NHK

Japan Broadcasting Corporation
Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai
日本放送協会
Type Radio, terrestrial television and satellite television broadcaster
Country
Japan
Availability Nationwide and Worldwide
Founded Tokyo Broadcasting Station founded 29 November 1924; merged into Japan Broadcasting Corporation 6 August 1926; implementation of Broadcasting Act 1 June 1950
Slogan まっすぐ、真剣。 ("Honest, seriousness")[1]
Broadcast area
Japan
Area Shibuya, Tokyo
Owner Government of Japan (statutory corporation chartered under the Broadcasting Act of 1950)
Key people
Terunobu Maeda, President
Satoru Masagaki, Executive Vice President
Launch date
March 1925 (radio)
November 1950 (February 1953) (television)
Former names
Tokyo/Osaka/Nagoya Broadcasting Station (1925-26)
Picture format
1080i (HDTV)
2160p 4K UHD (NHK BS 4K)
4320p 8K UHD (NHK BS 8K)
Callsign meaning
Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai
Official website
www.nhk.or.jp
NHK Broadcasting Museum
NHK Osaka
Old Company logo (1926-1942)
NHK logo (1962-1995)
Old logo, used from 1995 until March 2020
Alternate old logo

NHK (Japanese: 日本放送協会, Hepburn: Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), also called Japan Broadcasting Corporation[2], is Japan's public broadcaster.[3] NHK, which has always been known by this romanized initialism in Japanese,[4][a] is a statutory corporation funded by viewers' payments of a television license fee.

NHK operates two terrestrial television channels (NHK General TV and NHK Educational TV), four satellite television channels (NHK BS1 and NHK BS Premium), as well as two ultra-high-definition television channels; NHK BS4K and NHK BS8K, and three radio networks (NHK Radio 1, NHK Radio 2, and NHK FM).

NHK also provides an international broadcasting service, known as NHK World-Japan. NHK World-Japan is composed of NHK World TV, NHK World Premium, and the shortwave radio service Radio Japan (RJ). World Radio Japan also makes some of its programs available on the Internet.

NHK was the first broadcaster in the world to broadcast in high-definition (using multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding, also known as Hi-Vision) and in 8K.[5]

Organization

NHK is a dependent corporation chartered by the Japanese Broadcasting Act and primarily funded by license fees. NHK World broadcasting (for overseas viewers/listeners) is funded by the Japanese government.[citation needed] The annual budget of NHK is subject to review and approval by the Diet of Japan. The Diet also appoints the twelve-member board of governors (経営委員会 keiei iinkai) that oversees NHK.

NHK is managed on a full-time basis by an executive board (理事会, rijikai) consisting of a president, vice president and seven to ten managing directors who oversee the areas of NHK operations. The executive board reports to the board of governors.

Subsidiaries[6]

  • NHK Enterprises, Inc. (NHKエンタープライズ): Established in 2005-04-01.
  • NHK Educational Corporation (株式会社 NHKエデュケーショナル): Established in 1989-05-30.
  • NHK ART,inc. (株式会社NHKアート): Established in 1961-07-10.
  • NHK Publishing, Inc. (NHK出版): Established in 1931-04-01.
  • Japan International Broadcasting Inc. (株式会社日本国際放送)/JIB: Established in 2008-04-04.
  • NHK International, Inc. (一般財団法人NHKインターナショナル): Established in 1980-07-01.
  • NHK Global Media Services, Inc. (株式会社NHKグローバルメディアサービス): Established in 2009-04-01 by merging NHK Joho Network, Inc. ((株)NHK情報ネットワーク) (established in 1989-01-01) and Japan Teletex Co. Ltd. (日本文字放送) (established in 1985).[7]
  • NHK Cosmomedia America, Inc.: Created by merging Japan Network Group (Media International Corporation) and NHK Enterprises America, Inc. in 2010-04-01,[8] but its licence was granted in 2008-11-12.[9] The company's logo was filed in 2010-03-23 and registered in 2011-12-13.[10]
  • NHK Cosmomedia (Europe) Limited: Founded in 1989-11-08 as JSTV.[11] In April 2010, it was renamed to NHK Cosmomedia (Europe) Limited.
  • NHK Technologies, Inc. (株式会社NHKテクノロジーズ): Established in 2019-04-01 by merging NHK Integrated Technology Inc. (株式会社NHKアイテック) and NHK Media Technology, Inc. (株式会社NHKメディアテクノロジー).[12]
  • Broadcasting Satellite System Corporation (株式会社 放送衛星システム)/B-SAT: Established in 1993-04-13.
  • NHK Engineering System, Inc. (一般財団法人NHKエンジニアリングシステム): Established in 1981-12-22.
  • NHK GAKUEN (学校法人 NHK学園): Established in 1962-10-01 (学校法人日本放送協会学園). It was renamed to the current name in 2018-04-01.[13]
  • NHK Symphony Orchestra, Tokyo (公益財団法人 NHK交響楽団): Established in 1942-04-27 as Japan Symphony Orchestra (財団法人日本交響楽団). In 1951-08-01, it was renamed to NHK Symphony Orchestra (財団法人NHK交響楽団). It became a public interest incorporated foundation, and was renamed to currant name in 2010-04-01.[14][15]
  • NHK Public Welfare Organization/NHK HEARTS (社会福祉法人NHK厚生文化事業団): Established in 1960-08-31.
  • NHK Promotions Inc. (株式会社NHKプロモーション)/(株式会社エヌエイチケイプロモーション): Established in 1977-10-01 as NHK Promote Service Inc. (株式会社NHKプロモートサービス). It was renamed to currant name in 1989–10.
  • NHK CULTURE CENTER (株式会社エヌエイチケイ文化センター)/(NHKカルチャー): Established in 1978-12-01.
  • NHK SERVICE CENTER,INC. (一般財団法人 NHK サービスセンター): Established in 1951-02-28.
  • NHK BUSINESS SERVICES INC. (NHK営業サービス株式会社): Established in 1990-01-17.
  • BS Conditional Access Systems Co., Ltd. (株式会社 ビーエス・コンディショナルアクセスシステムズ)/B-CAS (ビーキャス): Established in 2000-02-22.
  • NHK Business Create Inc. (株式会社 NHKビジネスクリエイト): Established in 2009-04-01 by merger (株式会社NHKオフィス企画), (株式会社NHK共同サービス).[16]
  • NHK-Communications Training Institute (一般財団法人NHK放送研修センター): Established in 1985-08-08.
  • NHK Integrated Technology Inc. (株式会社NHKアイテック): Established in 1969-07-23 as NHK Integrated Technology Inc.? (全日本テレビサービス株式会社). It was merged into NHK Technologies, Inc. in 2019-04-01.
  • NHK Media Technology, Inc. (株式会社NHKメディアテクノロジー): Established in 2008-04 by merging NHK Technical Service (株式会社NHKテクニカルサービス) (est. 1984-10-09) and NHK Computer Service (株式会社NHKコンピューターサービス). It was merged into NHK Technologies, Inc. in 2019-04-01.

License fee

NHK is funded by reception fees (受信料, jushinryō), a system analogous to the license fee used in some English-speaking countries. The Broadcasting Act which governs NHK's funding stipulates anyone with broadcasting equipment able to receive NHK must pay. The fee is standardized,[17] with discounts for office workers and students who commute, as well a discount for residents of Okinawa prefecture. For viewers making annual payments by credit card with no special discounts, the reception fee is 13,600 yen per year for terrestrial reception only, and 24,090 yen per year for both terrestrial and broadcast satellite reception.[18]

However, the Broadcasting Act specifies no punitive actions for nonpayment; as a result, after a rash of NHK-related scandals including an accounting one, the number of people who had not paid the license fee surpassed one million watchers.[citation needed] This incident sparked debate over the fairness of the fee system.[19] In 2006, the NHK opted to take legal action against those most flagrantly in violation of the law.[20]

This fee and how it is charged is unpopular with some citizens leading to the formation of The Party to Protect the People from NHK (Japanese: NHKから国民を守る党, NHK kara Kokumin wo Mamoru Tō),[21] also known as N-Koku (N国)[22] who have protested this fee with representation in the upper house.

NHK domestic broadcasting stations

TV programming

NHK General TV broadcasts a variety of programming. The following are noteworthy.

News

NHK offers local, national, and world news reports. NHK News 7 airs daily and is broadcast bilingually with both Japanese and English audio tracks on NHK General TV and NHK's international channels TV Japan and NHK World Premium. The flagship news program News Watch 9 is also bilingual and also airs on NHK General TV and the international channels and NHK World Premium. World News is aired on NHK BS 1 with Catch! Sekai no Top News in the morning and International News Report at night, with the latter also airing on NHK World Premium. News on NHK BS 1 is aired at 50 minutes past the hour except during live sport events.

NHK also offers news for the deaf (which airs on NHK Educational TV), regional news (which airs on NHK General TV) and children's news. Newsline is an English-language newscast designed for foreign viewers and airs on NHK World.

In his book Broadcasting Politics in Japan: NHK and Television News, Ellis S. Krauss states: 'In the 1960s and 1970s, external critics of NHK news were complaining about the strict neutrality, the lack of criticism of government, and the 'self-regulation in covering events'. Krauss claims that little had changed by the 1980s and 1990s.[23] After the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, NHK was criticised for underplaying the dangers from radioactive contamination.[24][25]

Emergency reporting

Under the Broadcasting Act, NHK is under the obligation to broadcast early warning emergency reporting in times of natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Their national network of seismometers in cooperation with the Japan Meteorological Agency makes NHK capable of delivering earthquake early warnings seconds after detection, as well as a more detailed report in just two-to-three minutes after the quake. They also broadcast air attack warnings in the event of war, using the J-Alert system.[26]

All warnings are broadcast in five languages: English, Mandarin, Korean and Portuguese (Japan has small Chinese, Korean and Brazilian populations), as well as Japanese. The warnings were broadcast in these languages during the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami.[27]

Sports

NHK broadcasts sumo wrestling, baseball games, Olympic Games, soccer games, and a range of other sports.

Music

The NHK Symphony Orchestra, financially sponsored by NHK, was formerly (until 1951) the Japanese Symphony Orchestra. Its website details the orchestra's history and ongoing concert programme.[28] Since 1953, NHK has broadcast the Kōhaku Uta Gassen song contest on New Year's Eve, ending shortly before midnight.

Drama

A sentimental morning show, a weekly jidaigeki and a year-long show, the Taiga drama, spearhead the network's fiction offerings.

NHK is also making efforts at broadcasting dramas made in foreign countries as overseas drama (海外ドラマ, Kaigai Dorama).

Children

The longest running children's show in Japan, Okaasan to Issho (おかあさんといっしょ, With Mother) started broadcasting in 1959[29] and still airs to this day Monday-Friday 17:36-18:00 JST, Sunday 17:30-17:54 JST with rebroadcasts Tuesday-Sunday 5:00-5:24 JST on NHK World Premium.[30]

History

NHK's earliest forerunner was the Tokyo Broadcasting Station (東京放送局) founded in 1924 under the leadership of Count Gotō Shinpei. Tokyo Broadcasting Station, along with separate organizations in Osaka and Nagoya, began radio broadcasts in 1925. The three stations merged under the first incarnation of NHK in August 1926.[31] NHK was modelled on the BBC of the United Kingdom,[4] and the merger and reorganisation was carried out under the auspices of the pre-war Ministry of Communications.[32] NHK's second radio network began in 1931, and the third radio network (FM) began in 1937.

Radio broadcasting

NHK began shortwave broadcasting on an experimental basis in the 1930s, and began regular English- and Japanese-language shortwave broadcasts in 1935 under the name Radio Japan, initially aimed at ethnic Japanese listeners in Hawaii and the west coast of North America. By the late 1930s, NHK's overseas broadcasts were known as Radio Tokyo, which became an official name in 1941.

In November 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army nationalised all public news agencies and coordinated their efforts via the Information Liaison Confidential Committee.[citation needed] All published and broadcast news reports became official announcements of the Imperial Army General Headquarters in Tokyo for the duration of World War II. The famous Tokyo Rose wartime programs were broadcasts by NHK.[4] NHK also broadcast the Gyokuon-hōsō, the surrender speech made by Emperor Hirohito, in August 1945.

Following the war, in September 1945, the Allied occupation administration under General Douglas MacArthur banned all international broadcasting by NHK, and repurposed several NHK facilities and frequencies for use by the Far East Network (now American Forces Network). Japanese-American radio broadcaster Frank Shozo Baba joined NHK during this time and led an early post-war revamp of its programming. Radio Japan resumed overseas broadcasts in 1952.

A new Broadcasting Act (放送法, Hōsō Hō) was enacted in 1950, which made NHK a listener-supported independent corporation and simultaneously opened the market for commercial broadcasting in Japan.[33] NHK started television broadcasting in the same year, followed by its educational TV channel in 1959 and color television broadcasts in 1960.

NHK opened the first stage of its current headquarters in the special ward of Japan's capital city Shibuya as an international broadcasting center for the 1964 Summer Olympics, the first widely televised Olympic Games. The complex was gradually expanded through 1973, when it became the headquarters for NHK. The previous headquarters adjacent to Hibiya Park was redeveloped as the Hibiya City high-rise complex.

Satellite broadcasting

NHK began satellite broadcasting with the NHK BS 1 channel in 1984, followed by NHK BS 2 in 1985.[34] Both channels began regular broadcasts in 1989. In April 2011, BS 1 was rebranded while BS 2 channel ceased broadcasting and was replaced by "BS Premium" which broadcasts on the channel formerly used by BShi. Both channels currently air in HD On July 24, 2011 Analog Shut Down (Tokyo Only) On All NHK BS Channels

International satellite broadcasts to North America and Europe began in 1995, which led to the launch of NHK World in 1998. It became free-to-air over the Astra 19.2°E (Astra 1L) and Eurobird satellites in Europe in 2008.[35]

Digital television

NHK began digital television broadcasting in December 2000 through BS Digital, followed by terrestrial digital TV broadcasts in three major metropolitan areas in 2003. NHK's digital television coverage gradually expanded to cover almost all of Japan by 24 July 2011, when analog transmissions were discontinued (except in three prefectures that were heavily affected by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunamiIwate, Miyagi, Fukushima – where it was discontinued on 31 March 2012).

Studies of Broadcasting

Studies of Broadcasting  
Discipline Broadcasting science
Language English
Publication details
History 1963–1999
Standard abbreviations
ISO 4 (alt· Bluebook (alt1 · alt2)
NLM (alt· MathSciNet (alt Paid subscription required)
ISO 4 Stud. Broadcast.
Indexing
CODEN · JSTOR (alt· LCCN (alt)
MIAR · NLM (alt· Scopus
ISSN 0585-7325
OCLC no. 474034025

From 1963 to 1999, NHK published the journal Studies of broadcasting: an international annual of broadcasting science.[36]

Controversies

NHK ban on employee stock market trading

In 2007, three employees of NHK were fined and fired for insider trading. They had profited by trading shares based on exclusive NHK knowledge.[37]

On 11 July 2008, NHK introduced a ban prohibiting stock trading by employees, numbering around 5,700, who had access to its internal news information management system. The employees were required to pledge in writing that they would not trade in stocks, and were required to gain approval from senior staff in order to sell shares they already held. NHK banned short-term stock trading completed in periods of six months or less for all other employees.[38]

The ban did not extend to employees' families, nor did NHK request any reports on their transactions.[37]

Criticism over comments about Japanese wartime history

NHK has occasionally faced various criticisms for its treatment of Japan's wartime history.[39]

Katsuto Momii (籾井勝人), the 21st head of NHK, caused controversy[40][41] by discussing Japan's actions in World War II at his first news conference after being appointed on 20 December 2013. It was reported Momii said NHK should support the Japanese government in its territorial dispute with China and South Korea.[42] He also caused controversy by what some describe as the playing down of the comfort women issue in World War II, according to the Taipei Times, stating "[South] Korea's statements that Japan is the only nation that forced this are puzzling. 'Give us money, compensate us', they say, but since all of this was resolved by the Japan-Korea peace treaty, why are they reviving this issue? It's strange."[43] It was subsequently reported by The Japan Times that on his first day at NHK Momii asked members of the executive team to hand in their resignation on the grounds they had all been appointed by his predecessor.[44]

At the end of April 2014, a number of civil society groups protested against Katsuto Momii's continuing tenure as director-general of NHK.[45] One of the groups, the Viewers' Community to Observe and Encourage NHK (NHKを監視・激励する視聴者コミュニティ), issued a public letter asking for the resignation of Momii on the grounds the remarks he made at his inaugural press conference were explosive. The letter stated that if Momii did not resign by the end of April that its members would freeze their payments of the licence fee for half a year.[46]

On 17 October 2014, The Times claimed to have received internal NHK documents which banned any reference to the Rape of Nanking, to Japan's use of wartime sex slaves during World War II, and to its territorial dispute with China in its English-language broadcasting.[47]

Karōshi

On 24 July 2013, a reporter at NHK Metropolitan Broadcasting Center died of congestive heart failure. In May 2014, Shibuya Labor Standards Inspection Office of the Tokyo Labor Bureau certified it as a karōshi (overwork death). Although NHK did not report on this matter, it was announced in October 2017. Ryōichi Ueda, the chairman of NHK, visited the reporter's parents' home and apologized to them.[48][49][50][51]

Black Lives Matter video

On 10 June 2020, NHK apologized and took down an 80-second video about the Black Lives Matter movement and George Floyd protests that was criticized for its "crude" animation of protestors and its focus on economic inequality rather than police brutality.[52][53][54]

An official statement was released through NHK's official website signed by Yuichi Tabata, head of NHK's International News Division.[55]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Pronounced in Japanese as Enu Eichi Kei (エヌ・エイチ・ケイ)

Citations

  1. ^ "日本放送協会平成17年度業務報告書]" [NHK Business Report 2005] (PDF). p. 42.
  2. ^ NHKの概要
  3. ^ "NHK: Profile". Archived from the original on 14 May 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Sidensticker, Edward (1990). Tokyo Rising: The City Since the Great Earthquake. p. 67.
  5. ^ "The history of Super Hi-Vision | 8K Super Hi-Vision". 8K Super Hi-Vision. NHK.
  6. ^ NHK関連団体について
  7. ^ Company Profile
  8. ^ Corporate History
  9. ^ ULS License - Industrial/Business Pool, Conventional License - WQJN734 - NHK Cosmomedia America Inc.
  10. ^ NHK COSMOMEDIA AMERICA - Trademark Details
  11. ^ NHK COSMOMEDIA (EUROPE) LIMITED
  12. ^ 株式会社NHKテクノロジーズ発足のおしらせ
  13. ^ 沿革
  14. ^ 財団概要
  15. ^ NHKSO Outline
  16. ^ 沿革
  17. ^ "NHK受信料の窓口-英語" [NHK reception fee window-English]. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  18. ^ "NHK Corporate Information: Receiving Fee System". nhk.or.jp. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  19. ^ "Turned off: Fee falling: Viewers are not only boycotting their NHK payments, they are now also seeking a complete overhaul of the system at the public broadcaster". IHT/Asahi. 24 February 2005. Archived from the original on 18 February 2014.
  20. ^ "Summary of Press Conference (November 2006): On the demanding of fee payment through legal proceedings". Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
  21. ^ "Japan lawmaker who sparked scandal with Russia war remarks to join anti-NHK party". The Japan Times Online. 29 July 2019. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  22. ^ "After stunning election win, anti-NHK party sets higher goal". The Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  23. ^ Krauss, Ellis S. (2000). Broadcasting Politics in Japan: NHK and Television News. Cornell University Press. pp. 39–40.
  24. ^ "NHK Caught Manipulating Truth About Radiation Danger Again". Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  25. ^ "Japan to Stop Using SPEEDI to Decide Whether to Instruct Residents to Take Potassium Iodide Pills". EX-SKF. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  26. ^ Corkill, Edan (20 March 2011). "Planning pays off as NHK takes its quake news global". The Japan Times. p. 9.
  27. ^ "Japan earthquake & Tsunami warning systems - 11 Mar 2011 on TV (part2of2)". YouTube. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011.
  28. ^ "NHK Symphony Orchestra". Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  29. ^ "50 Years of NHK Television". NHK World. p. 45. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
  30. ^ "NHKワールド・プレミアム" [NHK World Premium]. nhkworldpremium.com (in Japanese).
  31. ^ "NHK Corporate Information: History". nhk.or.jp. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  32. ^ "Regular Radio Broadcasting Begins". Archived from the original on 8 June 2002. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  33. ^ "Broadcast Law: Broadcasting for the Public". Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  34. ^ "NHK.or.jp". Archived from the original on 25 September 2012.
  35. ^ "NHK World currently FTA on 28E". Techwatch. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  36. ^ Studies of broadcasting: an international annual of broadcasting science. OCLC. OCLC 474034025.
  37. ^ a b Jiji Press (11 July 2008). "NHK Bans Stock Trading for Many Employees". Archived from the original on 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  38. ^ Kyodo News (12 July 2008). "NHK bans stock trades by reporters". Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  39. ^ Henry Laurence (April 2005). "Censorship at NHK and PBS". JPRI Critique. Japan Policy Research Institute. XII (3).
  40. ^ "Japan NHK boss Momii sparks WWII 'comfort women' row". BBC News. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  41. ^ Japan TV chief dismisses wartime sex slavery - Asia-Pacific. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved on 29 July 2014.
  42. ^ "New NHK chief: 'comfort women' only wrong per 'today's morality'; programming must push Japan's territorial stances". The Japan Times. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  43. ^ "NHK chairman says fuss over 'comfort women' perplexing". Taipei Times. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
  44. ^ "NHK chief 'asked senior management to quit' on first day in office". The Japan Times. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  45. ^ "Viewers target NHK chief Momii". The Japan Times. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  46. ^ "NHKを監視・激励する視聴者コミュニティ" [A viewer community that monitors and encourages NHK] (in Japanese). Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  47. ^ Parry, Richard Lloyd (17 October 2014). "Japan's 'BBC' bans any reference to wartime 'sex slaves'". The Times. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  48. ^ "NHK会長、過労死記者の両親に直接謝罪" [NHK chairman directly apologizes to parents of death reporter] (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun Digital.
  49. ^ NHK会長が両親に謝罪 女性記者の過労死で :日本経済新聞
  50. ^ "【NHK記者過労死】NHK会長、両親に謝罪 31歳女性記者の過労死で 働き方改革の決意伝える" [NHK reporter's death due to overwork: NHK president apologizes to his parents] (in Japanese). Sankei Digital Inc. 6 October 2017.
  51. ^ "過労死:NHK会長、記者の遺族に謝罪" [Death from overwork: NHK apologizes to reporter's family]. 毎日新聞 (in Japanese).
  52. ^ https://deadline.com/2020/06/nhk-takes-down-video-black-lives-matter-protests-after-backlash-1202954388/
  53. ^ Watatsuki, Yoko; Cheung, Eric; Guy, Jack (9 June 2020). "Japanese broadcaster takes down controversial Black Lives Matter anime". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  54. ^ Denyer, Simon; Kashiwagi, Akiko (9 June 2020). "U.S. slams Japanese broadcaster for 'offensive' cartoon about Black Lives Matter protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  55. ^ https://www.nhk.or.jp/program/sekaima/sekainoima0607.pdf

Sources

External links

Coordinates: 35°39′55.07″N 139°41′45.41″E / 35.6652972°N 139.6959472°E / 35.6652972; 139.6959472

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