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List of wars involving the Ottoman Empire
The earliest form of the Ottoman military was a steppe-nomadic cavalry force. This was centralized by Osman I from Turkoman tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 13th century. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than looting or fiefs. The Ottomans began using guns in the late 14th century.
The Ottoman Empire was the first of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires, followed by Safavid Persia and Mughal India. By the 14th century, the Ottomans had adopted gunpowder artillery. By the time of Sultan Mehmed II, they had been drilled with firearms and became "perhaps the first standing infantry force equipped with firearms in the world." The Janissaries are thus considered the first modern standing armies.
Ottoman Classical Army was the military structure established by Mehmed II. The classical Ottoman army was the most disciplined and feared military force of its time, mainly due to its high level of organization, logistical capabilities and its elite troops. Following a century long reform efforts, this Army was forced to disbandment by Sultan Mahmud II on 15 June 1826 by what is known as Auspicious Incident. By the reign of Mahmud the second, the elite jannisaries had become corrupt and always stood in the way of modernization efforts meaning they were more of a liability then an asset.
- Ottoman victory
- Ottoman defeat
- Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result
Classical Age (1453–1566)
- 1456 Siege of Belgrade (1456)
- 1461 Conquest of Trebizond
- 1462 Night Attack at Târgoviște
- 1462 Ottoman–Genoese War
- 1463–1479 Ottoman–Venetian War
- 1463 Siege of Jajce
- 1473 Battle of Otlukbeli
- 1473–1479 Moldavian–Ottoman Wars
- 1475 Battle of Vaslui
- 1476 Battle of Valea Albă
- 1479 Battle of Breadfield
- 1480 Siege of Rhodes (1480)
- 1480–1481 Invasion of Otranto
- 1481–1589 Ottoman–Portuguese Wars
- 1481 Ottoman–Portuguese War
- 1484–1486 Moldavian–Ottoman Wars
- 1485–1503 Polish–Ottoman War
- 1485–1491 Ottoman–Mamluk War
- 1490–1494 War of the Hungarian Succession
- 1493–1593 Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War
- 1499–1503 Ottoman–Venetian War (1499–1503)
- 1509–1513 Ottoman Civil War
- 1511 Şahkulu Rebellion
- 1514–1823 Ottoman–Persian Wars
- 1514 Battle of Chaldiran
- 1516–1517 Ottoman–Mamluk War
- 1517 Siege of Jeddah
- 1518 Conquest of Tlemcen
- 1519–1659 Jelali revolts
- 1521 Siege of Belgrade (1521)
- 1522 Siege of Rhodes (1522)
- 1526 Battle of Mohács
- 1526–1791 Ottoman–Habsburg Wars
- 1527–1528 Habsburg invasion of Hungary
- 1529 Ottoman invasion of Hungary
- 1529 Conquest of Peñón of Algiers
- 1529 Siege of Vienna
- 1530–1552 Little War in Hungary
- 1531 Siege of Diu (1531)
- 1532–1555 Ottoman–Safavid War
- 1534 Conquest of Tunis (1534)
- 1535 Conquest of Tunis (1535)
- 1536–1559 Italian War of 1536–1538
- 1536–1537 Siege of Klis
- 1537–1540 Ottoman–Venetian War (1537–40)
- 1538 Siege of Diu (1538)
- 1538–1559 Ottoman–Portuguese War
- 1542–1546 Italian War of 1542–1546
- 1547 Invasion of Guria
- 1551 Conquest of Tripolitania
- 1551 Invasion of Gozo
- 1551–1559 Italian War of 1551–1559
- 1552 Siege of Temesvár
- 1552 Siege of Eger
- 1553 Invasion of Corsica
- 1554 Battle of Fez
- 1557–1578 Conquest of Habesh
- 1558 Battle of Wadi al-Laban
- 1558 Expedition to Mostaganem
- 1558 Invasion of the Balearic Islands
- 1559–1564 Spanish-Turkish War
- 1559 Ottoman Civil War
- 1560 Battle of Djerba
- 1562–1873 Expeditions to Aceh
- 1564–1565 Ottoman-Macedonian Wars
- 1565 Great Siege of Malta
- 1566-1568 Austro-Turkish War
- 1568–1918 Russo-Turkish Wars
- 1568–1570 Russo-Turkish War
- 1569–1580 Spanish-Turkish War
- 1570–1572 Russo–Crimean War
- 1570–1573 Ottoman–Venetian War
- 1571 Battle of Lepanto
- 1574 Conquest of Tunis (1574)
- 1576 Moroccan Civil War
- 1578 Moroccan–Portuguese War
- 1578 Caucasian Campaign
- 1578–1590 Ottoman–Safavid War
- 1586–1589 Ottoman–Portuguese War
- 1585 Ottoman–Druze War
- 1589 Beylerbeyi Event
- 1590–1610 Celali rebellions
- 1593–1606 Long War
- 1593–1617 Moldavian Magnate Wars
- 1593–1788 Serbian–Ottoman Wars
- 1598 First Tarnovo Uprising
- 1603–1618 Ottoman–Safavid War
- 1610–1614 Spanish-Turkish War
- 1611 Epirus Revolt of 1611
- 1611–1613 Ottoman–Druze War
- 1618–1619 Spanish-Turkish War
- 1620–1621 Polish–Ottoman War
- 1622–1628 Abaza rebellion
- 1623–1639 Ottoman–Safavid War
- 1631–1635 Ottoman–Druze War
- 1633–1634 Polish–Ottoman War
- 1645–1669 Cretan War
- 1648 Atmeydanı Incident
- 1656 Çınar Incident
- 1658–1667 Druze power struggle
- 1663–1664 Austro–Turkish War
- 1666–1671 Polish–Cossack–Tatar War
- 1672–1676 Polish–Ottoman War
- 1676–1681 Russo-Turkish War
- 1683–1699 Great Turkish War
- 1686 Second Tarnovo Uprising
- 1688 Chiprovtsi Uprising
- 1689 Karposh's Rebellion
- 1700–1721 Great Northern War
Old Regime (1703–1789)
- 1703 1703 Edirne Incident
- 1703 Invasion of Georgia
- 1710–1711 Russo-Turkish War
- 1713 Skirmish at Bender
- 1714–1718 Ottoman–Venetian War
- 1716–1718 Austro–Turkish War
- 1722–1727 Ottoman–Hotak War
- 1730 Patrona Halil
- 1730–1735 Ottoman–Safavid War
- 1732 Spanish reconquest of Oran
- 1735–1739 Russo-Turkish War
- 1737–1739 Austro-Turkish War
- 1743–1746 Ottoman–Afsharid War
- 1768–1774 Russo-Turkish War
- 1769–1772 Danish–Algerian War
- 1770 Orlov Revolt
- 1770 Invasion of Mani (1770)
- 1773–1775 Pugachev's Rebellion
- 1775–1776 Ottoman–Zand War
- 1787–1791 Austro-Turkish War
- 1787–1792 Russo-Turkish War
Decline and modernization (1789–1908)
- 1792–1802 French Revolutionary Wars
- 1793–1795 Tripolitanian civil war
- 1798–1801 French campaign in Egypt and Syria
- 1798–1802 War of the Second Coalition
- 1801–1805 First Barbary War
- 1803–1815 Napoleonic Wars
- 1803 Souliote War
- 1803 Invasion of Mani (1803)
- 1803–1807 Rise of Muhammad Ali
- 1804–1817 Serbian–Ottoman Wars
- 1804–1813 First Serbian Uprising
- 1806 1806 Edirne Incident
- 1806–1812 Russo-Turkish War
- 1807 Invasion of Mani (1807)
- 1807–1809 Anglo-Turkish War
- 1807–1808 Ottoman coups of 1807–08
- 1811–1818 Ottoman–Saudi War
- 1815 Invasion of Mani (1815)
- 1815 Second Barbary War
- 1815–1817 Second Serbian Uprising
- 1821–1832 Greek War of Independence
- 1821 Wallachian uprising of 1821
- 1821–1823 Ottoman–Qajar War
- 1828–1829 Russo-Turkish War
- 1829–1830 Revolt of Atçalı Kel Mehmet
- 1830–1903 French conquest of Algeria
- 1831–1832 Great Bosnian uprising
- 1831–1833 Egyptian–Ottoman War
- 1833–1839 Albanian Revolts of 1833–39
- 1834 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine
- 1835–1858 Libyan revolt
- 1838 1838 Druze revolt
- 1839–1841 Egyptian–Ottoman War
- 1843–1844 Albanian Revolt of 1843–44
- 1847 Albanian Revolt of 1847
- 1848 Wallachian Revolution of 1848
- 1852–1878 Serbian–Ottoman Wars
- 1852–1862 Herzegovina Uprising (1852–1862)
- 1852–1853 Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1852–53)
- 1853–1856 Crimean War
- 1854 Epirus Revolt of 1854
- 1858 Battle of Grahovac
- 1860 Lebanon conflict
- 1861–1862 Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1861–62)
- 1862 Zeitun Rebellion (1862)
- 1866–1869 Cretan Revolt
- 1875–1877 Herzegovina Uprising (1875–1877)
- 1876 April Uprising
- 1876 Razlovtsi insurrection
- 1876–1878 Montenegrin–Ottoman War (1876–78)
- 1876–1877 First Serbian–Ottoman War
- 1877–1878 Russo-Turkish War
- 1877–1878 Second Serbian–Ottoman War
- 1878 Epirus Revolt of 1878
- 1878 Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 1892–1893 Ottoman–Qatari War
- 1893–1908 Macedonian Struggle
- 1894 Sasun rebellion
- 1895–1896 Zeitun Rebellion (1895–96)
- 1897 Greco-Turkish War of 1897
- 1903 Theriso revolt
- 1903 Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising
- 1904 Sasun Uprising
- 1905 Shoubak revolt
- 1906 Ottoman–Qajar War
- 1908 Young Turk Revolution
- 1909 31 March Incident
- 1909–1910 Hauran Druze Rebellion
- 1910 Albanian Revolt of 1910
- 1910 Karak revolt
- 1911 Albanian Revolt of 1911
- 1911–1912 Italo-Turkish War
- 1912 Albanian Revolt of 1912
- 1912–1918 Serbian–Ottoman Wars
- 1912–1913 First Balkan War
- 1913 Raid on the Sublime Porte
- 1913 Second Balkan War
- 1914–1918 World War I
- 1917–1923 Russian Civil War
- 1918–1920 Armenian–Azerbaijani War
- 1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence
- List of wars involving Turkey
- List of battles involving the Ottoman Empire
- Sick man of Europe
- Eastern Question
- Mesut Uyar, Edward J. Erickson, A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk, Pleager Security International, ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0, 2009, p. 1.
- Nicolle, David (1980). Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. Osprey Publishing, ISBN 9780850455113.
- Streusand 2011, p. 83. sfn error: no target: CITEREFStreusand2011 (help)
- Lord Kinross (1977). Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 52. ISBN 0-688-08093-6.
- Goodwin, Jason (1998). Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire. New York: H. Holt, 59,179–181. ISBN 0-8050-4081-1.
- Atsiz, Nihal (2012). Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi. Otuken. p. 31. ISBN 9754378681.
- Inalcik, Halil. "OSMAN I - TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi". islamansiklopedisi.org.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
- "Prof. İnalcık: Osmanlı 1302'de kuruldu: Ünlü tarihçi Prof. Dr. Halil İnalcık, Osmanlı'nın devlet niteliğini 1302 yılında Yalova'daki Bafeus Zaferi sonrası kazandığını söyledi.", NTVNSMBC, 27 July 2009. (in Turkish)
- Bartusis 1997, pp. 91–92 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBartusis1997 (help); Laiou 2002, p. 25 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLaiou2002 (help); Nicol 1993, pp. 169–171 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNicol1993 (help)
- Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World’s Major Battles and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 151.
- A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Treadgold, W., Stanford Press, 1997
- Maddock, Robert (19 December 2016). Robert Maddock, The 1300 Year's War: Volume 2. ISBN 9781524549350.
- Sedlar, Jean W., East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, (University of Washington Press, 1994), 385.
- Treadgold (1997), p. 780 harvp error: no target: CITEREFTreadgold1997 (help)
- "20. The Decline of the Second Bulgarian Empire" (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- (Fine 1994, p. 410)
Thus since the Turks also withdrew, one can conclude that the battle was a draw.
- (Emmert 1990, p. ?) harv error: no target: CITEREFEmmert1990 (help)
Surprisingly enough, it is not even possible to know with certainty from the extant contemporary material whether one or the other side was victorious on the field. There is certainly little to indicate that it was a great Serbian defeat; and the earliest reports of the conflict suggest, on the contrary, that the Christian forces had won.
Daniel Waley; Peter Denley (2013). Later Medieval Europe: 1250-1520. Routledge. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-317-89018-8.
The outcome of the battle itself was inconclusive.
Ian Oliver (2005). War and Peace in the Balkans: The Diplomacy of Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia. I.B.Tauris. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-85043-889-2.
Losses on both sides were appalling and the outcome inconclusive although the Serbs never fully recovered.
John Binns (2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-521-66738-8.
The battle is remembered as a heroic defeat, but historical evidence suggests an inconclusive draw.
John K. Cox (2002). The History of Serbia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-313-31290-8.
The Ottoman army probably numbered between 30,000 and 40,000. They faced something like 15,000 to 25,000 Eastern Orthodox soldiers. [...] Accounts from the period after the battle depict the engagement at Kosovo as anything from a draw to a Christian victory.
Heike Krieger (2001). The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-521-80071-4.
Discussions of the Kosovo conflict often start with the battle of Kosovo Polje (the Field of Blackbirds) in 1389 when the Serbs were defeated by the Ottoman Empire
Michael Waller; Kyril Drezov; Bülent Gökay (2013). Kosovo:The Politics of Delusion. Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7146-5157-6.
1389: A Serbian-led Christian army (including Albanians) suffers a catastrophic defeat by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosovo.
Petar V. Grujic (2014). Kosovo Knot. RoseDog Books. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4809-9845-2.
In the epic battle of Kosovo Polje, just west from present-day Pristina, Serb grand duke (knez) Lazar Hrebeljanovic, who led the joined Christian forces, lost the battle (and life) to Turkish sultan Murad I
Tonny Brems Knudsen; Carsten Bagge Laustsen (2006). Kosovo between war and peace. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 0-714-65598-8.
The highpoint of this conflict, the Battle of Kosovo Polje, ended in Serbian defeat and the death of Prince Lazar, beheaded by the Turks
- Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire: The Structure of Power, 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p. 85. ISBN 0-230-57451-3.
- Fine, John (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 575. ISBN 9780472082605.
- Fine 1994, p. 424
- Norman Angell (2004). Peace Theories and the Balkan War. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4191-4050-1.
- Jim Bradbury (2004). The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-22126-9.
- Norman L. Forter; Demeter B. Rostovsky (1971). The Roumanian Handbook. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-405-02747-5.
- Taeschner, Franz (1990). Necmi Ülker, çev. "1453 Yılına Kadar Osmanlı Türkleri". Tarih İncelemeleri Dergisi. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Tarih Bölümü. 5 (1): 296. ISSN 0257-4152.
- Baştav 1989, p. 91. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBaştav1989 (help)
- Dahmus, Joseph Henry (1983). "Angora". Seven Decisive Battles of the Middle Ages. Burnham Incorporated Pub.
- Alexandru Madgearu, The Wars of the Balkan Peninsula: Their Medieval Origins, ed. Martin Gordon, (Scarecrow Press, 2008), 90.
- The Crusades and the military orders: expanding the frontiers of latin christianity; Zsolt Hunyadi page 226
- Valeriia Fol, Bulgaria: History Retold in Brief, (Riga, 1999), 103.
- Tuchman, 548
- War in the Modern Great Power System: 1495--1975.
- Odan, Serada. "Thread: List of Wars Involving the Ottoman Empire." Ummahcom Muslim Forum RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2015.
- "List of Wars Involving the Ottoman Empire." List of Wars Involving the Ottoman Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2015.
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