Minneapolis

Minneapolis
City of Minneapolis
MinneapolisCollage.jpg
Official seal of Minneapolis
Seal
Etymology: Dakota word mni ('water') with Greek polis ('city')
Nickname(s): 
"City of Lakes", "Mill City", "Twin Cities" (a nickname shared with Saint Paul), "Mini Apple"
Motto(s): 
En Avant (French: 'Forward')
Location within Hennepin County
Location within Hennepin County
Minneapolis is located in Minnesota
Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Location within Minnesota
Show map of Minnesota
Minneapolis is located in the United States
Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Location within the United States
Show map of the United States
Minneapolis is located in North America
Minneapolis
Minneapolis
Minneapolis (North America)
Show map of North America
Coordinates: 44°58′55″N 93°16′09″W / 44.98194°N 93.26917°W / 44.98194; -93.26917Coordinates: 44°58′55″N 93°16′09″W / 44.98194°N 93.26917°W / 44.98194; -93.26917
Country United States
State Minnesota
County Hennepin
Incorporated 1867
Founded by John H. Stevens and Franklin Steele
Government
 • Type Mayor–council (weak-mayor, strong-council)[1]
 • Body Minneapolis City Council
 • Mayor Jacob Frey (DFL)
 • Council President Lisa Bender (DFL)
Area
[2]
 • City 57.49 sq mi (148.89 km2)
 • Land 54.00 sq mi (139.86 km2)
 • Water 3.49 sq mi (9.03 km2)
Elevation
830 ft (264 m)
Population
 ( 2010) [4]
 • City 382,578
 • Estimate 
(2019) [5]
429,606
 • Rank US: 46th MN: 1st
 • Density 7,955.67/sq mi (3,071.72/km2)
 • Metro
3,629,190 (US: 16th)[3]
 • CSA
4,014,593 (US: 16th)
Demonym(s) Minneapolitan
Time zone UTC–6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC–5 (CDT)
ZIP Codes
55401–55488 (range includes some ZIP Codes for Minneapolis suburbs)
Area code(s) 612
FIPS code 27-43000
Major airport Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport
Interstates I-94 (MN).svg I-35 (MN).svg I-394 (MN).svg I-35W (MN).svg
US Routes US 52.svg US 12.svg
Public transportation Metro Transit
Website www.minneapolismn.gov Edit this at Wikidata

Minneapolis (/ˌmɪniˈæpəlɪs/ (About this soundlisten)) is the most populous city in the US state of Minnesota and the seat of Hennepin County.[7] With an estimated population of 429,606 as of 2019, it is the 46th most populous city in the US.[8] Seven counties encompassing Minneapolis and its neighbor Saint Paul are known as the Twin Cities.[9] In 2019, those counties are among sixteen making up the Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington MN–WI metropolitan area of 3.6 million, and twenty-two making up the combined statistical area of 4.0 million.[10]

Minneapolis lies on both banks of the Mississippi River, just north of the river's confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Saint Paul, the state's capital. With one of the nation's best park systems,[11] the city is abundantly rich in water, with thirteen lakes, wetlands, the Mississippi River, creeks and waterfalls, many connected by parkways in the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway. The city and surrounding region is the largest population and primary business center between Chicago and Seattle. Minneapolis was historically a marketplace for timber, became the flour milling capital of the world,[12] and, to the present day, preserved its financial clout.

Anchoring strong music and performing arts scenes, Minneapolis is home to both the Guthrie Theater and the First Avenue nightclub. Reflecting the region's status as a center of folk, funk, and alternative rock music, the city was the launching pad for several of the 20th century's most influential musicians, including Bob Dylan and Prince. Hip-hop and rap scenes produced artists Lizzo, Brother Ali, Atmosphere, and Dessa.

History

Dakota natives, city founded

The Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents prior to European contact. The city's Dakota name is Bdeóta Othúŋwe ('Many Lakes City').[13] French explorers arrived in the region in 1680. Gradually, more European-American settlers arrived, competing for game and other resources with the Native Americans. By the Treaty of Paris following the Revolutionary War, British land east of the Mississippi River became part of the United States.[14][15] In the early 19th century, the US acquired land to the west of the river from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Fort Snelling was built in 1819 by the US Army at the southern edge of present-day Minneapolis,[16] to direct Indian trade away from the British-Canadian traders, and to prevent the Dakota and Ojibwe in the north from fighting each other.[17] The fort attracted traders, settlers and merchants, spurring growth. Agents of the St. Peters Indian Agency built at the fort enforced US policy of assimilating Native Americans into European-American society, asking them to give up hunting for subsistence and to learn to plow for cultivation.[18] The US government pressed the Dakota to sell their land which was ceded in a succession of treaties. The US reneged on the treaties during the Civil War, resulting in hunger, war, internment, and exile of the Dakota from Minnesota.[19]

Outwitting the fort's commandant, Franklin Steele laid his claim on the east bank of Saint Anthony Falls,[17] and John H. Stevens built his home on the west bank.[20] Residents had divergent ideas on names for their community. In 1852, the city's first schoolmaster, Charles Hoag, proposed Minnehapolis, with a silent h, combining the Dakota word for "waterfall", Mníȟaȟa,[13] and the Greek word for "city", polis, which became Minneapolis, meaning 'city of the falls'. The Minnesota Territorial Legislature authorized Minneapolis as a town in 1856, on the Mississippi's west bank.[21] Minneapolis incorporated as a city in 1867 and later joined with the east-bank city of St. Anthony in 1872.[22]

Waterpower; lumber and flour milling

Minneapolis developed around the power source of Saint Anthony Falls, the highest waterfall on the Mississippi River. Forests in northern Minnesota encouraged a lumber industry, which operated seventeen sawmills on power from the waterfall. By 1871, the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood.[23] Due to the occupational hazards of milling, six competitors manufactured artificial limbs by the 1890s.[24] The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the city's thirty-four flour mills. Millers have used hydropower since the 1st century B.C.,[25] but the results in Minneapolis between 1880 and 1930 were described as "the greatest direct-drive waterpower center the world has ever seen."[26] For this half century, Minneapolis led the world in flour milling.[26]

Two men who loaded flour and a bag of flour that says Monahan's Minneapolis and a Pillsbury truck
Loading flour, Pillsbury, 1939

A father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C. Washburn revolutionized his business from gristmills to "gradual reduction" by steel and porcelain roller mills capable of producing premium-quality pure white flour very quickly.[27][28] Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray[29] and some say they were acquired through industrial espionage from Hungary by William de la Barre.[28] Charles A. Pillsbury and the C.A. Pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods.[28] The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable ($0.50 profit per barrel in 1871 increased to $4.50 in 1874),[27] and Minnesota "patent" flour was recognized at the time as the best in the world.[28] Not until later did consumers discover the value in the bran that "...Minneapolis flour millers routinely dumped" into the Mississippi.[30]

A single mill at Washburn-Crosby could make flour for twelve million loaves of bread each day,[31] and by 1900, 14 percent of America's grain was milled in Minneapolis.[27][28] Further, by 1895, through the efforts of silent partner William Hood Dunwoody, Washburn-Crosby exported four million barrels of flour a year to the United Kingdom.[32] When exports reached their peak in 1900, about one third of all flour milled in Minneapolis was shipped overseas.[32]

Social tensions

The city made changes to rectify discrimination as early as 1886 when Martha Ripley founded Maternity Hospital for both married and unmarried mothers.[33] Known initially as a kindly physician, mayor Doc Ames made his brother police chief, ran the city into corruption, and tried to leave town in 1902.[34] Lincoln Steffens published Ames' story in "The Shame of Minneapolis" in 1903.[35] The gangster Kid Cann engaged in bribery and intimidation from the 1920s until the 1940s.[36]

Bigotry played multiple roles during the early 20th century. In 1910, a Minneapolis developer wrote restrictive covenants based on race and ethnicity into his deeds. Copied by other developers, the practice prevented Asian and African Americans from owning or leasing certain properties. Though such language was prohibited by state law in 1953 and by the federal Fair Housing Act of 1968, restrictive covenants against minorities remained in many Minneapolis deeds as recently as 2021, when the city gave residents a means to remove them.[37][38] The Ku Klux Klan succeeded by entering family life, but effectively was a force in the city only from 1921 until 1923.[39] After Minnesota passed a eugenics law in 1925, the proprietors of Eitel Hospital sterilized about one thousand people at the Faribault State Hospital.[40]

group of men holding pipes confronting police on street seen from above
Battle between striking teamsters and police, Minneapolis general strike of 1934

From the end of World War I until 1950, Minneapolis was a site of corrosive anti-semitism. A hate group called the Silver Legion of America held meetings in the city around 1936 to 1938.[41] Answering bigotry against Jewish doctors, Mount Sinai Hospital opened in 1948 as the community's first hospital to accept members of minority races and religions on its staff.[42][41]

When the country's fortunes turned during the Great Depression, the violent Teamsters Strike of 1934 resulted in laws acknowledging workers' rights.[43] A lifelong civil rights activist and union supporter, mayor Hubert Humphrey helped the city establish fair employment practices and a human relations council that interceded on behalf of minorities by 1946.[44] In the 1950s, less than 2 percent of the population was nonwhite.[45] In 1966–1967, years of significant turmoil across the US, bottled-up anger in the black population was released in two disturbances on Plymouth Avenue.[46][47] A coalition was able to reach a peaceful aftermath but ultimately failed to solve black poverty and unemployment, and a law and order candidate became mayor.[48] Minneapolis contended with white supremacy, participated in desegregation and the civil rights movement, and in 1968 was the birthplace of the American Indian Movement.[49]

Between 1958 and 1963, as part of the most monumental urban renewal plan ever tackled in America,[50] the city razed roughly 40 percent of downtown, destroying the Gateway District and its significant architecture, including the Metropolitan Building. Efforts to save the building failed but sparked interest in historic preservation.[51]

On May 25, 2020, video captured the killing of George Floyd, an African-American man, by a white Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin who knelt on Floyd's neck and back for more than nine minutes while he struggled to breathe and died. The incident sparked national unrest, riots, and mass protests.[52] Local protests and riots resulted in extraordinary levels of property damage in Minneapolis,[53] including of a police station that was overrun by demonstrators and set on fire.[54] The Twin Cities experienced prolonged unrest in 2020 and 2021 over racial injustice.[55]

panoramic view of Saint Anthony Falls and the Mississippi riverfront in 1915
Mississippi riverfront and Saint Anthony Falls in 1915. At left, Pillsbury, power plants and the Stone Arch Bridge. Today the Minnesota Historical Society's Mill City Museum is in the Washburn "A" Mill, across the river just to the left of the falls. At center left are Northwestern Consolidated mills. The tall building is Minneapolis City Hall. In the right foreground are Nicollet Island and the Hennepin Avenue Bridge.

Geography

Downtown skyline in view over Bde Maka Ska and its dock
View of downtown Minneapolis across Bde Maka Ska [56]

The history and economic growth of Minneapolis are tied to water, the city's defining physical characteristic. Long periods of glaciation and interglacial melt carved several riverbeds through what is now Minneapolis.[57] During the last glacial period around ten thousand years ago, ice buried in these ancient river channels melted, resulting in basins that would fill with water to become the lakes of Minneapolis.[57] The glacial River Warren, fed by the meltwater of Lake Agassiz, created a large waterfall in what is now downtown Saint Paul that eroded upriver past the confluence of the Mississippi River, where it left a 75-foot (23 m) drop in the Mississippi.[58] The new waterfall, later called Saint Anthony Falls, in turn eroded up the Mississippi about eight miles (13 km) to its present location, carving the Mississippi River gorge as it moved upstream; Minnehaha Falls also developed during this period via similar processes.[58][57]

Lying on an artesian aquifer[59] and flat terrain, Minneapolis has a total area of 59 square miles (152.8 km2) and of this 6 percent is water.[60] Water supply is managed by four watershed districts that correspond to the Mississippi and the city's three creeks.[61] Thirteen lakes, three large ponds, and five unnamed wetlands are within Minneapolis.[61]

Two young persons seated on the ground watching two women dancing with fire
Spring art party, North Commons Park, Willard-Hay, one of the 83 neighborhoods of Minneapolis

A 1959 report by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service listed Minneapolis's elevation as 830 feet (250 m).[62] The city's lowest elevation of 687 feet (209 m) above sea level is near where Minnehaha Creek meets the Mississippi River.[63][64] Sources disagree on the exact location and elevation of the city's highest point, which is cited as being anywhere from 965–985 feet (294–300 m) above sea level.[a]

Neighborhoods

Minneapolis is divided into eleven communities, each containing several neighborhoods, of which there are eighty-three. In some cases two or more neighborhoods act together under one organization. Some areas are known by nicknames of business associations.[67]

In 2018, the Minneapolis City Council voted to end single-family zoning citywide. At the time, 70 percent of residential land was zoned for detached single-family homes, however many of those areas had "nonconforming" buildings with more housing units. City leaders sought to increase the supply of housing so that more neighborhoods would be affordable, and decrease the effects that single family zoning had caused on racial disparites and segregation.[68] The Brookings Institution called it "a relatively rare example of success for the YIMBY agenda."[69]

Cityscape

The Minneapolis skyline rises to its highest point at the center of the image, with the three tallest buildings standing out against a clear blue sky. Before the skyline are trees, university buildings, and residential complexes.
The Minneapolis skyline seen from the Prospect Park Water Tower in July 2014

Climate

Minneapolis
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: [70]

Minneapolis experiences a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa in the Köppen climate classification),[71] typical of southern parts of the Upper Midwest, and is situated in USDA plant hardiness zone 4b, with small enclaves of Minneapolis classified as being zone 5a.[72][73][74] Minneapolis has cold, snowy winters and hot, humid summers. As is typical in a continental climate, the difference between average temperatures in the coldest winter month and the warmest summer month is great: 60.1 °F (33.4 °C).

According to the NOAA, the annual average for sunshine duration is 58%.[75]

Minneapolis experiences a full range of precipitation and related weather events, including snow, sleet, ice, rain, thunderstorms, and fog. The highest recorded temperature was 108 °F (42 °C) in July 1936 while the lowest was −41 °F (−41 °C) in January 1888. The snowiest winter on record was 1983–84, when 98.6 inches (250 cm) of snow fell,[76] and the least snowy winter was 1890–91, when only 11.1 inches (28 cm) fell.[77]

Demographics

Racial composition 2019[82] 2010[83] 1990[84] 1970[84] 1950[84]
White 63.8% 63.8% 78.4% 93.6% 98.4%
 —Non-Hispanic 59.8% 60.3% 77.5% 92.8% n/a
Black or African American 19.4% 18.6% 13% 4.4% 1.3%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 9.6% 10.5% 2.1% 0.9% n/a
Asian 6.1% 5.6% 4.3% 0.4% 0.2%
Other race 4.7% 5.6% n/a n/a n/a
Two or more races 4.6% 4.4% n/a n/a n/a
Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 5,809
1870 13,066 124.9%
1880 46,887 258.8%
1890 164,738 251.4%
1900 202,718 23.1%
1910 301,408 48.7%
1920 380,582 26.3%
1930 464,356 22.0%
1940 492,370 6.0%
1950 521,718 6.0%
1960 482,872 −7.4%
1970 434,400 −10.0%
1980 370,951 −14.6%
1990 368,383 −0.7%
2000 382,618 3.9%
2010 382,578 0.0%
2019 (est.) 429,606 [5] 12.3%
US Decennial Census[85]

Dakota tribes, mostly the Mdewakanton, were permanent settlers near their sacred site St. Anthony Falls.[22] New settlers arrived during the 1850s and 1860s from New England, New York, Bohemia[86] and Canada, and, during the mid-1860s, immigrants from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark began to call Minneapolis home. Migrant workers from Mexico and Latin America interspersed.[87] Other immigrants came from Germany, Poland, Italy, and Greece. Central European immigrants settled in the Northeast neighborhood, still known for its Czech[88] and Polish cultural heritage. Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, and Russia began arriving in the 1880s and settled primarily on the north side before moving to western suburbs in the 1950s and 1960s.[89] Two groups came for a short while during US government relocations: Japanese during the 1940s, and Native Americans during the 1950s. In 2013, Asians were the state's fastest growing population. Chinese, Japanese and Filipinos came in the 1970s, Hmong, Lao, Cambodian and Vietnamese in the 1970s and 1980s, and people from Tibet, Burma and Thailand came in the 1990s and 2000s.[90] The population of people from India doubled by 2010.[91] After the Rust Belt economy declined during the early 1980s, Minnesota's black population nearly tripled in less than two decades, a large fraction hailing from cities such as Chicago and Gary, Indiana.[92] Black migrants were drawn to Minneapolis (and the Greater Twin Cities) by its abundance of jobs, good schools, and relatively safe neighborhoods. Beginning in the 1990s, a sizable Latino population arrived, along with immigrants from the Horn of Africa, especially Somalia,[93] however immigration of fourteen hundred Somalis in 2016, slowed to forty eight in 2018 under President Trump.[94] In 2015, Brookings characterized Minneapolis as a re-emerging immigrant gateway with about 10 percent foreign-born residents.[95] As of 2019, African Americans make up about one fifth of the city's population.

The US Census Bureau estimates the population of Minneapolis to be 429,606 as of 2019, a 12.3 percent increase since the 2010 census.[5] The population grew until 1950, when the census peaked at 521,718, and then declined until about 1990 as people moved to the suburbs.

As of 2015, Minneapolis had 4 percent adult LGBT residents, roughly the same as the national average.[96] In line with other cities, Human Rights Campaign gave Minneapolis its highest possible score in 2019.[97]

A 2015 report found that racial and ethnic minorities in the city lagged behind white counterparts in education, with 15 percent of blacks and 13 percent of Hispanics holding bachelor's degrees compared to 42 percent of the white population. While the standard of living is rising with incomes among the highest in the Midwest, in 2015 the median household income among minorities was below that of whites by over $17,000 and the poverty rate gap between blacks and whites was the highest in the US.[98] A 2020 study found little change in economic racial inequality, with Minnesota ranking only above the neighboring state of Wisconsin and equal to the states of Iowa, Louisiana, and New Mexico.[99]

Racial conflicts

Commentators and observers have written about historic racism and socioeconomic disparities in the city.[100] Kirsten Delegard of Mapping Prejudice explained that disparities today evolved from white people asserting control of the city's land.[101] William D. Green of Augsburg University said that in Minneapolis the races live in parallel universes.[101]

Religion

The Dakota people, the original inhabitants of the area where Minneapolis now stands, believed in the Great Spirit and were surprised that not all European settlers were religious.[103] More than 50 denominations and religions have been established with a Christian majority. Those who arrived from New England were for the most part Protestants, Quakers, and Universalists.[103] The oldest continuously used church, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church, was built in 1856 by Universalists and soon afterward was acquired by a French Catholic congregation.[104] The first Jewish congregation was formed in 1878 as Shaarai Tov, and built Temple Israel in 1928.[89] St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral was founded in 1887, opened a missionary school, and created the first Russian Orthodox seminary in the US.[105] Edwin Hawley Hewitt designed both St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral and Hennepin Avenue United Methodist Church just south of downtown.[106] The first basilica in the US, and co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, the Basilica of Saint Mary was named by Pope Pius XI in 1926.[103]

Christ Church with its tower and cross
Christ Church Lutheran by Eliel and Eero Saarinen is considered an architectural masterpiece. [107]

The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association was headquartered in Minneapolis from the late 1940s into the early 2000s.[108] Jim Bakker and Tammy Faye met while attending the Pentecostal North Central University and began a television ministry that by the 1980s reached 13.5 million households.[109] As of 2012, Mount Olivet Lutheran Church in southwest Minneapolis was the nation's second-largest Lutheran congregation, with about 6,000 attendees.[110] Christ Church Lutheran in the Longfellow neighborhood, designed by Eliel Saarinen with an education building by his son Eero Saarinen, is a National Historic Landmark.[111]

During the 1950s, members of the Nation of Islam created a temple in north Minneapolis,[112] and the first Muslim mosque was built in 1967.[113] In 1972 a relief agency resettled the first Shi'a Muslim family from Uganda in the Twin Cities.[114] As of 2017, the 28,000 to 120,000 Somalis who live in the city are primarily Sunni Muslim.[115] The city has about 20 Buddhist and meditation centers.[116] Atheists For Human Rights has its headquarters in the Shingle Creek neighborhood in a geodesic dome.[117] Minneapolis has a body of Ordo Templi Orientis.[118] The first Hindu temple in the city was built in 1978, and North America's largest as of 2010, the Hindu Temple of Minnesota, is in Maple Grove.[119]

Economy

As of 2020, Minneapolis–St. Paul area is the second largest economic center in the Midwest, behind Chicago.[122] During the city's formative years, millers had to pay cash for wheat during the growing season and then hold it until it was needed for flour. This required large amounts of capital, which stimulated the local banking industry and made Minneapolis a major financial center.[123] The economy of Minneapolis today is based in commerce, finance, rail and trucking services, health care, and industry. Smaller components are in publishing, milling, food processing, graphic arts, insurance, education, and high technology.[124]

The Twin Cities metropolitan area has the fifth highest concentration of major corporate headquarters in the country as of 2018,[125] and in 2020, five Fortune 500 corporations were headquartered within the city limits of Minneapolis.[120] Foreign companies with US offices in Minneapolis include Accenture, Bellisio Foods (now part of Charoen Pokphand Foods),[126] Canadian Pacific, Coloplast,[127] RBC[128] and Voya Financial.[129] In its 2018 survey based on 2017 cost of living for expatriate executives, The Economist ranked Minneapolis the third-most expensive city in North America and 26th in the world.[130]

As of 2020, the Minneapolis metropolitan area contributes $273 billion or 74% to the gross state product of Minnesota.[131] Measured by gross metropolitan product per resident ($62,054), as of 2015, Minneapolis is the fifteenth richest city in the US.[132] In 2011, the area's $199.6 billion gross metropolitan product and its per capita personal income ranked thirteenth in the US.[133]

The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis serves Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, and parts of Wisconsin and Michigan, the smallest population of the twelve regional banks in the Federal Reserve System.[134] Along with supporting consumers and the community, the bank executes monetary policy, regulates the banks in its territory, provides cash, and oversees electronic deposits.[135] The Minneapolis Grain Exchange, founded in 1881, is still located near the riverfront and is the only exchange for hard red spring wheat futures and options.[136]

Culture

Visual arts

center of imposing facade of a block-long, white classical building
Mia is open daily and offers free admission to its collection of 90,000 objects spanning 20,000 years. [137]

The Walker Art Center, one of the five largest modern art museums in the US, sits atop Lowry Hill, near downtown. The size of the center doubled with an addition in 2005 by Herzog & de Meuron, and expanded with a 15-acre (6.1 ha) park designed by Michel Desvigne, located across the street from the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden.[138]

Known as Mia since its 100th anniversary, the Minneapolis Institute of Art, designed by McKim, Mead & White in 1915 in south central Minneapolis, is the largest art museum in the city, with 100,000 pieces in its permanent collection. New wings, designed by Kenzo Tange and Michael Graves, opened in 1974 and 2006, respectively, for contemporary and modern works, as well as more gallery space.[139]

The Weisman Art Museum, designed by Frank Gehry for the University of Minnesota, opened in 1993 and offers free admission.[140] A 2011 addition by Gehry doubled the size of the galleries.[141] The Museum of Russian Art opened in a restored church in 2005 and hosts a collection of 20th-century Russian art as well as special events.[142]

The Northeast Minneapolis Arts District has 400 independent artists, a center at the Northrup-King Building, and recurring annual events.[143]

Theater and performing arts

Minneapolis has hosted theatrical performances since after the Civil War.[144] Early theaters included the Pence Opera House,[144] the Academy of Music, the Grand Opera House, the Lyceum, and later the Metropolitan Opera House, which opened in 1894.[145] As of 2020 Minneapolis is home to dozens of theater companies.[146]

The Guthrie Theater, the area's largest theater company, occupies a three-stage complex overlooking the Mississippi, designed by French architect Jean Nouvel.[139] The company was founded in 1963 by Sir Tyrone Guthrie as a prototype alternative to Broadway, and it produces a wide variety of shows throughout the year.[147][148] Minneapolis purchased and renovated the Orpheum, State, and Pantages Theatres vaudeville and film houses on Hennepin Avenue, which are now used for concerts and plays.[149] A fourth renovated theater, the former Shubert, joined with the Hennepin Center for the Arts to become the Cowles Center for Dance and the Performing Arts, home to more than one dozen performing arts groups.[150][151]

Music

Prince, in a frock and jacket, smiles with a hand to his left ear.
Recording artist Prince studied at the Minnesota Dance Theatre through the Minneapolis Public Schools. [152] [153]

The Minnesota Orchestra plays classical and popular music at Orchestra Hall under music director Osmo Vänskä[154] The orchestra was nominated in 2013 for its recording of "Sibelius: Symphonies Nos. 2 & 5," and it won a Grammy Award in 2014 for "Sibelius: Symphonies Nos 1 & 4."[155][156]

According to DownBeat, for 25 years the Dakota Jazz Club has been one of the world's best jazz venues.[157]

Singer and multi-instrumentalist Prince was born in Minneapolis and lived in the area most of his life.[158] After Jimmy Jam and the 11-piece Mind & Matter broke through discrimination that had created a race barrier downtown, Prince reached a global multiracial audience with his combination of indecency and religion.[159] An authentic musical prodigy enriched by a music program at The Way Community Center, Prince learned to operate a Polymoog at Sound 80 for his first album that became a sonic element of the Minneapolis sound.[160] With fellow local musicians, many of whom recorded at Twin/Tone Records,[161] Prince helped make First Avenue and the 7th Street Entry prominent venues for both artists and audiences.[162]

Night downtown, shot tilted to right; silver stars on black painted exterior of First Avenue, several tall black buildings with lights in rear, black cars and white truck parked in front
In 1970, Allan Fingerhut saw the potential for the nightclub that became First Avenue & 7th Street Entry which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2020. [163]

Hüsker Dü and The Replacements were pivotal in the US alternative rock boom during the 1980s. Their respective frontmen Bob Mould and Paul Westerberg developed successful solo careers.[164] The MN Spoken Word Association and independent hip hop label Rhymesayers Entertainment have garnered attention for rap, hip hop and spoken word.[165] Underground Minnesota hip hop acts such as Atmosphere and Manny Phesto comment about the city and Minnesota in song lyrics.[166][167]

Tom Waits released two songs about the city, "Christmas Card from a Hooker in Minneapolis" (Blue Valentine, 1978) and "9th & Hennepin" (Rain Dogs, 1985), and Lucinda Williams recorded "Minneapolis" (World Without Tears, 2003). Electronic dance music artists include Woody McBride,[168] Freddy Fresh[169] and DVS1.[170] In 2008, the century-old MacPhail Center for Music opened a new facility designed by James Dayton.[171] Minneapolis has four opera companies: Minnesota Opera, Mill City Summer Opera, the Gilbert & Sullivan Very Light Opera Company, and Really Spicy Opera.[172]

Charity

Philanthropy and charitable giving are part of the community.[173] According to AmeriCorps, in 2017 Minneapolis–Saint Paul ranked first among cities with 46.3% of the population volunteering.[174] The Minneapolis Foundation invests and administers over 1,000 charitable funds.[175]

Alight helps 2.5 million refugees and displaced persons each year in Asili-Democratic Republic of Congo, Jordan, Myanmar, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Thailand and Uganda.[176] Catholic Charities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul is one of the largest non-profit organizations in the state and a provider of several social services.[177]

Cuisine

West Broadway Avenue was a cultural epicenter during the early 20th century but by the 1950s, flight to the suburbs began, and streetcars closed down.[178] One of the largest urban food deserts in the US was in North Minneapolis, where, as of mid-2017, 70,000 people had only two grocery stores.[179] Wirth Co-op since opened in 2017 but closed within a year. North Market opened in 2017.[180][181] The non-profit Appetite for Change sought to improve the local diet against an influx of fast-food stores,[182] and by 2017 it administered ten gardens, sold produce at the West Broadway Farmers Market in summertime, supplied its restaurants, and gave away boxes of fresh produce.[183]

A broad, bright kitchen space with mostly silver and gray tones and warm yellow lights and several chefs at various stations preparing food
Team USA, including Gavin Kaysen (of Spoon and Stable, kitchen pictured), Thomas Keller and Daniel Boulud, won a silver medal in the 2015 Bocuse d'Or. [184]

As of 2019, Minneapolis-based chefs have won James Beard Foundation Awards: Ann Kim, chef at Young Joni, Pizza Lola and Hello Pizza, won in 2019.[185] Founder of the Sioux Chef, Sean Sherman won two James Beard prizes in 2019—the leadership award and best cookbook. Steve Hoffman won the James Beard distinguished writing award for "What Is Northern Food?."[186] Other winners were 2008 rising star chef Gavin Kaysen who won again in 2018 at Spoon & Stable; Alexander Roberts at Restaurant Alma; and Isaac Becker at 112 Eatery. Also in venues that have closed, Tim McKee won at La Belle Vie, and Paul Berglund at Bachelor Farmer.[187][188] Among her five wins and eleven nominations, writer Dara Moskowitz Grumdahl won the Jonathan Gold Local Voice Award in 2020.[189] Andrew Zimmern won in 2010, 2013 and 2017 for Outstanding Personality/Host on Bizarre Foods with Andrew Zimmern and for his television program On Location in 2012.[190] When thirteen chefs and restaurants were nominated for James Beard awards in 2017, The Wall Street Journal named Minneapolis one of the ten best places to visit in the world.[191]

Both credible originators of the burger, the 5-8 Club and Matt's Bar have served the Jucy Lucy since the 1950s.[192] East African cuisine arrived with a wave of Somali immigration which started in the 1990s.[193] Young Joni was selected one of the GQ top ten new restaurants and one of Eater's twelve best new restaurants of 2017.[194][195] Esquire put Hai Hai on its list of America's best restaurants in 2018.[196] In 2018, Food & Wine named Spoon and Stable one of the 40 most important restaurants of the past 40 years.[197] As of 2019, chefs and bakers at eight of nine Kim Bartmann Minneapolis restaurants used heritage grains from Sunrise Four Mill.[198]

Annual events

Year-round events include the City of Lakes Loppet, a 22-mile (35 km) cross-country ski race and winter festival in February; the MayDay Parade is returning in 2021; Art-A-Whirl; Pride Festival & Parade, Stone Arch Bridge Festival, and Twin Cities Juneteenth Celebration in June; Minneapolis Aquatennial in July; Minnesota Fringe Festival, Loring Park Art Festival, Uptown Metris Art Fair, Powderhorn Festival of Arts and the Lake Hiawatha Neighborhood Festival in August; Minneapolis Monarch Festival in September to celebrate the Monarch butterfly's 2,300-mile (3,700 km) migration; and the Twin Cities Marathon in October.[199]

Sports

Minneapolis is home to four professional sports teams. The Minnesota Vikings football team and the Minnesota Twins baseball team have played in the state since 1961. The Vikings were an NFL expansion team, and the Twins were formed when the Washington Senators relocated to Minnesota.[201] The Twins won the World Series in 1987 and 1991 and have played at Target Field since 2010. The Vikings played in the Super Bowl following the 1969, 1973, 1974, and 1976 seasons, losing all four games. The Minnesota Timberwolves brought NBA basketball back to Minneapolis in 1989, followed by the Minnesota Lynx in 1999. Both basketball teams play in the Target Center.

In recent years, the Lynx have been the most successful sports team in the city and a dominant force in the WNBA, reaching the WNBA Finals in 2011, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017 and winning in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2017.[202]

The 1,750,000-square-foot (163,000 m2) U.S. Bank Stadium was built for the Vikings for about $1.122 billion, with $348 million coming from the state of Minnesota and $150 million coming from the city of Minneapolis. Called "Minnesota's biggest-ever public works project," the stadium opened in 2016 with 66,000 seats, expandable to 70,000 for the 2018 Super Bowl.[203] U.S. Bank Stadium also hosts indoor running and rollerblading nights, as well as concerts and events.[204]

Major sporting events hosted by the city include baseball All-Star Games, World Series, Super Bowls, NCAA Division 1 men's and women's basketball Final Four, the AMA Motocross Championship, the X Games and the WNBA All-Star Game.[205]

The Gophers women's ice hockey team is a six-time NCAA champion and seven-time national champion winning in 2000, 2004, 2005, 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2016.[206][207]

The Minnesota Wild of the NHL play at the Xcel Energy Center,[208] and the MLS soccer team Minnesota United FC play at Allianz Field, both in Saint Paul.[209] In other sports, six golf courses are located within city limits.[210] While living in Minneapolis, Scott and Brennan Olson founded (and later sold) Rollerblade, the company that popularized the sport of inline skating.[211]

Parks and recreation

Minnehaha Falls surrounded by green summer foliage
Established in 1889, Minnehaha Falls and the surrounding land was the second state park in the United States. [212]

The Minneapolis park system has been called[d] the best-designed, best-financed, and best-maintained in America.[213] More than a century after the system was designed, in its 2020 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that Minneapolis had the best park system among the 100 most populous US cities.[214]

The parks are governed and operated by the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board, an independent park district with broader powers than any other parks agency in the country.[215] Foresight, donations and effort by community leaders enabled Horace Cleveland to create his finest landscape architecture, preserving geographical landmarks and linking them with boulevards and parkways.[216] The city's Chain of Lakes, consisting of seven lakes and Minnehaha Creek, is connected by bike, running, and walking paths and used for swimming, fishing, picnics, boating, and ice skating. A parkway for cars, a bikeway for riders, and a walkway for pedestrians runs parallel along the 52-mile (84 km) route of the Grand Rounds National Scenic Byway.[217] Theodore Wirth is credited with developing the parks system.[218] Approximately 15% of city land is parks, in accordance with the 2020 national median, and 98 percent of residents live within a half mile of a park.[214]

Black man wearing blue arm sleeves, navy shorts and orange sleeveless shirt printed number 2, running down paved street as fans behind barricade cheer him on in foreground
Elisha Barno winning the 2018 Medtronic Twin Cities Marathon

Parks are interlinked in many places and the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area connects regional parks and visitor centers. The country's oldest public wildflower garden, the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden and Bird Sanctuary, is located within Theodore Wirth Park. Wirth Park is shared with Golden Valley and is about 90% the size of Central Park in New York City.[219] Site of the 53-foot (16 m) Minnehaha Falls, Minnehaha Park is one of the city's oldest and most popular parks.[220] The regional park received over 2,050,000 visitors in 2017.[221] Henry Wadsworth Longfellow named Hiawatha's wife Minnehaha for the Minneapolis waterfall in The Song of Hiawatha, a bestselling and often-parodied 19th century poem.[222] The five-mile, hiking-only Winchell Trail along the Mississippi River, with its gorge views and access, offers a rustic hiking experience.[223]

Made possible by Minneapolis' climate, opportunities for winter activities such as ice fishing, snowshoeing, ice skating, and sledding are available at many parks and lakes between December and March.[224] When there is sufficient snowfall conditions or the presence of snowmaking, a partnership between the park board and Loppet Foundation provides for the grooming of 20 miles (32 km) of cross-country ski trails between Wirth Park, the Chain of Lakes, and at two city golf courses.[225][226][224] The City of Lakes Loppet cross-country ski race is part of the American ski marathon series.[227] The board park maintains 20 outdoor ice rinks in winter[228] and the city's Lake Nokomis is host to the annual U.S. Pond Hockey Championships.[229]

The Medtronic Twin Cities Marathon is a Boston qualifier.[230]

Government

Minneapolis is a stronghold for the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), an affiliate of the Democratic Party. The Minneapolis City Council represents the city's thirteen districts called wards. The city adopted instant-runoff voting in 2006, first using it in the 2009 elections.[231] The council is progressive with twelve DFL members and one from the Green Party.[232]

Jacob Frey of the DFL was elected mayor of Minneapolis in 2017.[233] The office of mayor is relatively weak but has some power to appoint individuals such as the chief of police. Parks, taxation, and public housing are semi-independent boards and levy their own taxes and fees subject to Board of Estimate and Taxation limits.[234] Elected in 2013, Lisa Bender serves as president of the City Council and does not plan to seek reelection.[235]

In December 2020, the city worked through input from nearly a thousand residents, an upturn in the crime rate, COVID-19, and the threat of a mayoral veto, to reach agreement on a 2021 budget. The $1.5 billion compromise maintained the number of police officers, set aside $8 million for community safety measures, cut funding in all major city departments, and included a 5.75 percent property tax increase.[236]

At the federal level, Minneapolis proper sits within Minnesota's 5th congressional district, which has been represented since 2018 by Democrat Ilhan Omar, one of the first two practicing Muslim women and the first Somali-American in Congress. Both of Minnesota's US Senators, Amy Klobuchar and Tina Smith, were elected or appointed while living in Minneapolis and are also Democrats.[237]

The City Council passed a resolution in 2015 making fossil fuel divestment city policy,[238] joining seventeen cities worldwide in the Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance. The city's climate plan calls for an 80 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.[239]

Police

African American man wearing white shouting into bullhorn pointed upper right
Terrence Floyd at memorial to his brother George Floyd
Aftermath of George Floyd's death, May 29, 2020 (5 mins)

Minneapolis has a separation ordinance that directs local law enforcement officers not to 'take any law enforcement action' for the sole purpose of finding undocumented immigrants, nor ask an individual about his or her immigration status.[240]

Killings of citizens by Minneapolis police occur repeatedly. The police caused ten deaths in the decade preceding the killing of George Floyd,[241] and in 2021, Star Tribune counted 200 police-related deaths in the state this century.[242]

KSTP-TV 5 Investigates found in 2020 that the city has paid millions in settlements because officers had been untruthful about use of force, for which they are rarely disciplined.[243]

Police chief Medaria Arradondo was part of a $740,000 settlement after accusing the department of "a history of tolerating racist and discriminatory remarks by its white police officers."[244] Body cameras were introduced in 2016 by former chief Janée Harteau but they were rarely used. A city audit in 2019 found body camera activation eventually increased to 95% since a 2017 order from Arradondo.[245] The police union viewpoint protects officers with a legal doctrine of qualified immunity.[244] MPD150, a community coalition formed at the department's 150th anniversary, holds a different view that the department should be abolished.[246]

City council president Bender announced in 2020 that the city should dismantle its police department and replace it with a "transformative new model of public safety."[247] The Charter Commission rejected the proposal.[248] In December while the city was "experiencing a crime wave that include[d] more than 500 shootings", the City Council voted to move $8 million from police to dispatcher training and mental health crisis teams, and more narrowly, to maintain the level of police staffing at 888 for 2021. After the summer of 2020, the department lost 166 officers either to retirement or to temporary leave, many with PTSD, and a crime wave resulted in more than 500 shootings.[249] In 2020, Minnesota Freedom Fighters formed as a neighborhood watch patrol.[250]

Education

Primary and secondary education

Minneapolis Public Schools enroll over 35,000 students in public primary and secondary schools. The district administers about one hundred public schools including forty-five elementary schools, seven middle schools, seven high schools, eight special education schools, eight alternative schools, nineteen contract alternative schools, and five charter schools. With authority granted by the state legislature, the school board makes policy, selects the superintendent, and oversees the district's budget, curriculum, personnel, and facilities. In 2017, the graduation rate was 66 percent.[251] Students speak over one hundred different languages at home and most school communications are printed in English, Hmong, Spanish, and Somali.[252][253] Some students attend public schools in other school districts chosen by their families under Minnesota's open enrollment statute.[254] Besides public schools, the city is home to more than twenty private schools and academies and about twenty additional charter schools.[255]

Colleges and universities

striking geometric metallic building in front of more traditional ones
University of Minnesota teaching art museum, teaching hospital, and student union (left to right)

Minneapolis's collegiate scene is dominated by the main campus of the University of Minnesota where more than 50,000 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students attend twenty colleges, schools, and institutes.[256] Beginning fall 2021, the University offers free tuition to students from Minnesota families earning less than $50,000 per year.[257] The graduate school programs with exceptional national rankings in 2020 (top five) were health care management, nursing: midwifery, pharmacy and clinical psychology.[258]

Augsburg University, Minneapolis College of Art and Design, and North Central University are private four-year colleges. Minneapolis Community and Technical College and the private Dunwoody College of Technology provide career training. St. Mary's University of Minnesota has a Twin Cities campus for its graduate and professional programs. Two large principally online universities, Capella University and Walden University, are both headquartered in the city. The public four-year Metropolitan State University and the private four-year University of St. Thomas are among postsecondary institutions based elsewhere with campuses in Minneapolis.[259]

Libraries

Founded by T. B. Walker in 1885,[260] the Minneapolis Public Library merged with the Hennepin County Library system in 2008.[261] The new downtown Central Library designed by César Pelli opened in 2006.[262] Ten special collections hold over 25,000 books and resources for researchers, including the Minneapolis Collection and the Minneapolis Photo Collection.[263] About 845,000 people have free library cards.[264]

Media

Several newspapers are published in Minneapolis: Star Tribune, Finance & Commerce, Minnesota Spokesman-Recorder, the university's The Minnesota Daily, and MinnPost.com. TMC Publications publishes The Monitor and Longfellow Nokomis Messenger.[265] MSP Communications publishes Mpls.St.Paul and Twin Cities Business magazines.[266] Other publications include Minnesota Women's Press, North News, Northeaster, Insight News, and The Circle.[265]

Nineteen FM and AM radio stations are licensed to Minneapolis, including one from the University of Minnesota and one from the public schools. Up to 79 FM and AM signals can be received in one or more areas of the city. There are 10 full-power television stations in the metro area, and one non-profit public access cable network. WCCO-TV is based in Minneapolis proper. A majority of these signals can be streamed.[267]

Movies filmed in Minneapolis include Airport (1970),[268] The Heartbreak Kid (1972),[269] Slaughterhouse-Five (1972),[270] Ice Castles (1978),[271] Foolin' Around (1980),[272] Take This Job and Shove It (1981),[273] Purple Rain (1984),[274] That Was Then, This Is Now (1985),[275] The Mighty Ducks (1992),[276] Untamed Heart (1993),[277] Little Big League (1994),[278] Beautiful Girls (1996),[279] Jingle All the Way (1996),[280] Fargo (1996),[281] and Young Adult (2011).[282] In 1960s television, two episodes of Route 66 were made in Minneapolis. The 1970s CBS situation comedy fictionally based in Minneapolis, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, won three Golden Globes[283] and 29 Emmy Awards.[284] The show's opening sequences were filmed locally.[285]

Infrastructure

Transportation

Yellow light rail across the street from old city hall downtown
Metro Blue Line downtown at Government Plaza

Minneapolis has two light rail lines and one commuter rail line. The Metro Blue Line connects the Mall of America and Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport in Bloomington to downtown and the Metro Green Line travels east from downtown through the University of Minnesota campus to downtown Saint Paul. Hundreds of homeless people nightly sought shelter on Green Line trains until overnight service was cut back in 2019 and rising crime on the light rail system led to discussion in the state legislature on how to best address the issue in 2020.[286][287] An extension of the Green Line will connect downtown Minneapolis with the southwestern suburbs and is expected to open in 2023.[288] An extension of the Blue Line to the northwest suburbs reentered the planning stages for a new route alignment in 2020.[289] The 40-mile Northstar Commuter rail runs from Big Lake through the northern suburbs and terminates at the multi-modal transit station at Target Field using existing railroad tracks.[290] Public transit ridership in the Twin Cities was 91.6 million in 2019, a three percent decline over the previous year which is part of a national trend in lower local bus ridership. Ridership on the Metro system remained steady or grew slightly.[291]

In 2007, the Interstate 35W bridge over the Mississippi, at the time overloaded with three hundred tons of repair materials, collapsed, killing thirteen and injuring 145 people. The bridge was rebuilt in fourteen months. Only one-fourth of the country's structurally deficient bridges had been repaired ten years later.[292]

Walk Score rated Minneapolis as having the 13th highest Walk Score and the highest Bike Score among cities with more than 200,000 people in the US in 2020.[293] The Minneapolis Skyway System, 9.5 miles (15.3 km) of enclosed pedestrian bridges called skyways, link 80 city blocks downtown with second floor restaurants and retailers open weekdays.[294] Bicycling named Minneapolis the 4th best bicycling city in 2018.[295] Minneapolis has 82 miles (132 km) of trails for walking and biking.[296] Off-street facilities include the Grand Rounds, Midtown Greenway, Little Earth Trail, Hiawatha LRT Trail, Kenilworth Trail, and Cedar Lake Trail.[297] Bicycle sharing provider Nice Ride Minnesota planned expanded capacity in 2019.[298]

Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP) serves international, domestic, charter and regional carriers[299] and is home base for Sun Country Airlines.[300] As of 2019, it is also the second-largest hub for Delta Air Lines, who operate more flights out of MSP than any other airline.[301] For terminals serving 25 to 40 million passengers, MSP was named the world's best airport for customer experience in North America in 2020 for the fourth consecutive year.[302] Forbes named MSP the second best airport in North America, behind Detroit in 2019.[303]

Health care

Modern brick building seen from across street
Abbott Northwestern Hospital was founded in 1882.

Minneapolis has eight hospitals, four ranked among America's best by U.S. News & World Report in 2020–2021—Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Children's Hospitals and Clinics, University of Minnesota Medical Center, and University of Minnesota Masonic Children's Hospital.[304] Hennepin Healthcare, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Shriners Hospitals for Children and Phillips Eye Institute also serve the city.[305] The Mayo Clinic in Rochester is a 75-minute drive away.[306]

Cardiac surgery was developed at the university's Variety Club Hospital, where by 1957, more than two hundred patients had survived open-heart operations, many of them children. Working with surgeon C. Walton Lillehei, Medtronic began to build portable and implantable cardiac pacemakers about this time.[307]

Hennepin Healthcare opened in 1887 as City Hospital, and also has been known as Minneapolis General Hospital, Hennepin County General Hospital, and HCMC.[308] A public teaching hospital and Level I trauma center,[309] the Hennepin Healthcare safety net counted 643,739 clinic visits and 111,307 emergency and urgent care visits in 2019.[310]

The 2018 AARP Livability Index scored Minneapolis above average on health;[311] the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) ranked Minneapolis and its metropolitan area the nation's first, second, or third most fit city every year from 2008 to 2016, and first from 2011 to 2013.[312] The ACSM American Fitness Index ranks the city third in 2020.[313]

Utilities

"Ambassadors," identified by their blue and fluorescent green-yellow jackets, patrol daily a 120-block area downtown to greet and assist visitors, remove trash, monitor property, and call police when they are needed. The ambassador program is a public-private partnership with a $6.6 million annual budget paid for by a special downtown tax district.[314]

Xcel Energy supplies electricity, CenterPoint Energy supplies gas, CenturyLink provides landline telephone service, and Comcast provides cable service.[315] The city treats and distributes water and charges a monthly solid waste fee for trash removal.[316]

After each significant snowfall, called a snow emergency, the Minneapolis Public Works Street Division plows over 1,000 mi (1,610 km) of streets and 400 mi (640 km) of alleys—counting both sides, the distance between Minneapolis and Seattle and back.[317] Ordinances govern parking on the plowing routes during these emergencies as well as snow shoveling.[318]

Notable people

Sister cities

Minneapolis' sister cities are:[319]

See also

Other Languages

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