Maturidi

Maturidiyya (Arabic: الماتريدية‎) is one of the main schools of Sunni Islamic theology. It was formalized by Abu Mansur Al Maturidi and brought the beliefs already present among most Sunnis under one school of systematic theology (kalam) and emphasised rationality[1] and rationalism.[2][3] It is considered one of the orthodox Sunni creeds alongside the Ash'ari school.[4] Māturīdism has been the predominant theological orientation among the Sunni Muslims of Persia before the conversion to Shiaism in the 16th century, Hanafis, and the Ahl al-Ray (people of reason) and enjoyed a preeminent status in the Ottoman Empire and Mughal India. Outside the old Ottoman and Mughal empires, most Turkic tribes, Hui people, Central Asian, and South Asian Muslims also believe in Maturidi theology. There have also been Arab Maturidi scholars.[5]

Beliefs

The Maturidi view holds that:

  • All attributes of God are eternal and not separated from God.[6]
  • Ethics have an objective existence and humans are capable of recognizing it through reason.[7]
  • Although humans are intellectually capable of realizing God, they need revelations and guidance of Prophets, because human desire can divert the intellect and because certain knowledge of God has been specially given to these Prophets (e.g. the Quran was revealed to Muhammad, who was given this special knowledge from God and only through Muhammad did this knowledge become accessible to others).[8]
  • Humans are free in determining their actions within scope of God-given possibilities. Accordingly, God has created all possibilities, but humans are free to choose.[9]
  • The Six articles of faith.[10]
  • Religious authorities need reasonable arguments to prove their claims.[11]
  • Support of science and falsafa.[12]
  • The Maturidis state that iman (faith) does not increase nor decrease depending on one's deeds; it is rather taqwa (piety) which increases and decreases. The Ash'aris say that faith itself increases or decreases according to one's actions.[13]

Maturidism holds that humans are creatures endowed with reason which differentiates them from animals. Further, the relationship between people and God differs from that of nature and God; humans are endowed with free-will, but due to God's sovereignty, God creates the acts the humans choose, so humans can perform them. Ethics can be understood just by reason and do not need prophetic guidance. Maturidi also consider hadiths to be unreliable when they are at odds with reason.[14] Further, Maturidism opposes anthropomorphism and similitude, but simultaneously does not deny the divine attributes.

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Schlesinger, Sarah J. "The Internal Pluralization of the Muslim Community of Bosnia-Herzegovina: From Religious Activation to Radicalization." Master’s Research Paper. Boston University (2011).
  2. ^ Жусипбек, Галым, Жанар Нагаева, and Альберт Фролов. "Ислам и плюрализм: Что могут предложить идеи школы аль-Матуриди? Журнал Аль-Фараби, Алматы, No 4 (56), 2016 (p. 117-134)." "On the whole, the authors argue that the Maturidi school which is based on 'balanced theological rationalism', 'metaphysics of diversity', 'subjectivity of faith' and 'to be focused on justice and society-centeredness' "
  3. ^ Zhussipbek, Galym, and Zhanar Nagayeva. "Epistemological Reform and Embracement of Human Rights. What Can be Inferred from Islamic Rationalistic Maturidite Theology?." Open Theology 5.1 (2019): 347-365.
  4. ^ "Maturidiyah". Britanicca. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  5. ^ Thomas Pierret (25 March 2013), Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution, Cambridge University Press, p. 102, ISBN 9781139620062
  6. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1014
  7. ^ Oliver Leaman The Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy Bloomsbury Publishing 2015 ISBN 978-1-472-56945-5 page 311
  8. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1014
  9. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1014
  10. ^ Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1 page 41
  11. ^ Ulli Roth, Armin Kreiner, Gunther Wenz, Friedo Ricken, Mahmut Ay, Roderich Barth, Halis Albayrak, Muammer Esen, Engin Erdem, Hikmet Yaman Glaube und Vernunft in Christentum und Islam. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Verlag 2017 ISBN 978-3-170-31526-6 page 83
  12. ^ Ulli Roth, Armin Kreiner, Gunther Wenz, Friedo Ricken, Mahmut Ay, Roderich Barth, Halis Albayrak, Muammer Esen, Engin Erdem, Hikmet Yaman Glaube und Vernunft in Christentum und Islam Kohlhammer Verlag 2017 ISBN 978-3-170-31526-6 page 83
  13. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 978-1-610-69217-5 page 1015
  14. ^ Rico Isaacs, Alessandro Frigerio Theorizing Central Asian Politics: The State, Ideology and Power Springer, 2018 ISBN 9783319973555 p. 108
  • Article "Kalam" in The Encyclopedia of Islam, 1st edition.

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