List of wars involving the Ottoman Empire

This is a list of wars involving the Ottoman Empire ordered chronologically, including civil wars within the empire.

The earliest form of the Ottoman military was a steppe-nomadic cavalry force.[1] This was centralized by Osman I from Turkoman tribesmen inhabiting western Anatolia in the late 13th century. Orhan I organized a standing army paid by salary rather than looting or fiefs. The Ottomans began using guns in the late 14th century.

The Ottoman Empire was the first of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires, followed by Safavid Persia and Mughal India. By the 14th century, the Ottomans had adopted gunpowder artillery.[2] By the time of Sultan Mehmed II, they had been drilled with firearms and became "perhaps the first standing infantry force equipped with firearms in the world."[3] The Janissaries are thus considered the first modern standing armies.[4][5]

Ottoman Classical Army was the military structure established by Mehmed II. The classical Ottoman army was the most disciplined and feared military force of its time, mainly due to its high level of organization, logistical capabilities and its elite troops. Following a century long reform efforts, this Army was forced to disbandment by Sultan Mahmud II on 15 June 1826 by what is known as Auspicious Incident. By the reign of Mahmud the second, the elite jannisaries had become corrupt and always stood in the way of modernization efforts meaning they were more of a liability then an asset.

Rise (1299–1453)

  Ottoman victory
  Ottoman defeat
  Another result (e.g. a treaty or peace without a clear result, status quo ante bellum, result of civil or internal conflict, result
Date Conflict Combatant 1 Combatant 2 Result
1285 Siege of Kulaca Hisar Kayı tribe  Byzantine Empire Victory[6][7]
  • Osman Gazi conquers the Byzantine castle of Kulaca Hisar.
1302 Battle of Bapheus and Battle of Dimbos Kayı tribe

Ottoman Empire

 Byzantine Empire Victory
  • Kayi tribe transitions into Ottoman Empire.[8]
  • Byzantium loses control over Bithynia[9] and allows gradual Ottoman expansion into Byzantine controlled Asia Minor
1317/1320–1326 Siege of Bursa Ottoman Empire  Byzantine Empire Victory
  • Ottomans become the major power in Asia Minor[10]
1328–1331 Siege of Nicaea Ottoman Empire  Byzantine Empire Victory
1345-47 Byzantine civil war of 1341–1347 Ottoman Empire (1345–1347)
Byzantine Empire John VI Kantakouzenos
Serbian Empire Serbia (1342–1343)
Beylik of Aydin (1342/3–1345)
 Beylik of Saruhan
Byzantine Empire John V Palaiologos
Byzantine Empire Anna of Savoy
Byzantine Empire John XIV Kalekas
Byzantine Empire Alexios Apokaukos
 Zealots of Thessalonica
Serbian Empire Serbia (1343–1347)
Coat of arms of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg Second Bulgarian Empire
 Principality of Karvuna
Victory
1352-57 Byzantine civil war of 1352–1357 Ottoman Empire (1345–1347)
Byzantine Empire John VI Kantakouzenos
Serbian Empire Serbia (1342–1343)
Beylik of Aydin (1342/3–1345)
 Beylik of Saruhan
Byzantine Empire John V Palaiologos
Byzantine Empire Anna of Savoy
Byzantine Empire John XIV Kalekas
Byzantine Empire Alexios Apokaukos
 Zealots of Thessalonica
Serbian Empire Serbia (1343–1347)
Coat of arms of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svg Second Bulgarian Empire
 Principality of Karvuna
Partial Defeat
1355 Battle of Ihtiman Ottoman Empire Coat of Arms of the Bulgarian Empire.PNG Second Bulgarian Empire Partial Defeat[12]
  • Heavy losses stall Ottoman advance on Bulgarian capital of Sofia, however Ottomans are able to inflict a crushing blow on Bulgarian.
1364 Battle of Sırpsındığı Ottoman Empire  Serbian Empire
Coat of arms of the Second Bulgarian Empire.svgSecond Bulgarian Empire
Flag of Wallachia.svg Wallachia
Banate of Bosnia-Bosna Banlığı.pngBanate of Bosnia
Armoiries Hongrie ancien.svg Kingdom of Hungary
Victory
  • Ottomans conquer Adrianople and make it new capital
1371 Battle of Maritsa Ottoman Empire  Serbian Empire Victory[13]
1371 Byzantine civil war of 1373–79 Byzantine Empire John V Palaiologos
Ottoman Empire
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice
Byzantine Empire Andronikos IV Palaiologos
Ottoman Empire Savci Bey
Flag of Genoa.svg Republic of Genoa
Victory
  • Byzantine Empire cedes Gallipoli to Ottomans[14] and essentially become Ottoman vassals
1382-1393 Ottoman Conquest of Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Coat of Arms of the Bulgarian Empire.PNGBulgarian Empire Victory
1388 Battle of Bileća Ottoman Empire Coat of arms of Kingdom of Bosnia.svg Kingdom of Bosnia Defeat
1388 Battle of Kosovo (1389) Ottoman Empire Coat of arms of Moravian Serbia.svg Moravian Serbia
District of Branković
Coat of arms of Kingdom of Bosnia.svg Kingdom of Bosnia
Knights Hospitaller
Unknown Result
Some sources claim Tactically Inconclusive[16][17][18][19][20][21] whereas some claim Victory[22][23][24][25]
  • Heavy losses on both sides devastate less numerous Serbs, while Ottomans are able to bring troops from the east.
  • Ottoman Sultan Murad I and Serbian Prince Lazar are killed and Bayezid I becomes new sultan.[26]
  • Serbian lords eventually became vassals of the Ottomans[27]
1394-1395 Bayezid's Campaign against Wallachia Ottoman Empire  Wallachia Tactical Defeat[28][29][30][31]
1394-1395 Siege of Constantinople (1394–1402) Ottoman Empire  Byzantine Empire
Crusade of Nicopolis
 Kingdom of France
Siege pulled[32][33]
1396 Crusade of Nicopolis Ottoman Empire Holy Roman Empire

 Kingdom of France

Armoiries Hongrie ancien.svg Kingdom of Hungary

Coa Romania Country Wallachia History 2 (14th century).svg Principality of Wallachia[36]
Knights Hospitaller
 Republic of Venice
 Republic of Genoa
Second Bulgarian Empire[37]
Kingdom of Poland
Crown of Castile
Crown of Aragon
Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Navarre
Teutonic Knights
Byzantine Empire

Victory
  • Ottomans defeat Crusades and no new Anti-Ottoman alliance is formed till the 1440s
  • Ottomans maintain pressure on Constantinople, tightened control over the Balkans, and became a greater threat to central Europe
  • Collapse of Second Bulgarian Empire
1402 Battle of Ankara Ottoman Empire Timurid Empire Defeat
  • Bayezid I is captured by Timur and dies in captivity, leaving the Ottoman empire without a sultan
  • Ottoman Interregnum begins
  • Ottoman Empire on the brink of collapse
1402 - 1413 Ottoman Interregnum Ottoman Empire Mehmed Çelebi
Serbian Despotate
Ottoman Empire İsa Çelebi

Ottoman Empire Süleyman Çelebi


Ottoman Empire Musa Çelebi

Mehmed Victory
  • Mehmed Çelebi becomes Mehmed I
  • Ottoman Empire is re-united
1404 Uprising of Konstantin and Fruzhin Ottoman Empire Suleyman Çelebi Prince Fruzhin
Tsar Konstantin II
Victory
  • Ottomans crush the Bulgarian revolt
1411 Siege of Constantinople (1411) Ottoman Empire Musa Çelebi  Byzantine Empire
Ottoman EmpireMehmed Çelebi
Defeat
  • Mehmet Celebi lifts the siege
1411 Battle of Gallipoli (1416) Ottoman Empire  Republic of Venice Defeat
  • Pietro Loredan crushes the Ottoman fleet to ensure Venetian superiority in the Aegean for the next few decades
1416-1420 Revolt of Sheikh Bedreddin Ottoman Empire Sheikh Bedreddin Victory
  • Sheikh Bedreddin's revolt is suppressed and he and his followers are executed
1422 Siege of Constantinople (1422) Ottoman Empire  Byzantine Empire Defeat
1422-1430 Siege of Thessalonica Ottoman Empire  Byzantine Empire

Republic of VeniceRepublic of Venice

Victory
  • Ottomans capture Thessalonica
1421-1522 2nd Conquest of Anatolia Ottoman Empire Beylik of Karaman
Beylik of Isfendiyar
Beylik of Aydin
Empire of Trebizond
Sultanate of Eretna
Beylik of Teke
 Byzantine Empire
Beyliks of Canik
Beylik of Germiyan
Beylik of Menteşe
Beylik of Karasi
Beylik of Saruhan
Victory
  • Ottomans conquer Anatolia
1428 Siege of Golubac Ottoman Empire Armoiries Hongrie ancien.svg Kingdom of Hungary[38]
Wallachia[36]
 Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Victory
  • Serbia becomes vassal state of the Ottoman Empire
  • Ottomans invade Bosnia
1432-1436 Albanian Revolt of 1432–1436 Ottoman Empire Various Albanian rebels Victory
  • Suppression of Revolt. Restoration of Ottoman Rule in Albania
1443-1444 Crusade of Varna Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Poland
Armoiries Hongrie ancien.svg Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Croatia
 Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Serbian Despotate
Crown of Bohemia
Coat of arms of Wallachia Voivodship.png Principality of Wallachia
Bulgarian rebels
Kingdom of Bosnia
Papal States
Teutonic Knights
Duchy of Burgundy
Republic of VeniceRepublic of Venice
Republic of Ragusa
Victory
  • Ottomans halt European attempt to check their rapid expansion
1432-1436 Albanian–Venetian War Ottoman Empire

Republic of VeniceRepublic of Venice

Coa Kastrioti Family.svg League of Lezhë Defeat
  • The League of Lezhë gains all lands on the Albanian side of the Drin River
1488 Battle of Kosovo (1448) Ottoman Empire Armoiries Hongrie ancien.svg Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Poland
Wallachia Principality of Wallachia
Moldavia Principality of Moldavia
Victory
  • Defeat of the European Crusaders
  • Balkans slowly fall to the Ottomans
  • Mehmed II free to siege Constantinople
1488 Fall of Constantinople Ottoman Empire  Byzantine Empire
Genoese volunteers
Venetian volunteers
Sicilian volunteers
Papal States
Ottoman Empire Ottoman defectors
Victory

Classical Age (1453–1566)

Transformation (1566–1703)

Old Regime (1703–1789)

Decline and modernization (1789–1908)

Dissolution (1908–1922)

See also

References

  1. ^ Mesut Uyar, Edward J. Erickson, A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk, Pleager Security International, ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0, 2009, p. 1.
  2. ^ Nicolle, David (1980). Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300-1774. Osprey Publishing, ISBN 9780850455113.
  3. ^ Streusand 2011, p. 83.
  4. ^ Lord Kinross (1977). Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. New York: Morrow Quill Paperbacks, 52. ISBN 0-688-08093-6.
  5. ^ Goodwin, Jason (1998). Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire. New York: H. Holt, 59,179–181. ISBN 0-8050-4081-1.
  6. ^ Atsiz, Nihal (2012). Aşıkpaşaoğlu Tarihi. Otuken. p. 31. ISBN 9754378681.
  7. ^ Inalcik, Halil. "OSMAN I - TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi". islamansiklopedisi.org.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-12-04.
  8. ^ "Prof. İnalcık: Osmanlı 1302'de kuruldu: Ünlü tarihçi Prof. Dr. Halil İnalcık, Osmanlı'nın devlet niteliğini 1302 yılında Yalova'daki Bafeus Zaferi sonrası kazandığını söyledi.", NTVNSMBC, 27 July 2009. (in Turkish)
  9. ^ Bartusis 1997, pp. 91–92; Laiou 2002, p. 25; Nicol 1993, pp. 169–171
  10. ^ Paul K. Davis, 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World’s Major Battles and How They Shaped History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 151.
  11. ^ A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Treadgold, W., Stanford Press, 1997
  12. ^ Maddock, Robert (19 December 2016). Robert Maddock, The 1300 Year's War: Volume 2. ISBN 9781524549350.
  13. ^ Sedlar, Jean W., East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500, (University of Washington Press, 1994), 385.
  14. ^ Treadgold (1997), p. 780
  15. ^ "20. The Decline of the Second Bulgarian Empire" (in Bulgarian). Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  16. ^ (Fine 1994, p. 410)

    Thus since the Turks also withdrew, one can conclude that the battle was a draw.

  17. ^ (Emmert 1990, p. ?)

    Surprisingly enough, it is not even possible to know with certainty from the extant contemporary material whether one or the other side was victorious on the field. There is certainly little to indicate that it was a great Serbian defeat; and the earliest reports of the conflict suggest, on the contrary, that the Christian forces had won.

  18. ^ Daniel Waley; Peter Denley (2013). Later Medieval Europe: 1250-1520. Routledge. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-317-89018-8. The outcome of the battle itself was inconclusive.
  19. ^ Ian Oliver (2005). War and Peace in the Balkans: The Diplomacy of Conflict in the Former Yugoslavia. I.B.Tauris. p. vii. ISBN 978-1-85043-889-2. Losses on both sides were appalling and the outcome inconclusive although the Serbs never fully recovered.
  20. ^ John Binns (2002). An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches. Cambridge University Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-521-66738-8. The battle is remembered as a heroic defeat, but historical evidence suggests an inconclusive draw.
  21. ^ John K. Cox (2002). The History of Serbia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-313-31290-8. The Ottoman army probably numbered between 30,000 and 40,000. They faced something like 15,000 to 25,000 Eastern Orthodox soldiers. [...] Accounts from the period after the battle depict the engagement at Kosovo as anything from a draw to a Christian victory.
  22. ^ Heike Krieger (2001). The Kosovo Conflict and International Law: An Analytical Documentation 1974-1999. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-521-80071-4. Discussions of the Kosovo conflict often start with the battle of Kosovo Polje (the Field of Blackbirds) in 1389 when the Serbs were defeated by the Ottoman Empire
  23. ^ Michael Waller; Kyril Drezov; Bülent Gökay (2013). Kosovo:The Politics of Delusion. Routledge. p. 172. ISBN 978-0-7146-5157-6. 1389: A Serbian-led Christian army (including Albanians) suffers a catastrophic defeat by Ottoman forces at the Battle of Kosovo.
  24. ^ Petar V. Grujic (2014). Kosovo Knot. RoseDog Books. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4809-9845-2. In the epic battle of Kosovo Polje, just west from present-day Pristina, Serb grand duke (knez) Lazar Hrebeljanovic, who led the joined Christian forces, lost the battle (and life) to Turkish sultan Murad I
  25. ^ Tonny Brems Knudsen; Carsten Bagge Laustsen (2006). Kosovo between war and peace. Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 0-714-65598-8. The highpoint of this conflict, the Battle of Kosovo Polje, ended in Serbian defeat and the death of Prince Lazar, beheaded by the Turks
  26. ^ Imber, Colin. The Ottoman Empire: The Structure of Power, 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, p. 85. ISBN 0-230-57451-3.
  27. ^ Fine, John (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 575. ISBN 9780472082605.
  28. ^ Fine 1994, p. 424
  29. ^ Norman Angell (2004). Peace Theories and the Balkan War. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4191-4050-1.
  30. ^ Jim Bradbury (2004). The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-22126-9.
  31. ^ Norman L. Forter; Demeter B. Rostovsky (1971). The Roumanian Handbook. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-405-02747-5.
  32. ^ Taeschner, Franz (1990). Necmi Ülker, çev. "1453 Yılına Kadar Osmanlı Türkleri". Tarih İncelemeleri Dergisi. İzmir: Ege Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Tarih Bölümü. 5 (1): 296. ISSN 0257-4152.
  33. ^ Baştav 1989, p. 91.
  34. ^ Dahmus, Joseph Henry (1983). "Angora". Seven Decisive Battles of the Middle Ages. Burnham Incorporated Pub.
  35. ^ Alexandru Madgearu, The Wars of the Balkan Peninsula: Their Medieval Origins, ed. Martin Gordon, (Scarecrow Press, 2008), 90.
  36. ^ a b The Crusades and the military orders: expanding the frontiers of latin christianity; Zsolt Hunyadi page 226
  37. ^ Valeriia Fol, Bulgaria: History Retold in Brief, (Riga, 1999), 103.
  38. ^ Tuchman, 548
  39. ^ a b c d War in the Modern Great Power System: 1495--1975.
  1. Odan, Serada. "Thread: List of Wars Involving the Ottoman Empire." Ummahcom Muslim Forum RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2015.
  2. "List of Wars Involving the Ottoman Empire." List of Wars Involving the Ottoman Empire. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2015.

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