Murder of Tammy Alexander

Tammy Alexander
Tammy Alexander.jpg
School portrait, circa 1978
Tammy Jo Alexander

November 2, 1963 (1963-11-02)
Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Disappeared First half of 1979
Brooksville, Florida, United States
Died November 9, 1979 (1979-11-10) (aged 16)
Cause of death Homicide (gunshot wounds to head and back)
Body discovered Off U.S. Route 20 in Caledonia 42°55′03″N 77°46′35″W / 42.917363°N 77.776299°W / 42.917363; -77.776299Coordinates: 42°55′03″N 77°46′35″W / 42.917363°N 77.776299°W / 42.917363; -77.776299 (approximate)
Resting place Greenmount Cemetery, Dansville, New York, US[1]
42°32′48″N 77°41′05″W / 42.546588°N 77.684836°W / 42.546588; -77.684836 (approximate)
Nationality American
Other names Caledonia Jane Doe, "Cali Doe"
Known for Unidentified victim of homicide for more than 35 years
Height 5 ft 3 in (1.60 m) (approximate)
Weight 120 lb (54 kg) (approximate)
Relatives mother, Barbara Jenkins (c.1942-January 17, 1998); father, Alexander; half-sister Pamela Dyson

Tammy Jo Alexander (b. 2 November 1963- d. 10 November 1979), was known for more than three decades as the Caledonia Jane Doe or "Cali Doe", an unidentified homicide victim found in the Town of Caledonia, New York, on November 10, 1979.[2][3][4] She had been fatally shot twice and left in a field just off U.S. Route 20 near the Genesee River. She was found to have run away from her home in Brooksville, Florida earlier that year. The Livingston County police announced her identity on January 26, 2015, more than 35 years after her death.[5]

Alexander was found to have been sixteen years old when killed. Identification was achieved based on a combination of factors: a renewed search for her by a close high school friend and Alexander's half-sister; filing of a new missing persons report with Hernando County police; volunteers who analyze databases about unidentified missing persons or victims to solve cold cases; the Livingston County Sheriff's Office use of new technologies in their investigation, as well as their repeated publicity about new data. After a connection made between facial images, a mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) analysis, based on DNA extracted in 2005 from Alexander's remains, revealed her match with her sister.

Death and discovery

On the morning of November 10, 1979, a farmer in Caledonia, New York, 23 miles (37 km) southwest of the city of Rochester, saw red clothing in one of his corn fields near the Genesee River, about 20 feet (6 m) from the south side of U.S. Route 20, and 0.5 miles (0.8 km) west of Route 20's split with New York State Route 5. He went to investigate, believing that he had spotted a trespassing hunter. Instead, in the field he found the body of a young woman.[6][7]

The woman, later named "Caledonia Jane Doe" or "Cali Doe" by investigators, was fully clothed and showed no signs of sexual assault. She had died from a severe hemorrhage caused by two gunshot wounds, one to the head over the right eye and one to the back. The wound to the head indicated she had apparently not turned or flinched, as is common when one is shot in the head. The entry wound suggested complete surprise.[8] Her pockets had been turned inside out, suggesting that any identification she carried had been removed.[6][9]

The autopsy by the medical examiner indicated that she had first been shot in the head while next to the road bordering the cornfield, at or near a blood spot found on the ground. She was dragged into the cornfield, where she was shot again in the back and left for dead. Heavy rains on the night of her death washed away much potential forensic evidence, such as physical and DNA traces of the perpetrator on her body or clothes.[6][9][7]


The victim was estimated to have been between the ages of 13 and 19 (born sometime between 1958 and 1967).[10] She was estimated to be 5 feet 3 inches (1.60 m) and 120 pounds (54 kg).[10][11] She had brown eyes and wavy, light brown shoulder-length hair that had been lightened in the front about four months prior to her death and was growing out. Her hair appeared to have been recently dyed from blonde to brown.[8] Her toenails were painted with coral-colored polish.[3]

She had visible tan lines from a halter top or bikini, suggesting that she may have come from a region with abundant October–November sunshine, as sun tanning beds were uncommon in the 1970s. Upstate New York is not generally warm or sunny enough for such tanning during that period.[9][7] There were freckles on the backs of her shoulders and acne on her face and chest.[3]

The teeth were in natural condition, with no restorations or fillings. It did not appear as if she had ever received dental care. Some of her permanent first and second molars suffered from severe dental caries (cavities and decay). Consistent with her young appearance, none of her permanent third molars (wisdom teeth) had erupted.[3] Her blood type was A-.[3] Several hours before her death, she had eaten sweet corn, potatoes, and boiled, canned ham. This was possibly from a diner in nearby Lima, where a waitress had seen her eating with an adult man.[9][12]

Clothing and jewelry

The teenage girl was wearing a red nylon-lined man's windbreaker jacket with black stripes down the arms, marked inside with the label "Auto Sports Products, Inc.", a boy's multicolored plaid button-up shirt with collar, tan corduroy pants (size 7), blue knee socks, white bra (size 32C),[3] and blue panties.[11] She wore brown ripple-soled shoes. The red Auto Sports Products jacket was produced as a one-time promotional item and could not be traced after distribution.[9]

She also wore a silver necklace with three small turquoise stones. The necklace had a homemade appearance and resembled replica Native American jewelry made in the southwestern United States.[7][13] Attached to the girl's pants' front belt loops were two metal keychains, one shaped like a heart with a key-shaped cutout and inscribed with the words, "He who holds the Key can open my heart", the other shaped like a key meant to fit the cutout in the heart.[7][11] The keychains were sold at vending machines along the New York State Thruway, leading investigators to conclude that she and her killer had traveled that route.[8]

A composite of the man seen with Tammy Alexander prior to her murder


Police believe the murder weapon to have been a .38-caliber handgun. Investigators located a spent slug in the dirt underneath the unidentified girl's body, which they compared forensically to hundreds of other bullets fired from confiscated weapons. Despite investigators' efforts to trace weapons from the U.S., Canada, Europe, and Mexico, the slug has not been matched to a specific gun.[6]

The subject seen with the teenage girl was a white male between five feet eight and five feet nine inches tall. He was seen driving a tan station wagon and wore black wire-rimmed glasses.[14] The man was stated to be a "person of interest" in the case, and police continue to seek his identity.[15]

In 1984, Henry Lee Lucas confessed to the murder of the unidentified girl, without identifying her. Investigators found no evidence sufficient to support his confession.[9] During the years after the killing, when the victim continued to be unidentified, this case received national attention. For instance, it was featured on such television shows as America's Most Wanted.[3][7][16][17] Later in the 1980s, John York, who had been one of the first Livingston County deputy sheriffs on the scene in 1979, was elected sheriff. He served in the job until 2013, and ensured that the investigation remained active.[5]

With DNA analysis improving, in September 2005 the police had the "Unidentified Girl's body exhumed in order to extract DNA. They hoped that the victim could eventually be identified by a DNA match with a living relative.[18] The University of North Texas Center for Human Identification produced nuclear STR (nucDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) profiles of her DNA via forensic DNA profiling. The latter could identify her direct maternal line of ancestry. Her DNA profiles were stored in the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a database that allows U.S. public crime laboratories to compare and exchange DNA profiles in order to identify criminal suspects and crime victims, but no matches were made.[3]

In addition, at the time of exhumation, several of the victim's teeth were sent for mineralogical and forensic isotope analysis. The composition of her teeth could be linked to the composition and mineral content of regional drinking water supplies around North America, allowing investigators to determine where she may have been raised.[18][19] Early results on the dental 18O/16O isotopic oxygen ratio indicated that she may have spent her early years in the south/southwest region of the United States.[18]

Pollen evidence

In 2006, forensic palynology was conducted on the clothing worn by the victim. Paul Chambers, a recently hired investigator in the Monroe County, New York medical examiner's office, asked for and received permission to send her clothing to the Palynology Laboratory at Texas A&M University.[6] Among the types of pollen found on the clothing by the Texas A&M researchers were grains from Casuarina (Australian pine, or "she oak"), Quercus (oak), Picea (spruce), and Betula (birch). The clothing pollen grains were compared to a control sample of pollen grains taken directly from the rural New York site where the body had been found in 1979.[6][20][21]

Oak grows widely all over the United States, and spruce and birch grow in New York, among many places in the country. But no oak, spruce, or birch pollen grains were found in the control sample, and neither spruce nor birch trees were found growing near the body dump site.[20] The spruce and birch pollen on the unidentified body came from species common in mountainous areas of California.[22]

Australian pine is an invasive genus of tree that grows in a limited number of locations in North America: south Florida; south Texas; parts of Mexico; the campuses of the University of Arizona and Arizona State University; and three regions in California: the North Bay of San Francisco, the San Luis Obispo area, and the San Diego area.[20] The tree cannot survive the autumn and winter seasons in the temperate climate of western New York, where the body was found.[22][23] Thus, investigators knew that Alexander and her clothing had acquired the Casuarina pollen grains at a location other than the dump site.

Researchers believed the southern California and San Diego region to be the best geographical pollen print match location for the grains from the clothing.[20] Based on the pollen evidence and the girl's visible tan lines, forensic researchers suggested that she may have been living in the southwestern United States near San Diego, then traveled (perhaps by hitchhiking) through the Sierra Nevada mountains, where spruce and birch grow, passing through Reno, Nevada, and traveled across the country to upstate New York.[6][20][16]

A 2012 reexamination of the grains concluded, again, that they could have originated only from California, Arizona, or Florida.[21]

A facial reconstruction of Caledonia Jane Doe prior to her identification in 2015


Tammy Alexander was formally identified on January 26, 2015, more than 35 years after the discovery of her body. Laurel Nowell, a close friend in high school from Brooksville, Florida, had started trying to reach her in the 2010s by social media. She eventually reached Alexander's half-sister, Pamela Dyson, of Panama City, Florida. Dyson knew that Alexander had often run away from home, but she had not lived with her younger half-sister after about age eleven. She learned that no one in her family knew anything of Alexander's whereabouts since the girl had left sometime between 1977 and 1979.[5]

Dyson and Nowell became concerned that Alexander may have fallen victim to a crime after leaving home. In August 2014, the Hernando County sheriff's office told them no missing persons report had been filed.[5] (Dyson has said that her mother did report Alexander as missing.[24] She has speculated that, since Alexander had a history of running away and returning, police may not have taken the case seriously).[25][26] They filed a new report.[5]

Shortly after Caledonia Jane Doe's facial reconstruction portrait was posted in the National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs), Carl Koppelman, a California artist, came across the "missing person" report on Alexander when he reviewed new reports for WebSleuths. He is a moderator of this online community, where volunteers try to solve cold cases, including those of unidentified bodies. In 2010 he had sketched the portrait of Caledonia Jane Doe; in September 2014, when he saw the new listing for Alexander, he quickly realized that Alexander was the same person as Cali Doe.

He emailed the Livingston County Sheriff's Office (with copies sent to the NamUs regional administrator, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC), and the Hernando County, Florida Sheriff's Office) to tell them of the strong resemblance between the two images. Police arranged to take a DNA sample from Dyson.

In January 2015 the Monroe County, New York medical examiner's office found that mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) from the unidentified body matched that of Dyson, confirming that the victim was her half sister. A week later on January 26, 2015, the Livingston County sheriff, Thomas Dougherty, announced at a news conference that Caledonia Jane Doe had been identified after 35 years as Tammy Jo Alexander of Brooksville, Florida.[5][27]

Dyson said the family had decided to keep Alexander buried in the Greenmount Cemetery in Dansville.[5] They planned to hold a service there for her.[24] "I'm truly glad for the closure," [Dyson] said. "But it hurts to know she died that way. It's terrible, nobody should have to be shot and dragged out into the woods."[26]

The Dougherty Funeral Home, in Livonia, New York, said it paid to have the "Jane Doe" headstone removed and replaced with one reading "Tammy Jo Alexander".[28] A public ceremony took place on June 10, 2015, when the new headstone, displaying the victim's name and lifespan, was revealed. Approximately one hundred family and community members attended.[29][30] Dyson and other members of the Alexander family thanked the police and Livingston community for their caring for Alexander and continued efforts to find her killer.[31]

Sister's recollections

Pamela Dyson, Alexander's half-sister, believes that Tammy Jo left to escape a turbulent household. Dyson had a different father than Tammy's and, after about age eleven, she lived with her paternal grandmother. She said that Tammy Jo's biological father was not really part of the younger girl's life; she grew up with their mother and a stepfather. Their mother had become addicted to prescription medication and was emotionally volatile, erupting into temper tantrums. "She did prescription drugs," Dyson said of her mother, Barbara. "She was suicidal. I think she had issues back then that they didn't diagnose."[32]

Dyson and Alexander's mother, Barbara Jenkins, died on January 17, 1998 at the age of 56. Her obituary had listed Tammy Alexander as deceased, which the family had assumed to be the case by that time.[33]

Jenkins had worked as a waitress at a truck stop, and was joined by Alexander when she was a teenager. Alexander had a history of running away in this period. Her friend Laura Nowell said that they had sometimes hitchhiked together with truckers, once traveling all the way to California together. When they got there, Nowell called her parents, and they paid for airline tickets for both girls so they could return to Florida.[32]

Until the identification of "Cali" as Tammy Jo Alexander, Dyson had believed that her sister had made a new life somewhere away from her mother and stepfather. She had hoped that it included a happy household, with a husband and children. "I thought she just wanted to go away and start all over," Dyson said.[30]

Dyson has urged family members of missing people to enter the subjects into the National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs), saying that this database was critical in achieving her sister's identification.[32][31]

Later developments

Dougherty, the current Sheriff of Livingston County, has said the investigation would now focus on finding out who killed Alexander. "We've always said one of the biggest parts of solving this case is knowing the victim," Dougherty told the media. "This case is burning hot ... We're going to be working it harder than ever."[5] Former sheriff York later said that more than 10,000 leads had already been investigated in the case.[15][34]

The FBI posted billboards throughout the country about Alexander's murder in an attempt to gain new information from the public. By the end of February 2015, the Livingston County Sheriff Department said they had received many more tips since Alexander's identification, enough to develop a scenario of events that led up to the girl's arrival in Caledonia.[35] A trucker from Tennessee reported what police said was a "significant" lead after he had heard a radio broadcast detailing the case.[36]

In March 2015, the department said that Alexander had ties to a former "prison ministry" in Young Harris, Georgia, which specialized in working with individuals "on probation or parole."[37][38] By early 2016, the police had identified three male persons of interest who had known Alexander, although none was related by evidence to the crime. The police had found male DNA on her clothing.[36] By November 2016, the police said the FBI had reported that none of the three matched the male DNA found on Alexander's clothing. They continued to receive and investigate new leads in the case.[39]

In the media

In May 2016, two news organizations in Rochester, New York, partnered to produce a multi-part podcast detailing Alexander's murder and the ongoing investigation, called Finding Tammy Jo.[40] It was hosted by reporters Veronica Volk from WXXI News and Gary Craig from The Democrat and Chronicle, who spent a year co-reporting on the case. They had interviewed potential witnesses, law enforcement, and Alexander's family and friends.[41]

See also


  1. ^ Democrat & Chronicle
  2. ^ "Press release" (PDF). Livingston County, New York: Livingston County Sheriff's Office. November 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 7, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "NamUs UP # 6583". Unidentified Persons Database. National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs). Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  4. ^ "Unidentified: Town of Caledonia, Livingston County, NY". Wanted/Missing: Unidentified Persons. New York State Police. June 20, 1997. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Police ID 'Jane Doe' found in Livingston Co. cornfield in 1979". January 26, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Dobbin, Ben (October 4, 2006). "Pollen produces new clue in 1979 slaying". USA Today. Rochester, New York. The Associated Press. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Poole, Andrew (November 10, 2011). "Livingston County Sheriff's Office trying to solve 32-year-old Caledonia murder". The Evening Tribune. Hornell, New York. Archived from the original on June 29, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  8. ^ a b c Craig, Gary (January 31, 2015). "Never forgotten: The identification of Tammy Jo". Democrat & Chronicle. Rochester, NY. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Case File 1UFNY". Unidentified Victims. The Doe Network. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  10. ^ a b "Case NCMU1102079: JANE DOE1979". Unidentified Children. National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Archived from the original on June 22, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  11. ^ a b c "Unidentified Homicide Victim (Caledonia)". Livingston County, New York: Livingston County Sheriff's Office. 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  12. ^ "Murdered Girl's Identity a Mystery" (PDF). The Palladium-Times. Oswego, New York. Associated Press. January 19, 1980. p. 12. Retrieved October 2, 2013. [permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Gruba, Mark (May 1, 2012). "Jane Doe cold case gets new life". WROC-TV. Rochester, New York. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2012.
  14. ^ "Unidentified Female Found on 11/10/1979 Near Caledonia, New York". FBI. 2013. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 31, 2015.
  15. ^ a b Ingles, Jacqueline (January 26, 2015). "Tammy Jo Alexander, a teen who went missing from Brooksville in 1979, has been identified". ABC Action News. ABC. Archived from the original on January 22, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  16. ^ a b Contreras, Russell (May 1, 2012). "'Southwest pollen' linked to Livingston County cold case". The Daily News. Batavia, New York. The Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
  17. ^ Santora, Sally (January 30, 2015). "Retired deputy recalls discovery of 'Jane Doe' in Caledonia". Livingston County News. Retrieved June 26, 2015. [permanent dead link]
  18. ^ a b c "Authorities use technology to solve Jane Doe murder, more tips sought". Lake & Valley Clarion. Geneseo, New York. November 16, 2006. p. 2. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
  19. ^ Voorhees, Seth (August 23, 2006). "Unsolved Case Gets New Help". R News. Rochester, New York. Archived from the original on October 4, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d e Bryant, Vaughn (August 3, 2009). "Forensic Palynology: Why It Works" (PDF). Trace Evidence Symposium 2009. National Forensic Science Technology Center. pp. 34–42. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  21. ^ a b Leader, Matt (November 14, 2014). "Search for identity continues in 35-year-old mystery". Livingston County News. Retrieved June 26, 2015. [permanent dead link]
  22. ^ a b Bryant, Vaughn M. (2009). "Palynology" (PDF). In Jamieson, Allan; Moenssens, Andre (eds.). Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science. Portsmouth, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1954–1968. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
  23. ^ Masterson, J. (October 4, 2007). "Casuarina equisetifolia". Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory. Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
  24. ^ a b Domingues, Cristina (January 26, 2015). "Sister of Tammy Jo Finally Has Answers". Time Warner Cable News. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  25. ^ Ingles, Jackquilene (January 27, 2015). "Tammy Jo Alexander's family is disputing claims their family never filed a missing person report". ABC Action News. ABC. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
  26. ^ a b Adams, Lynette (January 26, 2015). "Sister of 'Caledonia Jane Doe': Missing persons report was filed, our family did care". WHEC-TV. Rochester, NY. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  27. ^ Ingles, Jacqueline (January 26, 2015). "Tammy Jo Alexander, a teen who went missing from Brooksville in 1979, has been identified". ABC Action News. ABC. Archived from the original on January 30, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  28. ^ "1979 murder victim's family speaks out". News 10NBC. NBC. January 27, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
  29. ^ Ingles, Jacqueline (June 10, 2015). "Tammy Jo Alexander went missing from Brooksville in 1979; teen found murdered in upstate NY". ABC Action News. ABC. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  30. ^ a b Leader, Matt (June 10, 2015). "A soul worthy of remembering: Tammy Jo's family, friends say goodbye at graveside remembrance ceremony". Livingston County News. Retrieved June 26, 2015. [permanent dead link]
  31. ^ a b "Tammy Jo Alexander's family thanks community 30 years later". News 10. NBC. June 14, 2015. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  32. ^ a b c Craig, Gary (January 30, 2015). "Sister of 'Cali' hoped she had fled turbulent home". Democrat & Chronicle. Rochester, NY. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
  33. ^ ""Barbara Jenkins, 56" Homemaker". Lakeland Ledger. January 22, 1998. p. B3. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
  34. ^ Rudd, Nicki (June 10, 2015). "Ceremony in Livingston County remembers Tammy Jo Alexander". News 10NBC. NBC. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  35. ^ Leader, Matt (February 27, 2015). "FBI, Sheriff's Office use billboards to gain new leads in Caledonia killing". Livingston County News. Retrieved June 26, 2015. [permanent dead link]
  36. ^ a b Flasch, Jane (January 27, 2016). "DNA of 3 men being tested in 1979 murder of Tammy Jo Alexander". WHAM New York. ABC. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  37. ^ Craig, Gary (March 18, 2015). "Prison ministry part of investigation into Tammy Jo killing". Democrat & Chronicle. Gannett. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  38. ^ "Did N.Y. cold case murder victim have ties to Ga.?". Crimesider. CBS. March 19, 2015. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  39. ^ Craig, Gary (November 2016). [http:// "3 men tested for DNA match in Tammy Jo homicide"] Check |url= value (help). Democrat & Chronicle. USA Today Network. Retrieved May 5, 2019.
  40. ^ "Finding Tammy Jo".
  41. ^ Craig, Gary. "Tammy Jo: From love-struck teen to homicide victim".

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