The image is from Wikipedia Commons
The Murutic languages are (Lobel 2013):
- Murut proper
- Murut dialects
- Tidung language
Tagol Murut is commonly used and understood by a large majority of the Murut peoples.
Lobel (2013:360) also lists the languages Abai Sembuak, Abai Tubu, and Bulusu (all spoken near Malinau town in North Kalimantan) as Murutic languages. On the other hand, Abai Sungai, spoken in eastern Sabah, is a Paitanic language.
Lobel (2016) covers the following Greater Murutic languages, including Tidong:
- Murut Nabaay
- Murut Timugon
- Murut Paluan
- Murut Tagol
- Western Tingalan
- Eastern Tingalan
- Murut Kalabakan
- Abai Sembuak
- Abai Tubu
- Tidung Bengawong
- Tidung Sumbol
- Tidung Kalabakan
- Tidung Mensalong
- Tidung Malinau
Lobel (2013:367) lists the following Murutic phonological innovations. (Note: PSWSAB stands for Proto-Southwest Sabahan, while PMP stands for Proto-Malayo-Polynesian.)
- PMP/PSWSAB *R > *h / __ V (except after *ə, where it had already shifted to *g in PSWSAB). Subsequently, Proto-Greater Murutic *h > Ø occurred in all daughter languages except Papar.
- PMP/PSWSAB *R > *g / __ #
- PMP/PSWSAB *aw > *ow; *ay > *oy
- PMP/PSWSAB *iw > *uy
- PGMUR *g- > Ø after the adjectival prefix *ma-
- PMP/PSWSAB *ə > *a in non-final syllables, except in the environment *_Cə, where it is reflected as /o/
- Lobel, Jason William. 2013. Philippine and North Bornean languages: issues in description, subgrouping, and reconstruction. Ph.D. dissertation. Manoa: University of Hawai'i at Manoa.
- Lobel, Jason William. 2016. North Borneo Sourcebook: Vocabularies and Functors. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824857790
- This page is based on the Wikipedia article Murutic languages; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.