Marc Garneau

Marc Garneau

Marc Garneau - 2018 (42748534304) (cropped).jpg
Garneau in 2018
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Assumed office
January 12, 2021
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Preceded by François-Philippe Champagne
Minister of Transport
In office
November 4, 2015 – January 12, 2021
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
Preceded by Lisa Raitt
Succeeded by Omar Alghabra
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
Assumed office
October 19, 2015
Preceded by Riding Established
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Westmount—Ville-Marie
In office
October 14, 2008 – October 19, 2015
Preceded by Lucienne Robillard
Succeeded by Riding Abolished
Personal details
Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau

(1949-02-23) February 23, 1949 (age 72)
Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Political party Liberal
Residence Westmount, Quebec, Canada
Alma mater Royal Military College of Canada, B.S. 1970
Imperial College London, Ph.D. 1973
Canadian Forces College
Website Official website
Military service
Allegiance  Canada
Branch/service  Maritime Command
Years of service 1974–1989
Rank CDN-Navy-Capt (pre2010).svg Captain(N)
Space career
National Research Council
Canadian Space Agency
Rank Captain(N)
Time in space
29d 02h 01min
Selection 1983 NRC Group
Missions STS-41-G, STS-77, STS-97
Mission insignia
STS-41-G patch.png STS-77 patch.svg Sts-97-patch.svg

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau PC CC CD MP (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician and former astronaut who has served as Minister of Foreign Affairs since 2021. A member of the Liberal Party, Garneau is the member of Parliament (MP) for Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount. Prior to entering politics, Garneau served as a naval officer and was selected as an astronaut, part of the 1983 NRC Group. On October 5, 1984, he became the first Canadian in outer space as part of STS-41-G and served on two subsequent space shuttle missions—STS-77 and STS-97.

Personal life

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau was born on February 23, 1949, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. He attended primary and secondary schools in Quebec City and Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu. He also has a brother, Philippe Garneau [1]

Education and military career

Garneau graduated from the Royal Military College of Canada in 1970 with a bachelor of science in engineering physics and began his career in the Canadian Forces Maritime Command.[2]

In 1973 he received a PhD in electrical engineering from the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, England. His thesis was entitled "The Perception of Facial Images". The Photofit analogue computer was used by him to discriminate facial features.[3]

In 1974, Garneau served as a naval combat systems engineer aboard HMCS Algonquin.

From 1982 to 1983, he attended the Canadian Forces Command and Staff College in Toronto. While there, he was promoted to the rank of commander and was transferred to Ottawa in 1983. In January 1986, he was promoted to captain(N). Garneau retired from the Canadian Forces in 1989.[2]

Space career

Marc Garneau, STS-97 in 2000

Garneau was one of six first Canadian Astronauts and he became the first Canadian in outer space on October 5, 1984.[4] In 1984, he was seconded to the new Canadian Astronaut Program (CAP), one of six chosen from over 4,000 applicants; of these six he was the only military officer.

Garneau flew on the shuttle Challenger, STS-41-G from October 5 to 13, 1984, as payload specialist. He was promoted to captain(N) in 1986, and left the Canadian Forces in 1989, to become deputy director of the CAP. In 1992–93, he underwent further training to become a mission specialist. He worked as CAPCOM for a number of shuttle flights and was on two further flights himself: STS-77 (May 19 to 29, 1996) and STS-97 (to the ISS, November 30 to December 11, 2000). He has logged over 677 hours in space.[5]

In February 2001, Garneau was appointed executive vice-president of the Canadian Space Agency, and became its president on November 22, 2001.[6]

Political career

Garneau has served as the member of Parliament (MP) for the Montreal riding of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount, and its predecessor Westmount—Ville-Marie since the 2008 federal election, winning by over 9,000 votes.[7] He was re-elected to the House of Commons in the 2011 federal election by 642 votes,[8][9] and in the 2015 federal election with a majority of over 18,000. Previously, he unsuccessfully stood in the riding of Vaudreuil-Soulanges at the 2006 federal election.

On November 28, 2012, Garneau announced his candidacy for the leadership of the Liberal Party to be decided in April 2013. On March 13, 2013, Garneau formally withdrew his bid for the party leadership.[10] On November 4, 2015, Garneau was appointed as Minister of Transport in the 29th Canadian Ministry. He became Minister of Foreign Affairs on January 12, 2021 after a cabinet reshuffle.[11]

Initial candidacy

Garneau resigned as the president of the Canadian Space Agency to run for the Liberal Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election in the riding of Vaudreuil—Soulanges, which was then held by Meili Faille of the Bloc Québécois.[12] The Liberal Party's support dropped off considerably in Quebec after the Sponsorship scandal and though considered a star candidate, Garneau lost to Faille by over nine-thousand votes.[13][14]

In the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election Garneau announced his support for perceived front-runner Michael Ignatieff, who lost to Stéphane Dion on the final ballot.[15] With the resignation of Liberal MP Jean Lapierre in 2007, Garneau expressed interest in being the party's candidate in Lapierre's former riding of Outremont.[16] Dion instead appointed Jocelyn Coulon as the party's candidate, who went on to be defeated by the New Democratic Party's Thomas Mulcair in the by-election.[17]

In May 2007, Garneau filed nomination papers to be the party's candidate in Westmount—Ville-Marie, after former Liberal Party deputy leader Lucienne Robillard announced she would not be seeking re-election. However, a week after filing his nomination papers Dion announced that he had hand-picked a candidate for the riding. Garneau later withdrew his nomination papers and announced he no longer had an interest in politics. In October 2007, Garneau and Dion held a joint news conference where they announced that Garneau would be the Liberal Party candidate in Westmount—Ville-Marie.[16] Robillard announced her resignation as Member of Parliament in January and a by-election was later scheduled for September 8, 2008.[18][19] However, the by-election was cancelled during the campaign when Prime Minister Stephen Harper called a general election for October 14, 2008. Though some pundits predicted a close race between Garneau and NDP candidate Anne Lagacé-Dowson, Garneau went on to win the riding by over 9,000 votes.[7][20]

41st Parliament and leadership campaign

Garneau was narrowly re-elected in the 2011 election where he beat New Democratic Party candidate Joanne Corbeil. He was Liberal House leader and served as Liberal foreign affairs critic. He was a candidate for interim leadership of the Liberal Party, but was ultimately defeated by Bob Rae.[21][22] Garneau announced later that year that he was considering a bid for the permanent leadership of the party.[23] In the summer of 2012, he announced that he was looking for a "dream team" to run his leadership bid and that he would only run if he could find the right people.[24][25]

On November 21, 2012, Garneau was named his party's natural resources critic after David McGuinty resigned the post.[26]

On November 28, 2012, Garneau announced his bid for the leadership of the Liberal Party, placing a heavy focus on the economy.[27][28] While fellow leadership candidate Justin Trudeau was widely seen as the front-runner in the race, Garneau was thought to be his main challenger among the candidates.[29] With his entrance into the leadership race he resigned his post as Liberal House leader, while remaining the party's critic for natural resources.[30]

At the press conference announcing his candidacy Garneau ruled out any form of co-operation with the Green Party or New Democratic Party to help defeat the Conservative Party in the next election, which was proposed by leadership candidate Joyce Murray.[31]

On January 30, 2013, Garneau was replaced as natural resources critic by Ted Hsu. Garneau had been serving in the position on an interim basis.[32]

On March 13, 2013 Garneau announced his withdrawal from the race, and threw his support to front-runner Justin Trudeau. On September 18, 2013, Garneau was named co-chair of the Liberal International Affairs Council of Advisors, providing advice on foreign and defence issues to Liberal Party of Canada leader Justin Trudeau.[33][34]

Minister of Transport

Garneau and other members of Trudeau's cabinet welcoming U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security John F. Kelly in March 2017

In the 2015 elections held on October 19, 2015, Garneau was re-elected as MP in the newly created riding of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount. Two weeks later, on November 4, 2015, Garneau was appointed the minister of transport by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

In May 2017, Garneau introduced an airline passenger bill of rights to standardize how passengers can be treated by airlines which operate any flights in and out of Canada. The legislation would create minimum compensation rates for overbooking, lost or damaged luggage, and bumping passengers off flights. It would also prohibit airlines from removing people from the flight if they have purchased a ticket and set the standard for tarmac delays and airline treatment of passengers when flights are delayed or cancelled over events in the airline's control, or because of weather conditions.[35]

In March 2019, after days of initial refusal to take actions following the crash of Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, Garneau finally agreed to ground and prohibit all Boeing 737 Max aircraft from flying in Canadian airspace.[36] This stood in contrast to the ministry's previous stance, where he insisted the plane was safe to fly, thus making Canada one of the only two nations still flying a substantial number of Boeing 737 Max planes at the time.[37][38] Garneau even went so far as saying he would board 737 MAX 8 "without hesitation", as an apparent show of support for the Boeing Company.[39]

Minister of Foreign Affairs

On January 12, 2021, following the resignation of Navdeep Bains as minister of innovation, science and industry, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau shuffled the Cabinet, with Garneau becoming Minister of Foreign Affairs.[40]

Awards and honours

Ribbon Description Notes
CAN Order of Canada Companion ribbon.svg Companion of the Order of Canada (C.C.)
  • Awarded on: May 8, 2003
  • Invested on: December 12, 2003 [41]
CAN Order of Canada Officer ribbon.svg Officer of the Order of Canada (O.C.)
  • Awarded on: December 17, 1984
  • Invested on: April 10, 1985 [41]
Canada125 ribbon.png 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal
  • 1993
  • As an officer of the Order of Canada, he has also received the 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada Medal. [42]
QEII Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon.png Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal for Canada
  • 2002
  • As an officer of the Order of Canada, he has also received the Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal of Canada Medal.[42][43]
  • Canadian version
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon.png Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal for Canada
  • 2012
  • * As a Companion of the Order of Canada, and an elected Member of Parliament he has also received the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal.[42] [44]
  • Canadian version
CAN Canadian Forces Decoration ribbon.svg Canadian Forces' Decoration (C.D.)

Garneau was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1984 in recognition of his role as the first Canadian astronaut. He was promoted the rank of Companion within the order in 2003 for his extensive work with Canada's space program.

He was awarded the Canadian Forces Decoration for 12 years of honourable service with the Canadian Forces.

He is honoured with a high school named after him, Marc Garneau Collegiate Institute in Toronto [45] and É.S.P. Marc-Garneau[46] in Trenton, Ontario.

Garneau is the Honorary Captain of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets. In addition, no 599 Royal Canadian Air Cadets squadron is named in his honour.

Garneau was awarded the Key to the City of Ottawa from Marion Dewar the Mayor of Ottawa on 10 December 1984.[47][48]

He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1992.[49]

Honorary degrees

Location Date School Degree
 Ontario 17 May 1985 Royal Military College of Canada Doctor of Military Science (DMSc) [50]
 Nova Scotia 1985 Technical University of Nova Scotia Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng) [51]
 Quebec 1985 Laval University
 Quebec 1990 Royal Military College Saint-Jean
 Ontario 1997 University of Ottawa Doctor of the University (D.Univ) [52]
 Alberta Spring 2001 University of Lethbridge Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [53]
 Ontario Spring 2002 York University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [54]
 Quebec December 2004 Concordia University Doctor of Laws (LL.D) [55]
 Ontario November 2005 McMaster University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [56]
 Alberta 2006 Athabasca University Doctor of Science (D.Sc) [57]
 British Columbia 2006 British Columbia Institute of Technology Doctor of Technology (D.Tech) [58]

Electoral record

2019 Canadian federal election: Notre-Dame-de-Grâce-Westmount
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 28,323 56.28 −1.39
New Democratic Franklin Gertler 7,753 15.41 −6.35
Conservative Neil Drabkin 5759 11.44 −2.93
Green Robert Green 5,397 10.73 +7.67
Bloc Québécois Jennifer Jetté 2359 4.69 +2.21
People's André Valiquette 565 1.12 -
Independent Jeffrey A. Thomas 98 0.19
Marxist–Leninist Rachel Hoffman 67 0.13 −0.22
Total valid votes/Expense limit 50,321 100.0 $107,259.16


Total rejected ballots 446
Turnout 50,767 66.4


Eligible voters 76,499
2015 Canadian federal election: Notre-Dame-de-Grâce—Westmount
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 29,755 57.67 +19.43 $116,633.55
New Democratic James Hughes 11,229 21.76 −13.29 $121,985.65
Conservative Richard Sagala 7,414 14.37 −3.28 $23,826.12
Green Melissa Kate Wheeler 1,581 3.06 −1.32 $1,243.50
Bloc Québécois Simon Quesnel 1,282 2.48 −1.59 $2,358.94
Marxist–Leninist Rachel Hoffman 181 0.35
Independent Lisa Julie Cahn 151 0.29
Total valid votes/Expense limit 51,593 100.00 $214,383.86
Total rejected ballots 311 0.60
Turnout 51,904 65.21
Eligible voters 79,597
Source: Elections Canada[61][62]
2011 Canadian federal election: Westmount—Ville-Marie
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 15,346 37.18 −9.29
New Democratic Joanne Corbeil 14,704 35.62 +12.69
Conservative Neil Drabkin 7,218 17.49 +1.68
Bloc Québécois Véronique Roy 2,278 5.52 −1.74
Green Andrew Carkner 1,516 3.67 −3.37
Rhinoceros Victoria Haliburton 140 0.34 +0.18
Communist Bill Sloan 73 0.18 +0.09
Total valid votes/Expense limit 41,275 100.00  
Total rejected ballots 165 0.40
Turnout 41,440 53.76
Electors on the lists 77,084
Liberal hold Swing −10.99
2008 Canadian federal election: Westmount—Ville-Marie
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Marc Garneau 18,041 46.47 +0.79 $78,009
New Democratic Anne Lagacé Dowson 8,904 22.93 +7.56 $79,186
Conservative Guy Dufort 6,139 15.81 −1.84 $34,968
Bloc Québécois Charles Larivée 2,818 7.26 −5.30 $8,281
Green Claude William Genest 2,733 7.04 −1.31
Rhinoceros Judith Vienneau 62 0.16
Marxist–Leninist Linda Sullivan 49 0.13 −0.10
Independent David Rovins 47 0.12 $30
Communist Bill Sloan 34 0.09 −0.08 $2,433
Total valid votes/Expense limit 38,827 100.00   $83,153
Total rejected ballots 224 0.57
Turnout 39,051 50.64
Eligible voters 77,112
Liberal hold Swing +1.34
2006 Canadian federal election: Vaudreuil—Soulanges
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Bloc Québécois Meili Faille 27,012 43.16 −1.13 $85,133
Liberal Marc Garneau 17,768 28.39 −10.41 $79,413
Conservative Stephane Bourgon 11,889 19.00 +10.81 $35,090
New Democratic Bert Markgraf 3,468 5.54 +1.64 $3,385
Green Pierre Pariseau-Legault 2,450 3.91 +0.14 $1,144
Total valid votes/Expense limit 62,587 100.00 $85,543
Bloc Québécois hold Swing +9.28

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b "Marc Garneau Biography". Liberal Party of Canada. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  3. ^ Garneau, Marc Jean-Pierre (1973). The Perception of Facial Images (PDF). London: Imperial College of Science and Technology.
  4. ^ "Marc Garneau (PH.D.) Astronaut, Canadian Space Agency (Former)". NASA. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  5. ^ "Biographical Data: Mark Garneau". NASA. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference CSA was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ a b C, Martin (15 October 2008). "Spaceman lands safely in Westmount-Ville Marie". The Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  8. ^ Faure, Elisabeth (3 May 2011). "Garneau wins by 658 votes". The Westmount Examiner. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  9. ^ "Official Voting Results / Résultats officiels du scrutin FORTY-FIRST GENERAL ELECTION 2011 / QUARANTE ET UNIÈME ÉLECTION GÉNÉRALE 2011". Elections Canada. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  10. ^ Beardsley, Keith (13 March 2013). "Garneau Stayed in the Race too Long". Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  11. ^ "PM to shuffle cabinet with Navdeep Bains retiring from politics". CTVNews. January 11, 2021.
  12. ^ "Canadian to live on space station". The Calgary Herald. 12 February 2008. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  13. ^ "Voters deliver high-profile wins, defeats". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  14. ^ "Conservatives make breakthrough in Quebec; Bloc wins 51 seats". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  15. ^ "Backroom pressure mounts". Canwest News Service. 2 December 2006. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  16. ^ a b "Garneau confirmed on local ballot". Westmount Examiner. 19 October 2007. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  17. ^ "NDP takes Outremont". The Montreal Gazette. 18 September 2007. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  18. ^ Larsen, Wayne (11 June 2008). "Garneau looks forward to by-election". Montréal Express. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  19. ^ "Harper calls three federal by elections for early September". Canadian Press. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  20. ^ "Tight Liberal/NDP race predicted for Westmount-Ville Marie by-election". The West Island Chronicle. 13 August 2008. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
  21. ^ "Liberals choose Rae as interim leader". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. May 25, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  22. ^ "Rae takes over the Liberal reins". Toronto Star. May 25, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.
  23. ^ "MP Garneau eyes run at Liberal leadership". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 25 December 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  24. ^ Berthiaume, Lee (15 August 2012). "Marc Garneau searching for mission control before launching Liberal leadership bid". Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  25. ^ Den Tandt, Michael (11 September 2012). "Marc Garneau preparing for liftoff with Liberals". Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  26. ^ "MP McGuinty drops critic role over 'go back to Alberta' gibe". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  27. ^ LeBlanc, Daniel (28 November 2012). "'Mr. Harper is a one-trick pony,' Marc Garneau says, launching Liberal leadership bid". Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  28. ^ "Garneau's Liberal leadership campaign officially blasts off". CTV News. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  29. ^ Abma, Derek (28 November 2012). "Does Marc Garneau create problems for Justin Trudeau?". Global News. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  30. ^ Blatchford, Andy (28 November 2012). "Ex-astronaut Marc Garneau blasts into federal Liberal leadership race". The Record. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  31. ^ MacKinnon, Leslie (28 November 2012). "Ex-astronaut Marc Garneau launches Liberal leadership bid". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  32. ^ "The return of David McGuinty". Maclean's. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  33. ^ Den Tandt, Michael (18 September 2013). "Andrew Leslie, former commander of Canadian Army, joins Trudeau's team as adviser". National Post. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  34. ^ "Liberals Unveil Co-Chairs of International Affairs Council of Advisors". Liberal Party of Canada. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  35. ^ "Canada government tables airline passenger bill of rights". BBC News. May 16, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  36. ^
  37. ^ "US and Canada are the only two nations still flying many Boeing 737 Max planes". CNN. March 12, 2019.
  38. ^ "Canada's transport minister has no plans to ground Boeing 737". CTV news. March 12, 2019.
  39. ^ "Transport Minister Marc Garneau Would Board Boeing 737 'Without Hesitation' Despite Crash". HuffPost Canada. March 11, 2019.
  40. ^ "Trudeau to shuffle ministers as Navdeep Bains leaves cabinet". CBC News. 11 January 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2021.
  41. ^ a b General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Captain Marc Garneau". The Governor General of Canada.
  42. ^ a b c "Commemorative Medals of The Queen's Reign in Canada".
  43. ^ General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Dr. Marc Garneau". The Governor General of Canada.
  44. ^ General, Office of the Secretary to the Governor. "Marc Garneau". The Governor General of Canada.
  45. ^ Marc Garneau Collegiate Institute, Toronto, Ontario Archived 2007-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ "Accueil – École secondaire publique Marc-Garneau". Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  47. ^ "Ottawa Citizen – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  48. ^ "Key to the City". Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  49. ^ "5 Inducted Into Space Hall of Fame". El Paso Times. El Paso, Texas. Associated Press. October 5, 1992. p. 8 – via
  50. ^ Bennett, Pete (July 19, 2016). "Royal Military College of Canada Honorary Degree Recipients".
  51. ^ "1892 ‑ 1999 Honorary Degree Recipients". Dalhousie University. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  52. ^ "GARNEAU, Marc – Office of the President – University of Ottawa". Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  53. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients" (PDF). University of Lethbridge. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  54. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients". Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  55. ^ "Honorary degree citation – Marc Garneau". Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  56. ^ "University Secretariat".
  57. ^ "Past Honorary Degree Recipients". Convocation, Athabasca University. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  58. ^ "BCIT : : About the Institute : : Honorary Doctorate of Technology Recipient". Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  59. ^ Canada, Elections. "Final Election Expenses Limits for Candidates 43rd General Election – October 21, 2019".
  60. ^ Canada, Elections. "Election Night Results - Electoral Districts".
  61. ^ Canada, Elections. "Election Night Results - Electoral Districts".
  62. ^ "Elections Canada – Preliminary Election Expenses Limits for Candidates". Archived from the original on 2015-08-15. Retrieved 2018-11-26.

External links

Academic offices
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Chancellor of Carleton University
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Party political offices
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Succeeded by
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