Islamic Consultative Assembly

Islamic Consultative Assembly

مجلس شورای اسلامی

Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī
34th Majles
10th Islamic Consultative Assembly
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
History
Founded November 16, 1906; 112 years ago (1906-11-16)
March 14, 1980 (current form)
Preceded by National Consultative Assembly
New session started
28 May 2016
Leadership
Ali Larijani ( H; W)
since 28 May 2008
First Deputy
Masoud Pezeshkian ( H; H)
since 29 May 2016
Second Deputy
Ali Motahari ( PV/ H; H)
since 31 May 2016
Wilayat fraction leader
Hamid-Reza Haji Babaee
since 23 October 2016
Hope fraction leader
Mohammad Reza Aref
since 20 July 2016
Wilayi Independents fraction leader
Kazem Jalali
since 28 February 2017
Structure
Seats 290[1]
Islamic Consultative Assembly seating.svg
Political groups
Length of term
4 years[1]
Elections
Qualified majority two-round system[1]
Last election
26 February and 29 April 2016
Meeting place
Iranian Majlis.jpg
Islamic Consultative Assembly
Baharestan
Tehran
Iran
Website
http://www.Majlis.ir
http://parlemannews.ir/
http://www.icana.ir/
Constitution
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Persian: مجلس شورای اسلامی‎, translit. Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majles (or Majlis), is the national legislative body of Iran. The Parliament currently has 290 representatives, changed from the previous 272 seats since the 18 February 2000 election. The most recent election took place on 26 February 2016 and the new parliament was opened on 28 May 2016.[2]

History

Ancient Iran

The first recorded signs of a council to decide on different issues in ancient Iran dates back to 247 BC while the Parthian empire were in power. Parthians established the first Iranian empire since the conquer of Persia by Alexander and by their early years of reigning, an assembly of the nobles called “Mehestan” was formed that made the final decision on very serious issues.[3]

The word "Mehestan" is consisted of two parts. "Meh", a word of the old Persian origin, which literally means "The Great" and "-stan", a suffix in the Persian language, which describes an especial place. Altogether Mehestan means a place where the greats come together.[4]

The Mehestan Assembly, which consisted of Zoroastrian religious leaders and clan elders exerted great influence over the administration of the kingdom.[5]

One of the most important decisions of the council took place in 208 AD, when a civil war broke out and the Mehestan decided that the empire would be ruled by two brothers simultaneously, Ardavan V and Blash V.[6] In 224 AD, following the dissolve of the Parthian empire, after over 470 years, the Mahestan council came to an end.

Imperial State of Iran

First Members of Parliament, 1906–1908

Before the Islamic Revolution, Majlis was also the name of the lower house of the Iranian Legislature from 1906 to 1979, the upper house being the Senate.

It was created by the Iran Constitution of 1906 and first convened on 7 October 1906 (Iranian Calendar: 1285-Mehr-13),[7] soon gaining power under the rule of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Noteworthy bills passed by the Parliament under the Pahlavi Dynasty include the Oil Nationalization Bill (15 March 1951) and the Family Protection Law (1967), which gave women many basic rights such as custody of children in the case of divorce.

Women were not allowed to vote or be elected to the Parliament until 1963, as part of reforms under the Shah's "White Revolution". The twenty-first National Consultative Assembly, which included female representatives, opened on 6 October 1963.

The last session of the Pre-Revolution Parliament was held on 7 February 1979 (18 Bahman 1357 AP[7]).

Islamic Republic of Iran

After the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the Senate of Iran was abolished and was effectively replaced by the Guardian Council thus the Iranian legislature remained bicameral. In the 1989 revision of the constitution, the National Consultative Assembly became the Islamic Consultative Assembly.

The Parliament of Iran has had six chairmen since the Iranian Revolution. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was the first chairman, from 1980 to 1989. Then came Mehdi Karroubi (1989–1992), Ali Akbar Nategh-Nouri (1992–2000), Mehdi Karroubi (2000–2004), Gholam-Ali Haddad-Adel (2004–2008) and Ali Larijani since 2008.

Over its history the Parliament is said to have evolved from being "a debating chamber for notables," to "a club for the shah's placemen" during the Pahlavi era, to a body dominated by members of "the propertied middle class" under the Islamic Republic.[8][9]

2017 attack

On 7 June 2017, there was shooting at the Iranian parliament and at the shrine of Ayatollah Khomeini.[10] Gunmen opened fire at the Iranian Parliament and the mausoleum of religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini in Tehran. The attack on the mausoleum has reportedly left 17 persons dead and more than 30 people injured. The parliament was attacked by four gunmen which left seven to eight people injured. Both attacks took place around the same time and appear to have been coordinated.

Functions

The Islamic Consultative Assembly can legislate laws on all issues within the limits of the Constitution.[11] The Assembly cannot, for instance, enact laws contrary to the canons and principles of the official religion of the country (Islam) or to the Constitution.[12]

Government bills are presented to the Islamic Consultative Assembly after receiving the approval of the Council of Ministers.[13]

The Islamic Consultative Assembly has the right to investigate and examine all the affairs of the country.[14]

International treaties, protocols, contracts, and agreements must be approved by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[15]

Receiving and issuing national or international loans or grants by the government must be ratified by the Islamic Consultative Assembly.[16]

The President must obtain, for the Council of Ministers, after being formed and before all other business, a vote of confidence from the Assembly.[17]

Whenever at least one-fourth of the total members of the Islamic Consultative Assembly pose a question to the President, or any one member of the Assembly poses a question to a minister on a subject relating to their duties, the President or the minister is obliged to attend the Assembly and answer the question.[18]

All legislation passed by the Islamic Consultative Assembly must be sent to the Guardian Council. The Guardian Council must review it within a maximum of ten days from its receipt with a view to ensuring its compatibility with the criteria of Islam and the Constitution. If it finds the legislation incompatible, it will return it to the Assembly for review. Otherwise the legislation will be deemed enforceable.[19]

Membership

Currently, there are 290 members of Parliament, fourteen of whom represent non-Muslim religious minorities (4.8%), and are popularly elected for four-year terms. About 8% of the Parliament are women, while the global average is 13%.[20] The Parliament can force the dismissal of cabinet ministers through no-confidence votes and can impeach the president for misconduct in office. Although the executive proposes most new laws, individual deputies of the Parliament also may introduce legislation. Deputies also may propose amendments to bills being debated. The Parliament also drafts legislation, ratifies international treaties, and approves the national budget.

All People's House of Iran candidates and all legislation from the assembly must be approved by the Guardian Council. Candidates must pledge in writing that they are committed, in theory and in practice, to the Iranian constitution.

Constituencies

The Parliament currently has 207 constituencies, including a total of 5 reserved seats for the religious minorities recognized by the constitution. The rest of 202 constituencies are territorial and coincide with 1 or more of Iran's 368 Shahrestans. The largest electoral districts are:

Leadership

Ali Larijani in his office of parliament chairman

Members of Parliament elect their speaker and deputy speakers during the first session of Parliament for a one-year term. Every year, almost always in May, elections for new speakers are held in which incumbents may be re-elected.

The current Speaker of Parliament is Ali Larijani, with First Deputy Speaker Masoud Pezeshkian and Second Deputy Speaker Ali Motahari.

Committees

  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Energy
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Economic
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on National Security and Foreign Policy
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Health
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Civil
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Culture
  • Iranian Parliament Judicial and Legal Committee
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Article Ninety of the Constitution
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Education and Research
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on planning, budget and calculations
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Social
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Industries and Mines
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Agriculture, water and natural resources
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Council and Internal affairs
  • Iranian Parliament Committee on Codification internal regulations
  • Iranian Parliament commission for examining the JCPOA

Current composition

The last elections of Parliament of Iran were held on 26 March 2016 with a second round will be held in April in those 71 districts where no candidate received 25% or more of the votes cast. More than 12,000 candidates registered but leaving about 6,200 candidates to run for the 290 seats representing the 31 provinces. The results indicate that the results would make a hung parliament with reformists having a plurality.

Building

After 1979, the Parliament convened at the building that used to house the Senate of Iran. A new building for the Assembly was constructed at Baharestan Square in central Tehran, near the old Iranian Parliament building that had been used from 1906 to 1979. After several debates, the move was finally approved in 2004. The first session of the Parliament in the new building was held on 16 November 2004.

The old building is depicted on the reverse of the Iranian 100 rial banknote.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Nohlen, Dieter; Grotz, Florian; Hartmann, Christof (2001). "Iran". Elections in Asia: A Data Handbook. I. Oxford University Press. p. 64. ISBN 0-19-924958-X.
  2. ^ Large scale turn out at polls in IRI March Majlis Elections Archived 2 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine IRNA
  3. ^ "Parthians' Achievements". Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  4. ^ "مهستان". Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  5. ^ HAMAZOR Publication of the World Zoroastrian Organisation: Will the issue of Dokhmenashini ever be resolved in the sub-continent?: ISSUE 3 2006. Page: 27
  6. ^ HAMAZOR Publication of the World Zoroastrian Organisation: Will the issue of Dokhmenashini ever be resolved in the sub-continent?: ISSUE 3 2006. Page: 27
  7. ^ a b Mohammad Modarresi (2005). "An Introduction to the history of the Legislative Assembly In Iran: The First Parliament of the National Consultative Assembly (آشنایی با تاریخ مجالس قانونگذاری در ایران: دوره اول مجلس شورای ملی)" (PDF) (in Persian). The Research Center of Islamic Consultative Assembly (مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس شورای اسلامی). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2007.
  8. ^ Abrahamian, History of Modern Iran, (2008), p. 179
  9. ^ Islamic Majles, Ashnai-ye Ba Majles-e Showra-ye Islami, Vol.ii (Guide to the Islamic Majles, Tehran, 1992, p. 205
  10. ^ "Iran shootings: Parliament and Khomeini shrine attacked". BBC News. 2017-06-07. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
  11. ^ Article 71 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  12. ^ Article 72 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  13. ^ Article 74 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  14. ^ Article 76 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  15. ^ Article 77 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  16. ^ Article 80 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  17. ^ Article 87 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  18. ^ Article 88 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  19. ^ Article 94 of the Constitution of Iran (1982-07-28)
  20. ^ "On Women's Day, struggle for equality remains". Kyiv Post. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012.
  21. ^ Central Bank of Iran. Banknotes & Coins: 100 Rials. – Retrieved on 24 March 2009.

 This article incorporates text from the Constitution of Iran, which is in the public domain.

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Coordinates: 35°41′30.28″N 51°26′04″E / 35.6917444°N 51.43444°E / 35.6917444; 51.43444