively, upon adoption into Tagalog, the final /r/ of the Spanish verbs in their infinitive form becomes /l/. Such is the case of the following loanwords: almusal (to have breakfast, from Sp. almorzar), dasal (from Sp. rezar), dupikal (from Sp. repicar), kasal (from Sp. casar), kumpisal (from Sp. confesar), minindal (from Sp. merendar), pasyal (from Sp. pasear) and sugal (from Sp. jugar). In some cases, the final /r/ remains unaltered in the Tagalog form like in the case of andar (to set in action or motion; from Sp. andar), asar (to annoy or to verbally irritate; from Sp. asar) and pundar (to establish or to save money for something; from Sp. fundar).
Conjugated Spanish verbs are also adopted into Tagalog. Examples include: pára (from Sp. parar), pása (from Sp. pasar), puwede (from Sp. poder), tíra (from Sp. tirar) and sige (from Sp. seguir). Imbiyerna (meaning to annoy or to irritate someone) is derived from the Spanish verb infernar (meaning to irritate or to provoke) and was allegedly coined by Ricardo "Rikki" Dalu, originally to describe the hellish feeling and the frustration he experienced when attending Spanish classes. In some cases, the conjugated verbs are combined with another word to form Tagalog morphemes like in the case of the following words: asikaso (from the combination of Sp. hacer and Sp. caso), balewala or baliwala (from the combination of Sp. valer and Tag. wala), etsapwera (from the combination of Sp. echar and Sp. fuera) and kumusta (from the combination of Sp. cómo and Sp. estar).
|Tagalog||Spanish||Meaning in Spanish||Meaning in Tagalog|
|akusá||acusar||to accuse||to accuse|
|alsá||alzar||to lift; to raise; to erect||to rise in rebellion|
|analisá||analizar||to analyze||to analyze|
|apelá||apelar||to appeal||to appeal|
|aprobá||aprobar||to approve||to approve|
|apurá||apurar||to finish; to rush (Lat. Am.)||to hurry|
|alkilá (var. arkilá)||alquilar||to rent; to rent out||to rent; to rent out|
|asintá||asentar||to set up; to secure; to lay down||to aim at|
|aturgá||otorgar||to grant; to bestow; to confer||to take on responsibility|
|awtorisá||autorizar||to authorize||to authorize|
|bará||barrar||to cover in mud||to block; to clog|
|batí||batir||to beat; to whisk; to whip||to beat; to whisk; to whip; to masturbate (vulgar)|
|beripiká||verificar||to verify||to verify|
|bulkanisá||vulcanizar||to vulcanize||to vulcanize|
|burá||borrar||to erase||to erase|
|burdá||bordar||to embroider||to embroider|
|deklará||declarar||to declare||to declare|
|determiná||determinar||to determine||to determine|
|diktá||dictar||to dictate||to dictate|
|dimití||dimitir||to resign||to resign|
|dirihí||dirigir||to manage; to be in charge of||to manage; to be in charge of|
|disaprobá||disaprobar||to disapprove||to disapprove|
|disarmá||desarmar||to disarm||to disarm|
|disimpektá||desinfectar||to disinfect||to disinfect|
|disimulá||disimular||to conceal; to cover up||to conceal; to cover up|
|diskargá||descargar||to unload; to discharge; to download||to unload|
|diskitá||desquitar||to make up for||to take it out on|
|diskubrí||descubrir||to discover||to discover|
|dismayá||desmayar||to become disheartened; to become demoralized||to become disheartened; to become demoralized|
|distrungká||destroncar||to hack away||to forcefully open a door, a lock, etc.|
|galbanisá||galvanizar||to galvanize||to galvanize|
|gisá||guisar||to stew||to saute, to stir fry in oil (usually with garlic and onions)|
|hulmá||ahormar||to shape; to mould||to shape; to mould|
|husgá||juzgar||to judge||to judge|
|imbestigá||investigar||to investigate||to investigate|
|imbitá||invitar||to invite||to invite|
|intindí||entender||to understand||to understand|
|itsá||echar||to throw||to throw|
|kalkulá||calcular||to calculate||to calculate|
|kanselá||cancelar||to cancel||to cancel|
|kantá||cantar||to sing||to sing|
|kargá||cargar||to load; to charge; to fill||to load; to charge; to fill|
|kodipiká||codificar||to codify; to encode||to codify; to encode|
|kondená||condenar||to condemn||to condemn|
|konserbá||conservar||to conserve||to conserve|
|konsiderá||considerar||to consider||to consider|
|kublí||cubrir||to cover; to cover up||to hide from sight|
|kubrá||cobrar||to demand or to receive payment||to demand or to receive payment|
|kulá||colar||to strain; to bleach||to bleach|
|kultí||curtir||to tan||to treat leather or other materials with tanning agents (e.g. tannin)|
|kumbidá||convidar||to invite||to invite|
|kumbinsí||convencir||to convince||to convince|
|kumpará||comparar||to compare||to compare|
|kumpirmá||confirmar||to confirm||to confirm|
|kumpiská||confiscar||to confiscate; to seize||to confiscate; to seize|
|kumpuní (var. komponé)||componer||to make up; to compose; to repair||to repair|
|kusí||cocer||to cook||to cook|
|labá||lavar||to wash||to wash|
|legalisá||legalizar||to legalize||to legalize|
|liberalisá||liberalizar||to liberalize||to liberalize|
|manipulá||manipular||to manipulate||to manipulate|
|marká||marcar||to mark||to mark|
|nominá||nominar||to nominate||to nominate|
|obligá||obligar||to force; to oblige||to force; to oblige|
|obserbá||observar||to observe||to observe|
|operá||operar||to operate||to surgically operate|
|palsipiká||falsificar||to falsify||to falsify|
|palyá||fallar||to fail; to break down and stop working||to fail; to break down and stop working|
|paralisá||paralizar||to paralyze||to paralyze|
|pasá||pasar||to pass; to happen; to go through||to pass an academic course, an examination, an interview, etc.|
|pasmá||pasmar||to amaze; to astonish; to chill to the bone||pasma (folk illness) and, by extension, to have pasma|
|pintá||pintar||to paint||to paint|
|pirmá||firmar||to sign||to sign|
|pormalisá||formalizar||to formalize||to formalize|
|prepará||preparar||to prepare||to prepare|
|preserbá||preservar||to preserve||to preserve|
|proklamá||proclamar||to proclaim||to proclaim|
|pundí||fundir||to melt; to merge||to burn out|
|puntá||apuntar||to aim; to point out; to write down||to go to|
|purgá||purgar||to purge||to cleanse; to take a purgative or laxative|
|pursigí||perseguir||to pursue; to follow; to chase; to persecute||to persevere|
|pustá||apostar||to bet; to wager||to bet; to wager|
|ratipiká||ratificar||to ratify||to ratify|
|reboká||revocar||to revoke||to revoke|
|rekomendá||recomendar||to recommend||to recommend|
|repiná||refinar||to refine||to refine|
|sangkutsá||sancochar or salcochar||to boil with water and salt||to pre-cook food with spices and aromatics|
|salbá||salvar||to save||to save|
|sará||cerrar||to close||to close|
|silbí||servir||to serve||to serve|
|sindí||encender||to ignite; to turn on; to switch on||to ignite; to turn on; to switch on|
|suldá||soldar||to solder; to weld||to solder; to weld|
|sulsí||zurcir||to sew; to mend||to sew; to mend|
|sumité||someter||to subdue; to subjugate; to submit||to submit; to put forward|
|suspendé||suspendir||to suspend||to suspend|
|tantiyá||tantear||to feel; to weigh up; to estimate||to estimate|
|tarantá||atarantar||to stun; to daze; to stupify||to confuse; to baffle; to bewilder|
|tasá||tajar||to chop; to cut; to slice||to sharpen|
|timplá||templar||to cool down; to moderate||to blend; to mix; to prepare drinks, medicine, chemical solutions, etc.|
|tumbá||tumbar||to knock down||to knock down|
|tustá||tostar||to toast||to toast|
|umpisá||empezar||to begin; to start||to begin; to start|
Spanish-Tagalog hybrid compound terms
Some Tagalog compound terms are actually formed through a combination of a native Tagalog term and an etymologically Spanish term, like in the case of the idiomatic expression balat-sibuyas (a term referring to a person's easiness to be offended), which is a combination of the Tagalog balat and Spanish cebolla. The linguist Ekaterina Baklanova distinguishes at least two types of Spanish-Tagalog compound terms: hybrid loanwords or mixed-borrowings are partially translated Spanish terms which are adopted into Tagalog, e.g. karnerong-dagat (derived from the Spanish term carnero marino, meaning "seal") and anemonang-dagat (derived from the Spanish term anémona de mar, meaning "sea anemone"), while hybrid neologisms are new terms invented by Filipinos with use of some native and already assimilated Spanish-derived material, e.g. pader-ilog, meaning "embankment", derived from the combination of the Tagalog word ilog (meaning "river") and Spanish word pared (meaning "wall" and adopted in Tagalog as the word pader).
Below is the list of some Spanish-Tagalog hybrid compound terms. Because of the lack of standardization, some of the compound terms listed below are written differently (i.e. without the hyphen) in other Tagalog-based literature. For example, while the term sirang-plaka is usually encountered in many Tagalog-based works without the hyphen, there are also some instances of the term being written with the hyphen like in the case of one of the books written by the Chairman of the Commission on the Filipino Language Virgilio Almario, entitled Filipino ng mga Filipino: mga problema sa ispeling, retorika, at pagpapayaman ng wikang pambansa. Another example is the term takdang-oras, which can also be encountered in the literature without the hyphen. As a rule, a hybrid compound term below will be hyphenated if it has at least one instance of it being written with the hyphen in Tagalog-based literary works.
|Compound term||Root words||Meaning|
|Agaw-eksena||agaw (from Tagalog, meaning to snatch) + eksena (from Sp. escena)||Scene-stealer|
|Alsa-balutan||alsa (from Sp. alzar) + balutan (from Tagalog, meaning package)||To pack up; to change residence|
|Amoy-tsiko||amoy (from Tagalog, meaning smell) + tsiko (from Sp. chicozapote)||Drunk; intoxicated|
|Anemonang-dagat||anemona (from Sp. anémona) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea)||Sea anemone|
|Bágong-salta||bago (from Tagalog, meaning new) + salta (from Sp. saltar)||Newcomer|
|Balat-sibuyas||balat (from Tagalog, meaning skin) + sibuyas (from Sp. cebollas)||A person who is easily offended|
|Balik-eskwela||balik (from Tagalog, meaning return) + eskwela (from Sp. escuela)||Back-to-school|
|Bantay-sarado||bantay (from Tagalog, meaning to guard) + sarado (from Sp. cerrado)||Well-guarded; closely guarded|
|Bigay-todo||bigay (from Tagalog, meaning to give) + todo (from Sp. todo)||Giving one's all|
|Boses-ipis||boses (from Sp. voces) + ipis (from Tagalog, meaning cockroach)||Inaudible voice|
|Boses-palaka||boses (from Sp. voces) + palaka (from Tagalog, meaning frog)||Croaky voice|
|Bugbog-sarado||bugbog (from Tagalog, meaning to beat up) + sarado (from Sp. cerrado)||Heavily beaten|
|Bulak-niyebe||bulak (from Tagalog, meaning cotton) + niyebe (from Sp. nieve)||Snowflake|
|Dilang-anghel||dila (from Tagalog, meaning tongue) + anghel (from Sp. angel)||Having the gift of prophecy|
|Dilang-baka||dila (from Tagalog, meaning tongue) + baka (from Sp. vaca)||Opuntia cochenillifera|
|Doble-ingat||doble (from Sp. doble) + ingat (from Tagalog, meaning to be cautious)||To take extra precautions|
|Doble-talim||doble (from Sp. doble) + talim (from Tagalog, meaning sharpness)||Double-edged|
|Epikong-bayan||epiko (from Sp. poema épico) + bayan (from Tagalog, meaning country)||Folk epic|
|Esponghang-dagat||espongha (from. Sp. esponja) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea)||Sea sponge|
|Giyera-patani||giyera (from Sp. guerra) + patani (from Tagalog term for Phaseolus lunatus)||Heated verbal exchange|
|Hating-globo||hati (from Tagalog, meaning half) + globo (from Sp. globo)||Hemisphere|
|Hiram-kantores||hiram (from Tagalog, meaning to borrow) + kantores (from Sp. cantores)||Non-returnable|
|Kabayong-dagat||kabayo (from Sp. cavallo) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea)||Seahorse (Hippocampus spp.)|
|Karnerong-dagat||karnero (from Sp. carnero) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea)||Seal|
|Kayod-marino||kayod (from Tagalog, meaning to grate) + marino (from Sp. marino)||Hard worker|
|Kilos-protesta||kilos (from Tagalog, meaning movement) + protesta (from Sp. protesta)||Demonstration; street protest|
|Kuwentong-bayan||kwento (from Sp. cuento) + bayan (from Tagalog, meaning country)||Folk stories|
|Lakad-pato||lakad (from Tagalog, meaning walk) + pato (from Sp. pato)||Waddle|
|Leong-dagat||leon (from Sp. león) + dagat (from Tagalog, meaning sea)||Sea lion|
|Mukhang-pera||mukha (from Tagalog, meaning face) + pera (from Sp. perra gorda or perra chica)||Profit-oriented; easily corruptible through bribes|
|Pader-ilog||pader (from Sp. pared) + ilog (from Tagalog, meaning river)||Embankment|
|Pampalipas-oras||lipas (from Tagalog, meaning to pass) + oras (from Sp. horas)||Pastime; hobby|
|Panday-yero||panday (from Tagalog, meaning smith) + yero (from Sp. hierro)||Ironsmith|
|Patay-malisya||patay (from Tagalog, meaning dead) + malisya (from Sp. malicia)||Feigning innocence; pretending not to know that something is amiss|
|Pusòng-mamon||puso (from Tagalog, meaning heart) + mamon (from Sp. mamón)||Soft-hearted; kind and compassionate|
|Sanib-puwersa||sanib (from Tagalog, meaning to join together) + puwersa (from Sp. fuerza)||To join forces|
|Siling-haba||sili (from Sp. chile) + haba (from Tagalong, meaning length)||Capsicum annuum var. longum|
|Siling-labuyo||sili (from Sp. chile) + labuyo (from Tagalog, meaning wild chicken)||Capsicum frutescens|
|Singsing-pari||singsing (from Tagalog, meaning ring) + pari (meaning priest, from Sp. padre)||Millipede|
|Sirang-plaka||sira (from Tagalog, meaning broken) + plaka (from Sp. placa)||Someone or something that annoyingly repeats itself|
|Sulat-makinilya||sulat (from Tagalog, meaning script/writing) + makinilya (from Sp. maquinilla)||Typewritten|
|Taas-presyo||taas (from Tagalog, meaning high) + presyo (from Sp. precio)||Price increase|
|Tabing-kalsada||tabi (from Tagalog, meaning side) + kalsada (from Sp. calzada)||Roadside|
|Tabing-kalye||tabi (from Tagalog, meaning side) + kalye (from Sp. calle)||Roadside|
|Takaw-aksidente||takaw (from Tagalog, meaning greedy) + aksidente (from Sp. accidente)||Accident-prone|
|Takaw-disgrasya||takaw (from Tagalog, meaning greedy) + disgrasya (from Sp. desgracia)||Accident-prone|
|Takdang-oras||takda (from Tagalog, meaning to set/to assign) + oras (from Sp. horas)||Fixed or appointed time|
|Takdang-petsa||takda (from Tagalog, meaning to set/to assign) + petsa (from Sp. fecha)||Due date; Deadline|
|Tanim-bala||tanim (from Tagalog, meaning to plant) + bala (from Sp. bala)||Planting evidence of illegal bullet possession|
|Tanim-droga||tanim (from Tagalog, meaning to plant) + droga (from Sp. droga)||Planting evidence of illegal drug possession|
|Táong-grasa||tao (from Tagalog, meaning person) + grasa (from Sp. grasa)||Homeless man or woman|
|Tubig-gripo||tubig (from Tagalog, meaning water) + gripo (from Sp. grifo)||Tap water|
|Tulak-droga||tulak (from Tagalog, meaning to push) + droga (from Sp. droga)||Drug pusher|
|Túlog-mantika||tulog (from Tagalog, meaning sleep) + mantika (from Sp. manteca)||Someone or something that doesn't wake up easily|
|Tunog-lata||tunog (from Tagalog, meaning soundor tune) + lata (from Sp. lata)||Tinny; sounding like tin|
English has been used in everyday Tagalog conversation. Code-switching between Tagalog and English is called Taglish. English words borrowed by Tagalog are mostly modern and technical terms, but some English words are also used for short usage (many Tagalog words translated from English are very long) or to avoid literal translation and repetition of the same particular Tagalog word. English makes the second largest foreign vocabulary of Tagalog after Spanish. In written language, English words in a Tagalog sentence are usually written as they are, but they are sometimes written in Tagalog phonetic spelling. Here are some examples:
|Adik||Drug addict||Durugista (Sp. drogas + -ista)|
|Boo||Boo; To dislike|
|Drayber||Driver||Tsuper (Sp. chofer, cf. chauffeur)|
|Gradweyt||Graduate||Nakapagtapos ng pag-aaral; gradwado (Sp. graduado)|
|Hayskul||High school||Paaralang sekundarya (sekundarya = Sp. secundaria); Mataas na paaralan|
|Interbyu||Interview||Panayam, entrebista (Sp. entrevista)|
|Iskedyul||Schedule||Talaorasan (oras = Sp. horas)|
|Iskor||Score||Puntos (Sp. punto)|
|Ispiker||Speaker (person)||Tagapagsalita, tagatalumpati, mananalumpati|
|Isport||Sport||Palaro, palakasan, paligsahan (also translates as "contest" or "tournament")|
|Kendi||Candy||Minatamis (Eng. "sweets")|
|Ketsap||Ketchup||Sarsa (Sp. salsa)|
|Korek||Correct||Ayos, tama (Sans.), tumpak|
|Kyut||Cute||Lindo (m) & Linda (f) (Sp.)|
|Okey||OK, Okay||Sige (Sp. sigue)|
|Selpon||Cellphone||Telepono (Sp. Teléfono)|
|Titser||Teacher||Guro (Sans. via Malay "guru"), maestro (m) and maestra (f) (Sp.)|
|Wáis||Wise||Mautak, maabilidad (Sp. abilidad)|
Many Malay loanwords entered the Tagalog vocabulary during pre-colonial times as Old Malay became the lingua franca of trade, commerce and diplomatic relations during the pre-colonial era of Philippine history as evidenced by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription of 900 AD and accounts of Antonio Pigafetta at the time of the Spanish arrival in the country five centuries later. Some Malay loanwords, such as bansa and guro (which in turn came from Sanskrit; see below), were later additions to the Tagalog language during the first half of the 20th century. Said words were proposals by the late linguist Eusebio T. Daluz to be adopted for further development of the Tagalog language and eventually found widespread usage among the lettered segment of the Tagalog-speaking population.
|Tagalog||Etymology||Meaning in Tagalog|
|balaklaot||barat laut (Malay, meaning northwest)||northwestern winds|
|balisa||belisa (Malay, meaning restless, fidgety)||restless; fidgety|
|batubalani||batu (Malay and Tagalog, meaning stone) + berani (Malay, meaning brave)||magnetite; magnet stone|
|bibingka||kuih bingka (Malay, referring to tapioca or cassava cake)||rice cake with coconut milk|
|bilanggo||belenggu (Malay, meaning shackles or chain)||prison; prisoner|
|binibini||bini (Malay, meaning wife)||young lady; miss|
|bunso||bongsu (Malay, meaning youngest-born)||youngest child|
|dalamhati||dalam (Malay, meaning within) + hati (Malay, meaning liver)||grief|
|dalubhasa||juru (Malay, meaning expert) + bahasa (Malay, meaning language)||expert (in general)|
|ganti||ganti (Malay, meaning replacement by succession or substitution)||requital; return; reward; retribution|
|hatol||atur (Malay, meaning order or arrangement)||sentence pronounced by a judge in court|
|kanan||kanan (Malay, meaning right)||right-hand side|
|kawal||kawal (Malay, meaning watchman, patrol or guard)||soldier; warrior|
|kulambo||kelambu (Malay, meaning mosquito net)||mosquito net|
|lagari||gergaji (Malay, meaning carpenter's saw)||carpenter's saw|
|lunggati||lung (Tagalog root word meaning grief:88) + hati (Malay, meaning liver)||eagerness; ambition|
|luwalhati||luar (Malay, meaning outside) + hati (Malay, meaning liver)||inner peace; glory (as in the Glory Be)|
|pighati||pedih (Malay, meaning pain) + hati (Malay, meaning liver)||affliction; anguish; woe|
|pilak||perak (Malay, meaning silver) (Ultimately of Khmer origin)||silver (Ag)|
|pirali||pijar (Malay, meaning borax)||calcium carbonate|
|salaghati||salag or salak (Tagalog, meaning full and levelled) + hati (Malay, meaning liver)||displeasure; resentment|
|takal||takar (Malay, meaning a measure of capacity for oil, etc.)||measurement by volume of liquids and of grains|
|tanghali||tengah (Malay, meaning half) + hari (Malay, meaning day)||noon; midday|
|tiyanak||puntianak (Malay, referring to a vampire, ghost or reanimated body supposed to suck blood)||vampiric creature that imitates the form of a child|
|uluhati||ulo (Tagalog, meaning head) + hati (Malay, meaning liver)||remembrance; reminiscence|
|usap||ucap (Malay, meaning utterance)||conversation|
Jean Paul-Potet estimates that there are around 280 words in Tagalog that originated from Sanskrit.:269 As in most Austronesian languages, the Sanskrit vocabulary incorporated into Tagalog were mostly borrowed indirectly via Malay or Javanese. While it was generally believed that Malay played a key role in the dissemination of the Indian lexical influences in Southeast Asia, there are also cases of words that are not attested in Old Malay but are present in Old Javanese, thus highlighting the possibility that the latter played a more important role in the dissemination of these words in Maritime Southeast Asia than was previously given credit for. Examples of such words that also reached the Philippines include anluwagi ("carpenter"; from Javanese uṇḍahagi meaning "woodworker" or "carpenter") and gusali ("building"; from Javanese gusali meaning "blacksmith"). As these words are more closely related to their Middle Indo-Aryan counterparts, they are not listed below.
|Tagalog||Sanskrit||Meaning in Tagalog|
|Agham||Āgama (आगम), meaning acquisition of knowledge, science||Science (this is a neologism; "modern meaning")|
|Antala||Antara (अन्तर), meaning duration, gap||Delay|
|Asal||Ācāra (आचार), meaning manner of action, conduct, behavior||Behaviour; Character|
|Bahala||Bhara (भार), meaning burden, load, weight, heavy work||To manage; to take care of; to take charge|
|Balita||Vārtā (वार्ता), meaning account, report||News|
|Bansa||Vaṃśa (वंश), meaning bamboo cane, genealogy, dynasty, race,||Country (neologism)|
|Banyaga||Vaṇijaka (वणिजक), meaning merchant, trader||Foreigner (modern meaning)|
|Basa||Vaca (वच), meaning voice, speech||To read|
|Bathalà||Batthara (भट्टार), meaning noble lord, venerable||Supreme Being; God|
|Bihasa||Abhyasa (अभ्यास), meaning habit||Expert; Accustomed|
|Budhi||Bodhi (बोधि), meaning understanding||Conscience|
|Dawa:73,191||Yava (यव), meaning Hordeum vulgare||Panicum miliaceum|
|Daya||Dvaya (द्वय), meaning twofold nature, falsehood||Cheating; Deception|
|Diwa||Jīva (जीव), meaning the principle of life, vital breath||Spirit; Soul|
|Diwata||Devata (देवता), meaning divinity||Fairy, Goddess, Nymph|
|Dukha||Dukkha (दुःख),meaning sorrow, misery, hardship||Poverty|
|Dusa||Doṣa (दोष), meaning harm, damage, bad consequence||Suffering|
|Dusta||Dūṣita (दूषित), meaning defiled, violated, injured||Ignominiously insulted|
|Gadya||Gaja (गज), meaning elephant||Elephant|
|Ganda||Gandha (गन्ध), meaning aroma, fragrance||Beauty; beautiful|
|Guro||Guru (गुरु), meaning master, teacher||Mentor; Teacher|
|Halaga||Argha (अर्घ), meaning value||Price; Value; Worth|
|Halata||Arthaya (अर्थय), meaning perceive||Noticeable; Perceptible; Obvious|
|Haraya||Hridaya (हृदय), meaning heart||Imagination|
|Hina||Hīna (हीन), meaning weaker/lower than, abandoned, deficient||Weakness; fragility|
|Hiwaga||Vihaga (विहग), meaning bird||Mystery; miracle|
|Kasubha||Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ), meaning Carthamus tinctorius||Carthamus tinctorius|
|Kastuli||Kastūrī (कस्तूरी), meaning Abelmoschus moschatus||Abelmoschus moschatus|
|Katha||Kathā (कथा), meaning a feigned story, fable||Literary composition; Fiction; Invention|
|Katakata||Reduplication of Kathā (कथा), meaning a story, fable||Legend; Fable; Folk tale|
|Kalapati; Palapati||Pārāpataḥ (पारापत), meaning pigeon||Pigeon|
|Kuba||Kubja (कुब्ज), meaning hunchback||Hunchback|
|Kuta||Kota (कोट), meaning fort, stronghold||Fort|
|Ladya||Raja (राज), meaning king, chief, sovereign||Raja|
|Lagundi||Nirgundi (निर्गुण्डि), meaning Vitex negundo||Vitex negundo|
|Laho||Rāhu (राहु), meaning eclipse||Eclipse,; to vanish|
|Lasa||Rasa (रस), meaning taste, savour||Taste|
|Likha||Lekhā (लेखा), meaning drawing, figure||To create|
|Madla||Mandala (मण्डल), meaning circle, multitude||The general public|
|Maharlika||Maharddhika (महर्द्धिक), meaning prosperous||Nobility; Prehispanic Tagalog social class composed of freedmen|
|Makata||Tagalog prefix ma- + kathā (कथा), meaning a story, fable||Poet|
|Mukha||Mukha (मुख), meaning face||Face|
|Mula||Mula (मूल), meaning basis, foundation, origin, beginning||From; since; origin|
|Mutya||Mutya (मुत्य), meaning pearl||Amulet; Charm; Jewel; Pearl|
|Paksa||Paksha (पक्ष), meaning a point or matter under discussion||Theme; topic; subject|
|Palibhasa||Paribhasa (परिभाषा), meaning speech, censure, reproof||Irony; Sarcasm; Criticism|
|Parusa||Tagalog prefix pa- + dusa, from Sanskrit doṣa (दोष)||Punishment|
|Patola||Patola (पटोल), meaning Trichosanthes dioica||Luffa acutangula|
|Saksí||Sākṣin (साक्षिन्), meaning eye-witness||Witness|
|Sakuna||Zakuna (शकुन), meaning a bird of omen||Disaster|
|Salamuha||Samuha (समूह), meaning gathering, crowd||To mingle with people|
|Salanta||Randa (रण्ड), meaning maimed, crippled||Infirm|
|Salita||Carita (चरित), meaning behaviour, acts, deeds, adventures||To speak; to talk; word|
|Samantala||Samantara (समान्तर), meaning parallel||Meanwhile|
|Sampalataya||Sampratyaya (सम्प्रत्यय), meaning trust, confidence||To have faith, to believe in God|
|Sandata||Saṃyatta (संयत्त), meaning prepared, being on one's guard||Weapon|
|Sigla||Sīghra (शीघ्र), meaning swift, quick, speedy||Enthusiasm; Vitality|
|Suka||Cukra (चुक्र), meaning vinegar||Vinegar|
|Sutla||Sūtra (सूत्र), meaning thread, string, wire||Silk|
|Tanikala||Sṛṅkhala (शृङ्खल), meaning chain||Chain|
|Tingga||Tivra (तीव्र), meaning tin, iron, steel||Tin|
|Tsampaka||Campaka (चम्पक), meaning Magnolia champaca||Magnolia champaca|
|Upang||Upa (उप), meaning towards, near to||So as to, in order to|
Close contact through commercial networks between India and Maritime Southeast Asia for more than two millennia, bolstered by the establishment of Tamil as a literary language in India starting from the 9th century, allowed the spread of Dravidian loanwords in several local languages of Southeast Asia, including Old Malay and Tagalog. A list of Tagalog words with Tamil origins are shown below.
|Tagalog||Tamil||Meaning in Tamil||Meaning in Tagalog|
|Bagay||வாகை (Vagai)||Kind, class, sort; goods; property; means of livelihood||Thing; object; article|
|Baril||வெடில் (Veḍil)||Explosion||Gun; to shoot (with a gun)|
|Bilanggo||விலங்கு (Vilaṅgu)||Fetters; shackles; manacles||Captive; prisoner|
|Gulay||குழை (Kulai)||To become soft, pulpy, as well-cooked||Vegetable|
|Kalikam:302||காரிக்கம் (kārikkam)||Unbleached plain cotton cloth||Embroidered breeches from Brunei|
|Kawal||காவல் (Kāval)||Watchman; guard||Soldier; warrior|
|Kawali||குவளை (Kuvaḷai)||Wide-mouthed vessel; cup||Frying pan, skillet|
|Kiyapo||கயப்பு (Kayappū)||Aquatic flower||Pistia stratiotes|
|Mangga||மாங்காய் (Māngāi)||Unripe mango fruit||Mango (in general)|
|Malunggay||முருங்கை (Murungai)||Moringa oleifera||Moringa oleifera|
|Palisay||பரிசை (Paricai)||Shield; buckler||Shield used in warrior dances|
|Puto||புட்டு (Puttu)||A kind of confectionery||Rice cake|
|Tupa:303||ஆட்டுப்பட்டி (Āṭṭu-p-paṭṭi)||A flock of sheep||Sheep|
Arabic and Persian
There are very few words in Tagalog that are identified as Arabic or Persian in origin. According to Jean-Paul Potet, there are 60 Tagalog words that are identified with reasonable confidence as derived from Arabic or Persian, half of which are probably (roughly 23%) or unquestionably (roughly 26%) borrowed indirectly through Malay. The other half of the identified loanwords are directly derived from Arabic or Persian, like for example the word gumamela (the local Tagalog term for the Hibiscus flowers, derived from Arabic جميلة meaning beautiful). The table below shows different Arabic loanwords, including archaic and poetic ones, incorporated into the Tagalog lexicon. If an Arabic loanword is considered to be borrowed through the mediation of Malay, the intermediate Malay term is also specified.
Several Spanish loanwords incorporated into Tagalog have origins in the Arabic language. Examples include alahas (meaning jewel, from Sp. alhaja and ultimately from Arabic حاجة meaning "necessary or valuable thing"), albayalde (meaning white lead, from Sp. albayalde and ultimately from Arabic بياض meaning "white" or "whiteness"), alkansiya (meaning piggy bank, from Sp. alcancía and ultimately from Arabic كنز meaning "treasure"), alkatsopas (meaning artichoke, from Sp. alcachofa and ultimately from Arabic الخُرْشُوف), almires (meaning small mortar, from Sp. almirez and ultimately from Arabic مهراس), asapran (meaning saffron, from Sp. azafrán from Persian zarparan meaning "gold strung"), baryo (meaning village, from Sp. barrio and ultimately from Arabic بَرِّي), kapre (a Filipino mythological creature, from Sp. cafre and ultimately from Arabic كَافِر), kisame (meaning ceiling, from Sp. zaquizamí and ultimately from Arabic سقف في السماء meaning "ceiling in the sky"), etc. The table below does not include these numerous Hispano-Arabic terms as it will only focus on those loanwords which are directly borrowed from Arabic or Persian, or indirectly borrowed through Malay.
|Tagalog||Arabic/Persian||Malay intermediate||Meaning in Tagalog|
|Agimat:331||عَزِيمَة (Arabic `azimah meaning amulet, talisman, magic spell)||Azimat (meaning talisman)||Amulet; talisman|
|Alak:331||عرق (Arabic `araq, meaning liquor)||Arak (meaning liquor)||Liquor|
|Anakura||ناخوذا (Persian nakhoodha, meaning ship's captain)||Nakhoda (meaning ship's captain)||Ship's captain|
|Daulat:331||دولة (Arabic Dawlah, meaning rotation, turn of fortune)||Daulat (meaning prosperity, happiness)||Luck; fortune; fate|
|Gumamela||جميلة (Arabic Jamiilah, meaning beautiful)||Hibiscus rosa-sinensis|
|Hukom:331||حكم (Arabic Ḥukm, meaning judgment)||Hukum (meaning judgment,law)||Judge|
|Katan:331||ختان (Arabic Khatān, meaning circumcision)||Circumcised|
|Kupya:332||كوفية (Arabic Kuufiyyah, meaning headgear, keffieh)||Kopiah (meaning cap)||Iron helmet or similar headgear|
|Malim:332||معلم (Arabic Mu`allim, meaning teacher)||Malim (meaning maritime pilot)||Maritime pilot|
|Mansigit:332||مسجد (Arabic Masjid, meaning mosque)||Temple|
|Paham:332||فَهْم (Arabic Fahm, meaning understanding)||Faham (meaning science, understanding)||A learned person; scholar|
|Pangadyi||Tag. pang- + حاجي (Arabic Ḥājjī, meaning a pilgrim to Mecca)||Pengajian (meaning recitation, reading)||Muslim prayer; prayer to a Tagalog deity|
|Pinggan||ﭙﻨﮔان (Persian Pingān, meaning cup, bowl)||Pinggan (meaning dish, plate, saucer)||Dish plate|
|Salabat:332||شربة (Arabic Sharbah, meaning any non-alcoholic drink)||Ginger tea|
|Salamat||سلامة (Persian Salāmah, meaning thank you, from Arabic Salāmāt سلامت, peace and blessings (greeting or thanking word))||Thank you|
|Salapi:333||صرف (Arabic Ṣarf, meaning to pay, to earn)||Coin; money|
|Salawal||سروال (Persian Sarwaal, meaning bloomers, pantaloons, trousers)||Seluar (meaning breeches, trousers)||Underpants, pre-colonial dhoti-like men's garment|
|Siyak:333||شيخ (Arabic Shaykh, meaning elder, master, teacher, sheik)||Siak (meaning a mosque caretaker)||Muslim cleric|
|Sumbali:333||سبحل (Arabic 'Sabḥala', meaning to say or repeat "Subhan Allah")||Cutting the throat of an animal|
|Sunat:333||سُنَّة (Arabic Sunnah, meaning tradition, specifically Islamic traditions)||Sunat (meaning circumcision)||Excision of the clitoris|
Most Chinese loanwords in Tagalog were derived from Hokkien, the Southern Chinese language most widely spoken in the Philippines. Most of the 163 Hokkien-derived terms collected and analyzed by Gloria Chan-Yap are fairly recent and do not appear in the earliest Spanish dictionaries of Tagalog.:334 Many loanwords such as pancit entered the Tagalog vocabulary during the Spanish colonial era when the Philippines experienced an increased influx of Chinese immigrants (mostly from the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong in Southern China) as Manila became an international entrepôt with the flourishing of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. Attractive economic opportunities boosted Chinese immigration to Spanish Manila and the new Chinese settlers brought with them their skills, culinary traditions and language, with the latter then influencing the native languages of the Philippines in the form of loanwords, most of which are related to cookery.:5
|Tagalog||Hokkien (H)||Meaning in Hokkien||Meaning in Tagalog|
|Angkak:137||紅麴/âng-khak (H)||Red yeast rice||Red yeast rice|
|Ate:141||阿姊/á-chí (H)||Appellation for elder sister||Appellation for elder sister|
|Baktaw:143||墨斗/ba̍k-táu (H)||Carpenter's ink marker||Carpenter's ink marker|
|Bakya:130||木屐/ba̍k-kia̍h (H)||Wooden clogs||Wooden clogs|
|Bataw:135||扁豆/pà-taŭ (H)||Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)||Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus)|
|Batsoy:137||肉水/bà-cuì (H)||Dish with loin of pork as main ingredient||Batchoy|
|Bihon:137||米粉/bî-hún (H)||Rice vermicelli||Rice vermicelli|
|Biko:137||米糕/bí-kō (H)||Sweetened rice cake||Sweetened rice cake|
|Bilawo:140||米樓/bí-lâu (H)||Literally "rice layer/level"||Flat round-shaped rice winnower and food container|
|Bimpo:130||面布/bīn-pǒ (H)||Face towel||Face towel|
|Bithay:338:140||米篩/bi-thaî (H)||Rice sifter||Sieve (for sifting grain and sand)|
|Bitso:137||米棗/bí-chó (H)||Fried cake made of rice flour||Philippine terms for youtiao|
|Betsin||味精/bī-cheng (H)||Monosodium glutamate||Monosodium glutamate|
|Buwisit:133||無衣食/bō-uî-sít (H)||Without clothes or food||Nuisance|
|Diko:141||二哥/dī-kô (H)||Appellation for second eldest brother||Appellation for second eldest brother|
|Ditse:141||二姊/dī–cì (H)||Appellation for second eldest sister||Appellation for second eldest sister|
|Ginto||金條/kim-tiâu (H)||Gold bar||Gold (Au)|
|Goto:135||牛肚/gû-tǒ͘ (H)||Ox tripe||Goto - rice porridge with ox/beef tripe|
|Hopya:137||好餅/hō-pià (H)||Sweet mung bean cake||Sweet mung bean cake|
|Husi:130||富絲/hù-si (H)||Quality cotton||Cloth made from pineapple fibre|
|Ingkong:142||𪜶公/in-kông (H)||His father||Grandfather|
|Inso:142||𪜶嫂/in-só (H)||His sister-in-law||Wife of an elder brother or male cousin|
|Intsik||𪜶叔/in-chek/in-chiak (H)||His uncle; their uncle||(informal) Chinese people, language, or culture|
|Katay:145||共刣/kā-thâi (H)||To cut open together||To slaughter|
|Kikiam||五香/ngó͘-hiang (H)||Sausage-like roll seasoned with five-spice powder||Sausage-like roll seasoned with five-spice powder|
|Kintsay:136||芹菜/khîn-chaĭ (H)||Celery (Apium graveolens)||Celery (Apium graveolens)|
|Kiti:134||雞弟/ke-tǐ (H)||Young Chick||Young Chick|
|Kutsay:136||韭菜/khû-chaĭ (H)||Chinese chives (Allium ramosum)||Chinese chives (Allium ramosum)|
|Kuya:141||哥兄/ko͘–hiaⁿ (H)||Appellation for elder brother||Appellation for elder brother|
|Lawin:134||老鷹/laū-yêng (H)||Any bird belonging to Accipitridae or Falconidae||Any bird belonging to Accipitridae or Falconidae|
|Lawlaw:109||老/laû (H)||Old||Dangling; Sagging; Hanging loose|
|Lomi:138||滷麵/ló͘-mī (H)||Lor mee - Chinese noodle dish||Lomi (a Filipino-Chinese noodle dish)|
|Lumpiya:138||潤餅/lûn-pià (H)||Fried or fresh spring rolls||Fried or fresh spring rolls|
|Mami:138||肉麵/mà-mĭ (H)||Meat and noodles in soup||Meat and noodles in soup|
|Maselan:132||ma- + 西儂/se-lâng (H)||Westerner; Of the Western world||Delicate; sensitive; hard to please|
|Miswa:138||麵線/mī-sòaⁿ (H)||Misua - Chinese salted noodles||Very thin variety of salted noodle Misua soup|
|Pansit:139||便食/pân-si̍t (H)||Dish that is conveniently cooked i.e. noodle dish||Pancit - any noodle dish|
|Pakyaw:145||跋繳/pák-kiaù (H)||To submit by bundles||Wholesale buying|
|Paslang:133||拍死人/phah-sí-lāng (H)||To kill||To kill|
|Petsay:136||白菜/pē-chaĭ (H)||Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)||Napa cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis)|
|Pesa:139||白煠魚/pē-sà-hí (H)||Plain boiled fish||Plain boiled fish|
|Pisaw :340||匕首/pì-siù (H)||Dagger||Small knife|
|Puthaw||斧頭/pú-thâu (H)||Axe||Hatchet; Small axe|
|Sampan||舢板/san-pán (H)||Chinese boat; Chinese junk||Chinese boat; Chinese junk|
|Samyo:135||糝藥粉/sám+iôq+hùn (H)||To sprinkle medicinal powder||Aroma; Fragrance; Sweet odor|
|Sangko:142||三哥/sâ-kô (H)||Appellation for third eldest brother||Appellation for third eldest brother|
|Sangki:139||三紀/sâ-kì (H)||Chinese star anise (Illicium verum)||Chinese star anise (Illicium verum)|
|Sanse:142||三姊/sâ–cì (H)||Appellation for third eldest sister||Appellation for third eldest sister|
|Singki:133||新客/sin-kheh (H)||New guest or customer||Newcomer; Beginner|
|Sitaw:136||青豆/chî-taŭ (H)||Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis)||Chinese long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis)|
|Siyaho||姐夫/tsiá-hu (H)||Brother-in-law (elder sister's husband)||Husband of an elder sister or female cousin|
|Siyansi:141||煎匙/chian-sî (H)||Kitchen turner||Kitchen turner|
|Sotanghon:139||蘇打粉/so͘-táⁿ-hún (H)||Cellophane noodles||Cellophane noodles|
|Suki||主客/chù–khè (H)||Important costumer||Regular customer; Patron|
|Sungki:130||伸牙/chûn-khì (H)||Protruding tooth||Buck tooth|
|Suwahe:134||沙蝦/suā-hé (H)||Greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis)||Greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis)|
|Suya:133||衰啊/soe-a (H)||Expression for "How unlucky!"||Disgust|
|Siyokoy:146||水鬼/cuí-kuì (H)||Water spirit; Water devil||Merman|
|Siyomay:139||燒賣/siō-maĭ (H)||Steamed dumpling||Shumai/Siomai - Steamed dumpling|
|Siyopaw:139||燒包/siō-paŭ (H)||Meat-filled steamed bun||Siopao - Meat-filled steamed bun|
|Tahure (var. tahuri):139||豆花/taū-hû (H)||Tofu||Fermented tofu in soy sauce|
|Tanga:134||蟲仔/thâng-á (H)||Little insect/bug/worm||Clothes moth|
|Tanglaw:132||燈籠/tiêng-laú (H)||Lamp; Lantern||Light|
|Tanso:144||銅索/táng-sò (H)||Copper wire||Copper (Cu), Bronze|
|Tawsi:140||豆豉/tāu-si (H)||Beans preserved in soy sauce||Beans preserved in soy sauce|
|Timsim (var. tingsim):132||灯心/tiêng-sîm (H)||Lampwick||Lampwick|
|Tinghoy:132||燈火/tiêng-huè (H)||Wick lamp||Wick lamp in glass filled with oil|
|Tikoy:140||甜粿/tiⁿ-kóe (H)||Sweetened rice cake||Sweetened rice cake|
|Tito:136||豬肚/ti-tǒ͘ (H)||Pig tripe||Pork Tito - pig tripe|
|Toge:136||豆芽/tāu-gê (H)||Bean sprout||Bean sprout|
|Totso:140||豆油醋魚/taū-iū-chò-hí (H)||Fish cooked in soy sauce and vinegar||Sautéed fish with tahure|
|Toyo:140||豆油/tāu–iû (H)||Soy sauce||Soy sauce|
|Tutsang:131||頭鬃/thâu-chang (H)||Hair||Short hair on a woman's head|
|Upo:136||葫匏/ô͘-pû (H)||Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)||Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)|
|Utaw:136||烏豆/o͘-tāu (H)||Black Soybean (Glycine max)||Soybean (Glycine max)|
|Wansoy (var. unsoy, yansoy):137||芫荽/iān-suî (H)||Coriander/Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)||Coriander/Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)|
There are very few Tagalog words that are derived from Japanese.:343 Many of them were introduced as recently as the twentieth century like tansan (bottle cap, from the Japanese 炭酸 which originally means refers to soda and carbonated drinks) and karaoke (from the Japanese カラオケ, literally means "empty orchestra") although there are very few Japanese words that appear in the earliest Spanish dictionaries of Tagalog such as katana (Japanese sword, from the Japanese かたな with the same meaning).
Some Filipino jokes are based on comical reinterpretation of Japanese terms as Tagalog words like for example in the case of otousan (from the Japanese お父さん meaning "father") which is reinterpreted as utusan (meaning "servant" or "maid") in Tagalog.:346 As for the Tagalog word Japayuki, it refers to the Filipino migrants who flocked to Japan starting in the 1980s to work as entertainers and it is a portmanteau of the English word Japan and the Japanese word yuki (or 行き, meaning "going" or "bound to").
|Tagalog||Japanese||Meaning in Japanese||Meaning in Tagalog|
|bonsay:22||盆栽 (bonsai)||bonsai; miniature potted plant||bonsai; miniature potted plant; (slang) Short in height;|
|dorobo:41||泥棒 (dorobō)||thief; burglar; robber||thief; burglar; robber|
|dyak en poy or jak en poy||じゃん拳ぽん (jankenpon)||rock–paper–scissors game||rock–paper–scissors game|
|karaoke||カラオケ (karaoke)||karaoke (singing to taped accompaniment)||karaoke (singing to taped accompaniment)|
|katana:343||刀 (katana)||katana; a Japanese sword||katana; a Japanese sword|
|katol:344||蚊取り線香 (katorisenkō)||mosquito coil; anti-mosquito incense||mosquito coil; anti-mosquito incense|
|kimona:344||着物 (kimono)||kimono (or other trad. Japanese clothing)||traditional Philippine blouse made of piña or jusi|
|kirey:344||奇麗 (kirei)||pretty; lovely; beautiful; fair||(slang) pretty; lovely; beautiful; fair|
|kokang:344||交換 (kōkan)||exchange; interchange||(slang) exchange; interchange|
|pampan:344||ぱんぱん (panpan)||(slang) prostitute (esp. just after WWII)||(slang) prostitute|
|shabu||シャブ (shabu)||(slang) methamphetamine hydrochloride||methamphetamine hydrochloride|
|taksan-taksan:344||沢山 (takusan)||much; many||(slang) much; many|
|tansan||炭酸 (tansan)||carbonated water||bottle cap|
|tsunami||津波 (tsunami)||tsunami; tidal wave||tsunami; tidal wave|
Here are some examples:
|Tagalog Word||Nahuatl Root Word||Spanish Word||Meaning and Further Comments|
|Akapulko (var. kapurko)||Acapolco||Acapulco||Senna alata|
|Alpasotis (var. pasotis)||Epazotl||Epazote||Chenopodium ambrosioides|
|Atole||Atolli||Atole||Paste made from flour|
|Guwatsinanggo||Cuauchilnacatl||Guachinango||Shrewd; cunning; astute|
|Kakawati (var. kakawate)||Cacáhuatl||Cacahuate||Gliricidia sepium|
|Kalatsutsi (var. kalanotse)||Cacaloxochitl||Cacalosúchil||Plumeria rubra|
|Koyote (var. kayote)||Coyotl||Coyote||Canis latrans|
|Mekate||Mecatl||Mecate||Rope or cord made out of abaca|
|Sakate||Zacatl||Zacate||Hay or grass for fodder|
|Sangkaka||Chiancaca||Chancaca||Cakes of hardened molasses|
|Tamalis (var. tamales)||Tamalli||Tamal||Rice-based tamales wrapped in banana leaves or corn husks|
|Tiyangge (var. tsangge)||Tianquiztli||Tianguis||Open-air market|
|Tokayo (var. tukayo, katukayo)||Tocayotia||Tocayo||Namesake|
|Tsiklet (var. tsikle)||Chictli||Chicle||Chewing gum|
- Quilis, Antonio; Casado Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos (in Spanish). Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. ISBN 978-84-00-08635-0.
- Stolz, Thomas; Bakker, Dik; Salas Palomo, Rosa (2008). "Hispanisation processes in the Philippines (Patrick O. Steinkrüger)". Hispanisation: the impact of Spanish on the lexicon and grammar of the indigenous languages of Austronesia and the Americas. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 203–236. ISBN 978-3-11-020723-1.
- Baklanova, Ekaterina (June 2019). The impact of Spanish and English hybrids on contemporary Tagalog. 11th International Austronesian and Papuan Languages and Linguistics Conference.
- "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino". Retrieved June 22, 2010.
- Forastieri Braschi, Eduardo; Cardona, Julia; López Morales, Humberto. Estudios de lingüística hispánica : homenaje a María Vaquero.
- Alcantara y Antonio, Teresita (1999). Mga hispanismo sa Filipino: batay sa komunikasyong pangmadla ng Filipinas : pag-aaral lingguwistiko. Diliman, Quezon City : Sentro ng Wikang Filipino, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. ISBN 978-9718781777.
- Muñiz, Adolfo Cuadrado; Iberoamericana, Oficina de Educación. Hispanismos en el tagalo (in Spanish). Oficina de Educación Iberoamericana.
- Quilis, Antonio (1992). La lengua española en cuatro mundos (in Spanish). Editiorial MAPFRE. p. 135. ISBN 978-84-7100-522-9.
- Lopez, Cecilio (January 1, 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 481. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - d". www.trussel2.com.
Apparently a phonologically modified borrowing of Spanish tinta ‘dye’.
- Torres Panganiban, Consuelo (1952). "Spanish Elements in the Tagalog Language". Unitas. University of Santo Tomás. 25: 108.
Vidal, José Montero y. Historia general de Filipinas desde el descubrimiento de dichas islas hasta nuestras días (in Spanish). M. Tello. p. 128.
Con motivo de la escasez que había en Manila de monedas de cobre, el regidor decano del Ayuntamiento, D. Domingo Gómez de la Sierra, pidió autorización en 1766 para fabricar dichas monedas, con el nombre de barrillas, porque su figura era la de un paralelogramo.
- Potet, Jean-Paul (2016). Tagalog borrowings and cognates. Jean-Paul G. Potet. ISBN 978-1-326-61579-6. OCLC 962269309.
Lopez, Cecilio (January 1, 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 480. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841.
T. ladrilyo : laryo ‘brick. tile’
- Villanueva, Joaquín A. García-Medall (2013). "En torno a los primeros préstamos hispánicos en Tagalo". Cuaderno Internacional de Estudios Humanísticos y Literatura (CIEHL) (19): 51–66. ISSN 1521-8007.
Sayahi, Lotfi; Westmoreland, Maurice (2005). "Code-switching or Borrowing? No sé so no puedo decir, you know (John M. Lipski)". Selected Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics. Cascadilla Proceedings Project. p. 2. ISBN 9781574734058.
A number of indigenous languages that have coexisted with Spanish for long periods of time have fully incorporated Spanish functional words, at times producing syntactic innovations that depart significantly from the base structures of the borrowing language. Thus Tagalog has pirmi < firme `always,' para (sa) `for the benefit of' (e.g. Ito ay álaala ko para sa aking iná `this is my gift for my mother'), puwede `can, may, [to be] possible' gustó `like, desire,' siguro `maybe,' por eso, pero, puwés < pues `therefore,' etc. (Oficina de Educación Iberoamericana 1972).
Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T (1983). Tagalog reference grammar. University of California Press. p. 514. ISBN 9780520049437. OCLC 9371508.
Kumusta, which is derived from Spanish cómo está 'how is', is used as the interrogative substitute for an adjective of quality.
Ramos, Teresita V.; Cena, Resty M. (1990). Modern Tagalog. University of Hawaii Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780824813321.
Non-Equality mas, sa/ kaysa (sa)/ (kaysa) kay
Gallego, Maria Kristina S. (2015). "Ang mga Nominal Marker ng Filipino at Ivatan". Daluyan: Journal Ng Wikang Filipino (in Tagalog). 21 (1): 86. ISSN 2244-6001. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
Ang comparison o paghahambing ay ipinapahayag gamit ang kumpara, kaysa, o katulad kasama ng nominal marker. Ang paghahambing sa (63a) ay nagpapakita ng pagkakaiba, samantalang ang sa (63b) ay nagpapakita ng pagkakatulad.
Sabbagh, Joseph (June 1, 2011). "Adjectival passives and the structure of VP in Tagalog". Lingua. 121 (8): 1439. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2011.03.006. ISSN 0024-3841.
Significantly, there is a way to express a meaning that is quite similar to the sentences in (42), using the adverbial pareho (‘same’). Consider the examples in (43).
Martin, J.R. (June 1990). "Interpersonal Grammatization: Mood and Modality in Tagalog" (PDF). Philippine Journal of Linguistics. 21: 23.
Modulation (or deontic modality) is concerned with inclination, obligation and ability. In Tagalog, modulation is grammaticized through what Schachter and Otanes (1972:261-73) refer to as 'pseudo-verbs', which for them are a subclass of adjectivals.
Asarina, Alya; Holt, Anna (September 2005). "Syntax and Semantics of Tagalog Modals" (PDF). UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics: 13.
Puwede and maaari may both be translated as ‘can’. There seems to be little semantic difference between the two.
Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura (28): 38–39. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X.
I have to disagree with Patrick Steinkrüger’s assumption that "none of the numerous discourse particles in Tagalog are of Spanish origin".
Tanangkingsing, Michael (2013). "A Study of Second-Position Enclitics in Cebuano". Oceanic Linguistics. 52 (1): 224. doi:10.1353/ol.2013.0015. ISSN 0029-8115. JSTOR 43286767. S2CID 145347214.
= siguro (epistemic)
Lee, Celeste Chia Yen (January 24, 2013). "Clitic pronouns in Masbatenyo". SIL International: 5.
Blake, Frank R. (Frank Ringgold) (1925). A grammar of the Tagálog language, the chief native idiom of the Philippine Islands. New Haven, Conn., American oriental society. p. 77. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
Elli, Vea. "ON THE STUDY OF TAGALOG, KAPAMPANGAN, IBANAG AND ITAWIS COORDINATING CONSTRUCTIONS". Retrieved September 8, 2019.
Adversative conjunctions often are optional orzero-morpheme coordinators in these languages. In Tagalog, there are coordinators like ‘pero’, ‘kaso’ , ‘kaya lang’ , ‘subalit’, ‘datapwat’, ‘bagkus’, and ‘ngunit’.
Cardoso, Hugo C.; Baxter, Alan N.; Nunes, Mário Pinharanda (2012). "Nenang, nino, nem não, ni no: Similarities and differences (Mauro Fernandez)". Ibero-Asian Creoles: Comparative Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 228. ISBN 9789027252692.
There are two formats in Tagalog for expressing the scalar value 'not even'. The first and possibly the older configuration consists of the addition of the particle man to the negator, followed by the particle lang ('only, just'): for example, "hindi man lang lumawag si John 'John didn't even call'" (De Vos 20I0:322). The second schema, described in the reference grammar compiled by Schachter & Otanes (1972), involves the loan particle ni from Spanish, stripped of all coordinate value and supplemented by a second negator.
Cardoso, Hugo C.; Baxter, Alan N.; Nunes, Mário Pinharanda (2012). ""'Maskin', 'maski', 'masque' ... in the Spanish and Portuguese creoles of Asia: Same particle, same provenance?" (Mauro Fernandez)". Ibero-Asian Creoles: Comparative Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 187. ISBN 9789027252692.
It is worth noting that in no instance was maski ever used to replace a corresponding concessive conjunction in the indigenous language. Still in use, therefore, are Kapampangan bista, Tagalog kahit, Bikol minsan, Visaya bisan and others, to cite just one equivalent conjunction among many still found in each of these languages.
Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T (1983). Tagalog reference grammar. University of California Press. p. 477. ISBN 9780520049437. OCLC 9371508.
Porke is used only in informal contexts, and expresses an ironic or critical attitude (often expressible in English by 'just because').
"Common Names Summary - Lactarius lactarius". www.fishbase.de.
Remarks: Also spelled 'Algudon'. 'algodon' borrowed from Spanish 'algodón', i.e., cotton.
- "alpahór". CulturEd: Philippine Cultural Education Online. Archived from the original on April 7, 2021.
mouse pad -- almohadilya (Sp.: almohadilla)
Zorc, R. David. "Tagalog slang" (PDF). Philippine Journal of Linguistics. Linguistic Society of the Philippines. 21 (1990): 77.
asar upset, angry [Sp. asar 'roast']
- Zorc, R. David Paul; Miguel, Rachel L. San; Sarra, Annabella M. Tagalog Slang Dictionary. Dunwoody Press. ISBN 978-0-931745-56-0.
Orosa, Rosalinda L. "Victory Liner takes you to 'Perya Nostalgia' | Philstar.com". philstar.com.
In this day and age of throwbacks and flashbacks on social media, perya enthusiasts would be pleased to still find classic carnival rides like the tsubibo (carousel), ruweda (Ferris wheel), the tame rollercoaster dubbed the Caterpillar, the topsy-turvy Octopus, and the Flying Swing.
Bundang, Rebekah (1997). Spanish Loanwords in Tagalog (PDF) (B.A.). Swarthmore College. Dept. of Linguistics. p. 10.
Some Spanish loanwords appear in Tagalog in what would be their plural form in Spanish, marked with -s or -es; therefore, when they are pluralized in Tagalog, they need to be pluralized in the way that Tagalog pluralizes native words, i. e., by placing the morpheme mga
- Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. Lulu.com. p. 204. ISBN 9781291457261.
Blanco, Manuel (1837). Flora de Filipinas: según el sistema sexual de Linneo (in Spanish). en la imprenta de Sto. Thomas, por Candido Lopez. p. 326.
El fruto del lanzón cultivado, no deja ser sabroso: su corteza despide una leche pegajosa, y las semillas son verdes y amargas. Es conocido de todos en las Islas; pero ignoro si la palabra lanzones ó lansones es extranjera ó del país: ella tiene semejanza con lasona, que es cebolla
- Colmeiro y Penido, Miguel (1871). Diccionario de los diversos nombres vulgares de muchas plantas usuales ó notables del antiguo y nuevo mundo, con la correspondencia científica y la indicacion abreviada de los unos é igualmente de la familia á que pertenece cada planta (in Spanish). G. Alhambra. p. 173.
Garcia, J. Neil C (2008). Philippine gay culture: binabae to bakla, silahis to MSM. University of the Philippines Press. p. 134. ISBN 9789715425773. OCLC 300977671.
It roughly translates to "bisexual", although as with bakla, the cultural marker of this particular variety of sexual being is mostly not sexuality per se, but predictably enough, gender: the silahis is a male who looks every bit like a "real man" - he may even be married and with a family - but who, in all this time, would rather swish and wear skirts and scream "like a woman".
- Lopez, Cecilio (January 1, 1965). "The Spanish overlay in Tagalog". Lingua. 14: 477. doi:10.1016/0024-3841(65)90058-6. ISSN 0024-3841.
Santos, Lope K. (2019). Balarila ng Wikang Pambansa (PDF) (in Tagalog) (4 ed.). Komisyon Sa Wikang Filipino. p. 21. ISBN 9786218064577. Retrieved February 2, 2020.
- Cariño, Linda Grace. "How Swardspeak was born, truly-ly! | Philstar.com". philstar.com.
Bello, Walden F.; Guzman, Alfonso de (1971). Modernization: Its Impact in the Philippines. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 39.
The state of the body A, together with the state of nature B, leads to disorder X; e.g., hunger together with getting wet causes pasmá (< Spanish pasmar 'to astonish, to cause spasms').
Baklanova, Ekaterina (January 24, 2013). "Morphological assimilation of borrowings in Tagalog". SIL International: 10.
While adopting a borrowing the recipient language may replace some part of the borrowing (mostly the root or its part) with the native lexical material, thus making a HYBRID LOANWORD. In the case of Tagalog borrowed morphemes may be substituted with those of PREVIOUSLY ASSIMILATED loanwords, thus some of the Tagalog hybrid loans consist only of borrowed material
- Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 42–43. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803.
Baklanova, Ekaterina (January 24, 2013). "Morphological assimilation of borrowings in Tagalog". SIL International: 10.
There are much more HYBRID NEOLOGISMS (CREATIONS) in the modern Tagalog, i.e. new words invented by Filipinos with use of some native and already assimilated borrowed material.
- Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 45. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803.
- Sawikaan 2007: Mga Salita ng Taon. 2008. ISBN 9789715425834.
Santos, Lope K.; Bernardo, Gabriel A. (1938). Sources and means for further enrichment of Tagalog as our national language. University of the Philippines. p. 26.
The late linguist, Eusebio Daluz, was the first among our modern Tagalog writers to add Malay loan-words to our dictionary. Some of the loan-words that he proposed to adopt found general acceptance, although many others were not accepted. Of those words may be mentioned bansa (nation), gurò (teacher), arang (individual), nama (name or noun), dalam (royal household), burong (bird), etc.
- Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 42. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X.
- "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - r". www.trussel2.com.
- Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2018). Ancient Beliefs and Customs of the Tagalogs. Lulu.com. p. 214. ISBN 9780244348731.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". www.trussel2.com.
Borrowing, most likely from Malay. Under this hypothesis the consistent partial reduplication in Philippine forms is unexplained, but no borrowing hypothesis in the other direction appears plausible.
- Hall, D. G. E; Cowan, C. D; Wolters, O. W (1976). Southeast Asian history and historiography: essays presented to D.G.E. Hall. Cornell University Press. p. 353. ISBN 978-0801408410. OCLC 2185469.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". www.trussel2.com.
Borrowing from Malay.
- Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. Lulu.com. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-291-45726-1.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - r". www.trussel2.com.
possibly ultimately from Malay ganti ‘replacement by succession or substitution’
- "ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - o". www.trussel2.com.
Baklanova, Ekaterina (March 20, 2017). "Types of Borrowings in Tagalog/Filipino". Kritika Kultura. 0 (28): 37. doi:10.13185/KK2017.02803. ISSN 1656-152X.
Mal. /kanan/ (< *ka-wanan) [Wolff 1976]
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - w". www.trussel2.com.
Borrowing from Malay, ultimately from Tamil.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - m". www.trussel2.com.
Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff (1938) reconstructed *kulambu ‘curtain’.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - t". www.trussel2.com.
Borrowing of Malay gergaji ‘a saw; to saw’.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - s". www.trussel2.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
This extremely widespread loanword appears to be of Mon-Khmer origin (Thurgood 1999:360). It evidently was acquired by Malay as a result of contacts on the mainland of Southeast Asia, and then spread throughout much of western Indonesia-Malaysia, the Philippines and Taiwan through trade contacts, perhaps mediated by the Dutch presence in southwest Taiwan from 1624-1661, and the Spanish presence in northeast Taiwan from 1626-1642 (the latter out of Manila).
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - m". www.trussel2.com.
Also Balinese pijar ‘borax, solder’. Borrowing from Malay.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - u". www.trussel2.com.
Also Balinese takeh ‘measure (large amount)’, takeh-an ‘a measure of volume’. Borrowing from Malay.
Odé, Cecilia (1997). Proceedings of the seventh International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics: Leiden 22-27 August 1994. Rodopi. p. 607. ISBN 9789042002531. OCLC 38290304.
Tag tangháliʔ 'noon' represents *tengáq + *qaRi but is clearly a loan from Malay tengah hari.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - g". www.trussel2.com.
The forms cited here are conspicuous for their multiple phonological irregularities and apparent morphological reanalyses. This strongly suggests that the form has been borrowed, probably from Malay. According to Alton L. Becker (p.c.) a similar folk belief is found in Burma. If true it is tempting to hypothesize that the puntianak belief was ultimately borrowed by speakers of an early form of Malay from a mainland Southeast Asian source and subsequently disseminated through much of island Southeast Asia.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". www.trussel2.com.
Borrowing from Malay. Dempwolff's (1934-38) inclusion of Fijian vosa 'speak, talk' under a reconstruction *ucap 'speak, converse with' appears unjustified.
- Haspelmath, Martin (2009). Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 978-3110218435.
- Hoogervorst, Tom; Blench, Roger; Landmann, Alexandra (March 10, 2017). 9. The Role of “Prakrit” in Maritime Southeast Asia through 101 Etymologies. ISEAS Publishing. ISBN 978-981-4762-77-9.
- Hoogervorst, Tom (April 15, 2015). "Detecting pre-modern lexical influence from South India in Maritime Southeast Asia". Archipel. Études interdisciplinaires sur le monde insulindien (89): 63–93. doi:10.4000/archipel.490. ISSN 0044-8613.
- Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. Lulu.com. pp. 285–286. ISBN 9781291457261.
Donoso, Isaac J. (2010). "The Hispanic Moros y Cristianos and the Philippine Komedya". Philippine Humanities Review. 11: 87–120. ISSN 0031-7802.
Thus, Arabic words became integrated into Philippine languages through Spanish (e.g., alahas (alhaja, al- haja), alkalde (alcalde, al-qadi), alkampor (alcanfor, al-kafiir), alkansiya (alcancia, al-kanziyya), aldaba (aldaba, al-dabba), almires (almirez, al-mihras), baryo (barrio, al-barri), kapre (cafre, kafir), kisame (zaquizami, saqf fassami), etc.);
- Asbaghi, Asya (1988). Persische Lehnwörter im Arabischen. Wiesbaden: O. Harrasowitz. ISBN 978-3447027571. OCLC 19588893.
Donoso Jiménez, Isaac (2017). "Relaciones culturales filipino-persas (II): La lingua franca islámica en el Índico y algunos persianismos en tagalo". Revista Filipina. ISSN 1496-4538.
El préstamo más reseñable es anakura, cuya etimología procede incuestionablemente del persa nājūdā / ناخوذا.
Donoso Jiménez, Isaac (2017). "Relaciones culturales filipino-persas (II): La lingua franca islámica en el Índico y algunos persianismos en tagalo". Revista Filipina. ISSN 1496-4538.
Igualmente persas son las palabras tagalas pingan, "plato" (desde pinggaan / ﭙﻨﮔان) y salawal, "pantalones" (desde sirvaal / سروال).
- Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2013). Arabic and Persian Loanwords in Tagalog. Lulu.com. p. 152. ISBN 9781291457261.
Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 217. ISBN 9780313376269.
Pancit (also spelled pansit), or noodles, is a main-stay ingredient that has undergone significant adaptations in the preparation process. Filipinos use different types of noodles, such as those made from rice, egg, wheat, and mung beans, to make various pancit dishes. Introduced by the Chinese during the Spanish period, the dish has been Filipinized, and various regions have come up with their own versions as well.
- Pacho, Arturo (1986). "The Chinese Community in the Philippines: Status and Conditions". Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia. 1 (1): 76–91. doi:10.1355/SJ1-1E. JSTOR 41056696.
Wickberg, Edgar (1962). "Early Chinese Economic Influence in the Philippines, 1850–1898". Pacific Affairs. 35 (3): 275–285. JSTOR 2753187.
It is known that the arrival of the Spanish in the late sixteenth century provided attractive economic opportunities which stimulated Chinese immigration to the Philippines in much greater volume than ever before. By the beginning of the seventeenth century there were over 20,000 Chinese in the Manila area - a number many times that of the Spanish settler.
- Sánchez de Mora, Antonio (2016). Sabores que cruzaron los océanos = Flavors that sail across the seas. AECID Biblioteca Digital AECID. p. 64. OCLC 973021471.
- Chan-Yap, Gloria (1980). Hokkien Chinese borrowings in Tagalog. Dept. of Linguistics, School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 9780858832251.
- Joaquin, Nick (2004). Culture and history. Pasig. p. 42. ISBN 978-9712714269. OCLC 976189040.
- Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay sixteenth-century Philippine culture and society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-9715501354. OCLC 433091144.
- Chee-Beng, Tan (2012). Chinese Food and Foodways in Southeast Asia and Beyond. NUS Press. p. 129. ISBN 9789971695484.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - a". www.trussel2.com.
Borrowing of Hokkien pú-thâu ‘axe’. This comparison was pointed out by Daniel Kaufman.
"ACD - Austronesian Comparative Dictionary - Loans - c". www.trussel2.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
Borrowed from Hokkien.
Philippine Journal of Linguistics. 1974. p. 50.
Hok. /thàng/ 'worm', /à/ 'diminutive particle' in Tag. /tanga/, 'clothes moth'
Ocampo, Ambeth R. (August 9, 2013). "Making useless information useful". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 19, 2018.
The trade and cultural exchange between the Philippines and Japan runs deep. In prewar Manila, Tansan was a popular brand of fizzy water ("tansan" in Japanese refers to carbonated mineral water). It was sold with the distinct metal bottle caps that have since been called tansan by Filipinos.
Ocampo, Ambeth R. (June 27, 2014). "Japan under our skin". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
The childhood game "jak en poy," with a nonsense rhyme in Filipino that accompanies the hand gestures of rock, scissors, and paper, traces its origin to the Japanese "janken pon."
- Albalá, Paloma (2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies. 51 (1): 125–146. JSTOR 42633639.
Panganiban, José Villa (1964). "Influencia hispanomexicana en el idioma tagalo". Historia Mexicana. 14 (2): 264. JSTOR 25135261.
ATOLE (MLP), en México, bebida preparada con sustancias harinosas y no-alcohólica. En Filipinas atole significa actualmente una pasta de harina, empleada como adhesivo, no comestible.
- León-Portilla, Miguel (1960). "Algunos nahuatlismos en el castellano de Filipinas". Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl (in Spanish) (2): 135–138. ISSN 0071-1675.
Panganiban, José Villa (1964). "Influencia hispanomexicana en el idioma tagalo". Historia Mexicana. 14 (2): 268. ISSN 0185-0172. JSTOR 25135261.
NANA (MLP), azteca "nantli" (madre), en tagalo nanay significa "madre" o "abuela".
- Casado-Fresnillo, Antonio Quilis, Celia; Casado Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas : historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos (1st ed.). Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. p. 410. ISBN 978-8400086350.
Albalá, Paloma (March 1, 2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints. 51 (1): 133. ISSN 2244-1638.
petate "woven palm-matting" > Ceb. petate, Tag. petate;
Albalá, Paloma (March 1, 2003). "Hispanic Words of Indoamerican Origin in the Philippines". Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints. 51 (1): 133. ISSN 2244-1638.
tapanco "raised platform for storing lumber" > Kap. tapanko, Tag. tapangko;
Panganiban, José Villa (1964). "Influencia hispanomexicana en el idioma tagalo". Historia Mexicana. 14 (2): 270. ISSN 0185-0172. JSTOR 25135261.
TATA (MLP), azteca "tahtli" (padre). Tata, tatay y tatang son denominaciones comunes de "padre" en diversos idiomas de Filipinas
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