The image is from Wikipedia Commons
Other territories (3)
North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal and the Red Sea in the east. Varying sources have limited it to the countries of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia, a region that was known by the French during colonial times as "Afrique du Nord" and is known by Arabs as the Maghreb ("West", The western part of Arab World). The most commonly accepted definition includes Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Sudan, the 6 countries that shape the top North of the African continent. Meanwhile, "North Africa", particularly when used in the term Middle East and North Africa (MENA), often refers only to the countries of the Maghreb.
North Africa includes a number of Spanish and Portuguese possessions or integral part of their territory: Spanish Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía on or just off Morocco's Mediterranean coast, and the Spanish Canary Islands and Portuguese Madeira off Morocco's Atlantic coast. The countries of North Africa share a common ethnic, cultural and linguistic identity with the Middle East or West Asia, and is unique to this region as compared to Sub-Saharan Africa. Northwest Africa has been inhabited by Berbers since the beginning of recorded history, while the eastern part of North Africa has been home to the Egyptians. Between the A.D. 600s and 1000s, Arabs from the Middle East swept across the region in a wave of Muslim conquest. These peoples, physically quite similar, formed a single population in many areas, as Berbers and Egyptians merged into Arabic and Muslim culture. This process of Arabization and Islamization has defined the cultural landscape of North Africa ever since.
Nineteenth century European explorers, attracted by the accounts of Ancient geographers or Arab geographers of the classical period, followed the routes by the nomadic people of the vast "empty" space. They documented the names of the stopping places they discovered or rediscovered, described landscapes, took a few climate measurements and gathered rock samples. Gradually, a map began to fill in the white blotch.
The Sahara and the Sahel entered the geographic corpus by way of naturalist explorers because aridity is the feature that circumscribes the boundaries of the ecumene. The map details included topographical relief and location of watering holes crucial to long crossings. The Arabic word "Sahel" (shore) and "Sahara" (desert) made its entry into the vocabulary of geography.
Latitudinally, the "slopes" of the arid desert, devoid of continuous human habitation, descend in step-like fashion toward the northern and southern edges of the Mediterranean that opens to Europe and the Sahel that opens to "Trab al Sudan." Longitudinally, a uniform grid divides the central desert then shrinks back toward the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea. Gradually, the Sahara-Sahel is further divided into a total of twenty sub-areas: central, northern, southern, western, eastern, etc.
In this way, "standard" geography has determined aridity to be the boundary of the ecumene. It identifies settlements based on visible activity without regard for social or political organizations of space in vast, purportedly "empty" areas. It gives only cursory acknowledgement to what makes Saharan geography, and for that matter, world geography unique: mobility and the routes by which it flows.— An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel : geography, economics and security
The Sahel or "African Transition Zone" has been affected by many formative epochs in North African history ranging from Ottoman occupation to the Arab-Berber control of the Andalus. As a result, many modern African nation-states that are included in the Sahel evidence cultural similarities and historical overlap with their North African neighbours. In the present day, North Africa is associated with West Asia in the realm of geopolitics to form a Middle East-North Africa region. The Islamic influence in the area is also significant and North Africa is a major part of the Muslim world.
North Africa has three main geographic features: the Sahara desert in the south, the Atlas Mountains in the west, and the Nile River and delta in the east. The Atlas Mountains extend across much of northern Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. These mountains are part of the fold mountain system that also runs through much of Southern Europe. They recede to the south and east, becoming a steppe landscape before meeting the Sahara desert, which covers more than 75 percent of the region. The tallest peaks are in the High Atlas range in south-central Morocco, which has many snow-capped peaks.
South of the Atlas Mountains is the dry and barren expanse of the Sahara desert, which is the largest sand desert in the world. In places the desert is cut by irregular watercourses called wadis—streams that flow only after rainfalls but are usually dry. The Sahara's major landforms include ergs, large seas of sand that sometimes form into huge dunes; the hammada, a level rocky plateau without soil or sand; and the reg, a level plain of gravel or small stones. The Sahara covers the southern part of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, and most of Libya. Only two regions of Libya are outside the desert: Tripolitania in the northwest and Cyrenaica in the northeast. Most of Egypt is also desert, with the exception of the Nile River and the irrigated land along its banks. The Nile Valley forms a narrow fertile thread that runs along the length of the country.
Sheltered valleys in the Atlas Mountains, the Nile Valley and Delta, and the Mediterranean coast are the main sources of fertile farming land. A wide variety of valuable crops including cereals, rice and cotton, and woods such as cedar and cork, are grown. Typical Mediterranean crops, such as olives, figs, dates and citrus fruits, also thrive in these areas. The Nile Valley is particularly fertile and most of the population in Egypt live close to the river. Elsewhere, irrigation is essential to improve crop yields on the desert margins.
|Countries and territories||Area (2016)
|Population (2016)||Density (2016)
|GDP per capita
|Algeria||2,381,740||40,606,052||17.05||Algiers||$260,784||$18,281||Algerian dinar||Presidential republic||Arabic and Berber (both official), French is commonly used|
|Egypt||1,001,450||95,688,681||96||Cairo||$332,349||$12,554||Egyptian pound||Semi-presidential republic||Arabic|
|Libya||1,759,540||6,293,253||3.58||Tripoli||$33,157||$8,678||Libyan dinar||United States Interim Democratic provisional authority||Arabic|
|Morocco||446,550 (undisputed), ~710,881 (claimed)||35,276,786||73.1||Rabat||$103,615||$8,330||Moroccan dirham||Constitutional monarchy||Arabic and Berber (both official), French is commonly used|
||63||Tunis||$41,869||$11,634||Tunisian dinar||Parliamentary republic||Arabic, French is commonly used.|
|Ceuta||18.5||82,376||4,500||—||—||—||Euro (official), Moroccan dirham (porter trade)||Autonomous city of a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy||Spanish|
|Melilla||12.3||78,476||6,380.1||—||—||—||[clarification needed]||Autonomous city of a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy||Spanish|
|Western Sahara / Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||266,000 (total land area, control is split between Morocco and the SADR)||538,755||0.37||disputed||disputed||disputed||disputed||disputed||Disputed: commonly Arabic and French (Moroccan zone); commonly Arabic and Spanish (SADR zone)|
|Source: The World Bank|
Variously the Sudan and Western Sahara are considered to be part of the region by the United Nations, while Western Sahara and Mauritania (but not Sudan) are included by the African Union. In general geopolitical and business usage, as for example with the World Bank, North Africa is often grouped with the Middle East under the acronym MENA ("Middle East and North Africa") and sometimes in American governmental usage the geopolitical term Greater Middle East. Similarly, the traditional Arabic toponym Maghreb (meaning "the West") is commonly used to mean the African part of the Arab World, though usually with the exclusion of Egypt.
The inhabitants of the Spanish Canary Islands are of mixed Spanish and North African Berber ancestry, and the people of Malta are of primarily Southern Italian/Sicilian, as well as, to a lesser extent, North African and Middle Eastern ancestry and speak a derivative of Arabic. However, these areas are not generally considered part of North Africa, but rather Southern Europe, due to their proximity to mainland Europe and their European-based cultures and religion.
The inhabitants of North Africa are roughly divided in a manner corresponding to the principal geographic regions of North Africa: the Maghreb, the Nile valley, and the Sahel. The Maghreb or western North Africa on the whole is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since at least 10,000 B.C., while the eastern part of North Africa or the Nile Valley has mainly been home to the Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians record extensive contact in their Western desert with people that appear to have been Berber or proto-Berber. As the Tassili n'Ajjer and other rock art findings in the Sahara have shown, the Sahara also hosted various populations before its rapid desertification in 3500 B.C and even today continues to host small populations of nomadic trans-Saharan peoples.
In the eleventh century, the Banu Hilal invaded the North African plains and plateaus, but not the mountainous areas such as the Tell Atlas range, the Rif or the Aurès Mountains and brought with them Hilalian dialects of Arabic, which over the centuries have been in significant contact with other languages, including the languages of Europe. Historians mark their movement as a critical moment in the Arabization of North Africa.
The official languages in the countries making up the Maghreb are Arabic, Tamazight as a second official language in Algeria and Morocco, and Spanish in Ceuta and Melilla. French is also used as an administrative language in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The most spoken language is Maghrebi Arabic, which is a form of ancient Arabic dating back from the 8th century AD that follows a Berber grammatical and syntactical structure. For the remaining North African countries the official language is Arabic. The largest ethnic groups in North Africa are Berbers and West Africans in the west and the Arabs in the east approaching the Middle East. The region is predominantly Muslim with a Jewish minority in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, and significant Christian minority—the Copts—in Egypt, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia.
The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara regions speak Berber languages and several varieties of Arabic and almost exclusively follow Islam. The Arabic and Berber languages are distantly related, both being members of the Afroasiatic language family. The Tuareg Berber languages are notably more conservative than those of the coastal cities.
Over the years, Berbers have been influenced by contact with other cultures: Greeks, Phoenicians, Egyptians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Europeans and Africans. The cultures of the Maghreb and the Sahara therefore combine indigenous Berber, Arab and elements from neighboring parts of Africa and beyond. In the Sahara, the distinction between sedentary oasis inhabitants and nomadic Bedouins and Tuaregs is particularly marked.
The diverse peoples of North Africa are usually categorized along ethno-linguistic lines. In the Maghreb, where Arab and Berber identities are often integrated, these lines can be blurred. Some Berber-speaking North Africans may identify as "Arab" depending on the social and political circumstances, although substantial numbers of Berbers (or Imazighen) have retained a distinct cultural identity which in the 20th century has been expressed as a clear ethnic identification with Berber history and language. Arabic-speaking Northwest Africans, regardless of ethnic background, often identify with Arab history and culture and may share a common vision with other Arabs. This, however, may or may not exclude pride in and identification with Berber and/or other parts of their heritage. Berber political and cultural activists for their part, often referred to as Berberists, may view all Northwest Africans as principally Berber, whether they are primarily Berber- or Arabic-speaking.
Egyptians over the centuries have shifted their language from Egyptian (in its late form, varieties of Coptic) to modern Egyptian Arabic while retaining a sense of national identity that has historically set them apart from other people in the region. Most Egyptians are Sunni Muslim, although there is a significant minority of Coptic Christians.
The Maghreb formerly had a significant Jewish population, almost all of whom emigrated to France or Israel when the North African nations gained independence. Prior to the modern establishment of Israel, there were about 600,000–700,000 Jews in Northern Africa, including both Sephardi Jews (refugees from France, Spain and Portugal from the Renaissance era) as well as indigenous Mizrahi Jews. Today, less than fifteen thousand remain in the region, almost all in Morocco and Tunisia, and are mostly part of a French-speaking urban elite. (See Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries.)
Due to the recent African origin of modern humans, the history of Prehistoric North Africa is important to the understanding of pre-hominid and early modern human history in Africa. Some researchers have postulated that North Africa rather than East Africa served as the exit point for the modern humans who first trekked out of the continent in the Out of Africa migration. The earliest inhabitants of central North Africa have left behind significant remains: early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa, for example, were found in Ain el Hanech, near Saïda (c. 200,000 BCE); in fact, more recent investigations have found signs of Oldowan technology there, and indicate a date of up to 1.8 million BCE. Recent finds in Jebel Irhoud in Morocco have been found to contain some of the oldest Homo sapiens remains; This suggests that, rather than arising only in East Africa around 200,000 years ago, early Homo sapiens may already have been present across the length of Africa 100,000 years earlier. According to study author Jean-Jacques Hublin, "The idea is that early Homo sapiens dispersed around the continent and elements of human modernity appeared in different places, and so different parts of Africa contributed to the emergence of what we call modern humans today." Early humans may have comprised a large, interbreeding population dispersed across Africa whose spread was facilitated by a wetter climate that created a "green Sahara", around 330,000 to 300,000 years ago. The rise of modern humans may thus have taken place on a continental scale rather than being confined to a particular corner of Africa. In September 2019, scientists reported the computerized determination, based on 260 CT scans, of a virtual skull shape of the last common human ancestor to modern humans/H. sapiens, representative of the earliest modern humans, and suggested that modern humans arose between 260,000 and 350,000 years ago through a merging of populations in East and Southern Africa.
The cave paintings found at Tassili n'Ajjer, north of Tamanrasset, Algeria, and at other locations depict vibrant and vivid scenes of everyday life in central North Africa during the Neolithic Subpluvial period (about 8000 to 4000 BCE). Some parts of North Africa began to participate in the Neolithic revolution in the 6th millennium BCE, just before the rapid desertification of the Sahara around 3500 B.C. largely due to a tilt in the Earth's orbit. It was during this period that domesticated plants and animals were introduced in the region, spreading from the north and east to the southwest. There has been an inferred connection between areas of rapid drying and the introduction of livestock in which the natural (orbital) aridification was amplified by the spread of shrubs and open land due to grazing. Nevertheless, changes in northern Africa's ecology after 3500 BCE provided the backdrop for the formation of dynastic civilizations and the construction of monumental architecture such as the Pyramids of Giza.
When Egypt entered the Bronze Age, the Maghreb remained focused on small-scale subsistence in small, highly mobile groups. Some Phoenician and Greek colonies were established along the Mediterranean coast during the 7th century BCE.
Antiquity and ancient Rome
The most notable nations of antiquity in western North Africa are Carthage, Numidia and Mauretania. The Phoenicians colonized much of North Africa including Carthage and parts of present-day Morocco (including Chellah, Essaouira and Volubilis). The Carthaginians were of Phoenician origin, with the Roman myth of their origin being that Dido, a Phoenician princess, was granted land by a local ruler based on how much land she could cover with a piece of cowhide. She ingeniously devised a method to extend the cowhide to a high proportion, thus gaining a large territory. She was also rejected by the Trojan prince Aeneas according to Virgil, thus creating a historical enmity between Carthage and Rome, as Aeneas would eventually lay the foundations for Rome. Ancient Carthage was a commercial power and had a strong navy, but relied on mercenaries for land soldiers. The Carthaginians developed an empire in the Iberian Peninsula, Malta, Sardinia, Corsica and North West Sicily, the latter being the cause of First Punic War with the Romans.
Over a hundred years and more, all Carthaginian territory was eventually conquered by the Romans, resulting in the Carthaginian North African territories becoming the Roman province of Africa in 146 B.C. This led to tension and eventually conflict between Numidia and Rome. The Numidian wars are notable for launching the careers of both Gaius Marius, and Sulla, and stretching the constitutional burden of the Roman republic as Marius required a professional army, something previously contrary to Roman values, to overcome the talented military leader Jugurtha. Kingdom of Mauretania remained independent until being annexed to the Roman Empire by Emperor Claudius in 42 AD.
North Africa remained a part of the Roman Empire, which produced many notable citizens such as Augustine of Hippo, until incompetent leadership from Roman commanders in the early fifth century allowed the Germanic peoples, the Vandals, to cross the Strait of Gibraltar, whereupon they overcame the fickle Roman defense. The loss of North Africa is considered a pinnacle point in the fall of the Western Roman Empire as Africa had previously been an important grain province that maintained Roman prosperity despite the barbarian incursions, and the wealth required to create new armies. The issue of regaining North Africa became paramount to the Western Empire, but was frustrated by Vandal victories. The focus of Roman energy had to be on the emerging threat of the Huns. In 468 AD, the Romans made one last serious attempt to invade North Africa but were repelled. This perhaps marks the point of terminal decline for the Western Roman Empire. The last Roman emperor was deposed in 476 by the Heruli general Odoacer. Trade routes between Europe and North Africa remained intact until the coming of Islam. Some Berbers were members of the Early African Church (but evolved their own Donatist doctrine), some were Berber Jews, and some adhered to traditional Berber religion. African pope Victor I served during the reign of Roman emperor Septimius Severus. Furthermore, during the rule of the Romans, Byzantines, Vandals, Ottomans and Carthaginians the Kabyle people were the only or one of the few in North Africa who remained independent. The Kabyle people were incredibly resistible so much so that even during the Arab conquest of North Africa they still had control and possession over their mountains.
Arab conquest to modern times
The early Muslim conquests included North Africa by 640. By 700, most of North Africa had come under Muslim rule. Indigenous Berbers subsequently started to form their own polities in response in places such as Fez and Sijilmasa. In the eleventh century, a reformist movement made up of members that called themselves the Almoravid dynasty expanded south into Sub-Saharan Africa.
North Africa's populous and flourishing civilization collapsed after exhausting its resources in internal fighting and suffering devastation from the invasion of the Banu Sulaym and Banu Hilal. Ibn Khaldun noted that the lands ravaged by Banu Hilal invaders had become completely arid desert.
After the Middle Ages much of the area was loosely under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The Spanish Empire conquered several coastal cities between the 16th and 18th centuries. After the 19th century, the imperial and colonial presence of France, the United Kingdom, Spain and Italy left the entirety of the region under one form of European occupation.
In World War II from 1940 to 1943 the area was the setting for the North African Campaign. During the 1950s and 1960s all of the North African states gained independence. There remains a dispute over Western Sahara between Morocco and the Algerian-backed Polisario Front.
In 2010–2011 massive protests swept the region leading to the overthrow of the governments in Tunisia and Egypt, as well as civil war in Libya. Large protests also occurred in Algeria and Morocco to a lesser extent. Many hundreds died in the uprisings. This uprising is commonly referred to as the "Arab spring".
Science and technology
Further information in the sections of History of science and technology in Africa:
- Maritime technology
- Communication systems
- By country
Transport and industry
The economies of Algeria and Libya were transformed by the discovery of oil and natural gas reserves in the deserts. Morocco's major exports are phosphates and agricultural produce, and as in Egypt and Tunisia, the tourist industry is essential to the economy. Egypt has the most varied industrial base, importing technology to develop electronics and engineering industries, and maintaining the reputation of its high-quality cotton textiles.
Oil rigs are scattered throughout the deserts of Libya and Algeria. Libyan oil is especially prized because of its low sulfur content, which means it produces much less pollution than other fuel oils.
- Demographics of the Middle East and North Africa
- European Digital Archive on Soil Maps of the World
- List of modern conflicts in North Africa
- "Mauritania | People, Culture, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- Mattar, Philip (June 1, 2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Macmillan Reference USA. ISBN 9780028657691.
- De facto government of parts of Western Sahara, claimant to the whole area).
- "Figure 5: United Nations definition of African Regions: West, Northern,..." ResearchGate.net. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- National Geographic Geno Project: Egyptians are North Africans
- An atlas of the Sahara-Sahel : geography, economics and security. Bossard, Laurent., Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development., Sahel and West Africa Club., OECD iLibrary. Paris. ISBN 978-9264222342. OCLC 900622439.CS1 maint: others (link)
- es-Sadi, Abderrahman (1898). Tarikh es soudan (in Arabic). Paris E. Leroux.
- Andrew, McGregor (2001). "The Circassian Qubbas of Abbas Avenue, Khartoum: Governors and Soldiers in 19th Century Sudan" (PDF). Nordic Journal of African Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-02-15. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
- "North Africa and the African Transition Zone".
- Güney, Aylın; Gökcan, Fulya (February 2012). "The 'Greater Middle East' as a 'Modern' Geopolitical Imagination in American Foreign Policy". Geopolitics. 15: 22–38. doi:10.1080/14650040903420370.
- "Largest Desert in the World". Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. 18 April 2017.
- World Economic Outlook Database, April 2016, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 12 April 2016. Accessed on 14 April 2016.
- AFP (6 October 2017). "Morocco 'mule women' in back-breaking trade from Spain enclave". www.thelocal.es. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- "The World Bank". The World Bank. 12 October 2017.
- Division, United Nations Statistics. "UNSD — Methodology". unstats.un.org.
- "The Assembly – African Union". au.int.
Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese People.
Repopulation is likely to have occurred by a clan or clans (possibly of Arab or Arab-like speaking people) from neighbouring Sicily and Calabria. Possibly, they could have mixed with minute numbers of residual inhabitants, with a constant input of immigrants from neighbouring countries and later, even from afar. There seems to be little input from North Africa.
- Geoffrey Hull, The Malta Language Question: A Case Study in Cultural Imperialism, Valletta: Said International, 1993, pp. 317-330. Scientific etymologies of the longest-established Maltese family names are given in Geoffrey Hull, “The Oldest Maltese Surnames: A Window on Sicily’s Medieval History”, in Claudia Karagoz and Giovanna Summerfield (eds), Sicily and the Mediterranean: Migration, Exchange, Reinvention, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, pp. 78-108; "Late Medieval Maltese Surnames of Arabic and Greek Origin", Symposia Melitensia No. 11 (2015), pp. 129-143
Genetic Origin of Contemporary Maltese People.
Together with colleagues from other institutions across the Mediterranean and in collaboration with the group led by David Goldstein at the University College, London, we have shown that the contemporary males of Malta most likely originated from Southern Italy, including Sicily and up to Calabria. There is a minuscule amount of input from the Eastern Mediterranean with genetic affinity to Christian Lebanon....We documented clustering of the Maltese markers with those of Sicilians and Calabrians. The study is published in the Annals of Human Genetics by C. Capelli, N. Redhead, N. Novelletto, L. Terrenato, P. Malaspina, Z. Poulli, G. Lefranc, A. Megarbane, V. Delague, V. Romano, F. Cali, V.F. Pascali, M. Fellous, A.E. Felice, and D.B. Goldstein; "Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin; A Y Chromosome Perspective", AHG, 69, 1-20, 2005..
- Hsain Ilahiane, Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen)(2006), p. 112
- Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates (2005). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. Oxford University Press. p. 360. ISBN 978-0-19-517055-9.
- *(in French) Sadek Lekdja, Christianity in Kabylie, Radio France Internationale, 7 mai 2001
- "Refworld – Morocco: General situation of Muslims who converted to Christianity, and specifically those who converted to Catholicism; their treatment by Islamists and the authorities, including state protection (2008–2011)". Refworld.org.
- Fahlbusch, Erwin (2003). The Encyclopedia of Christianity: J-O. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-2415-8.
- Balter, Michael (2011-01-07). "Was North Africa the Launch Pad for Modern Human Migrations?". Science. 331 (6013): 20–23. Bibcode:2011Sci...331...20B. doi:10.1126/science.331.6013.20. PMID 21212332.
- Cruciani, Fulvio; Trombetta, Beniamino; Massaia, Andrea; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Sellitto, Daniele; Scozzari, Rosaria (2011). "A Revised Root for the Human y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 88 (6): 814–818. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.002. PMC 3113241. PMID 21601174.
- Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Eggins, Stephen; Grün, Rainer; Reid, Donald J.; Tafforeau, Paul; Smith, Tanya M. (2007-04-10). "Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (15): 6128–6133. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.6128S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104. PMC 1828706. PMID 17372199.
- "Sahnouni 1998" (PDF). Gi.ulpc.es. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- "Eritrea's human rights record comes under fire at United Nations". The Guardian. Associated Press. 25 October 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Gibbons, Ann (7 June 2017). "World's oldest Homo sapiens fossils found in Morocco". Science. Retrieved 8 June 2017.
- Zimmer, Carl (10 September 2019). "Scientists Find the Skull of Humanity's Ancestor — on a Computer - By comparing fossils and CT scans, researchers say they have reconstructed the skull of the last common forebear of modern humans". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
- Mounier, Aurélien; Lahr, Marta (2019). "Deciphering African late middle Pleistocene hominin diversity and the origin of our species". Nature Communications. 10 (1): 3406. Bibcode:2019NatCo..10.3406M. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-11213-w. PMC 6736881. PMID 31506422.
- "Green Sahara: African humid periods paced by Earth's orbital changes". Science Daily. 1999-07-12. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29.
- Kuper, Rudolf (2006). "Climate-Controlled Holocene Occupation in the Sahara: Motor of Africa's Evolution". Science. 313 (5788): 803–708. Bibcode:2006Sci...313..803K. doi:10.1126/science.1130989. PMID 16857900. S2CID 20003260.
- Wright, David (2017). "Humans as Agents in the Termination of the African Humid Period". Frontiers in Earth Science. 5: https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2017.00004. Bibcode:2017FrEaS...5....4W. doi:10.3389/feart.2017.00004.
- Gatto, Maria (2015). "Holocene supra-regional environmental changes as trigger for major socio-cultural processes in northeastern Africa and the Sahara". African Archaeological Review. 32 (2): 301–333. doi:10.1007/s10437-015-9191-x. S2CID 126834892.
- Bader, Bettina. "Egypt and the Mediterranean in the Bronze Age: The Archaeological Evidence".
- Barker, Graema (2005). "Agriculture, Pastoralism, and Mediterranean Landscapes in Prehistory". The Archaeology of Mediterranean Prehistory: 46–76. doi:10.1002/9780470773536.ch3. ISBN 9780470773536.
- C. Michael Hogan (December 18, 2007). "Volubilis – Ancient Village or Settlement in Morocco". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
- The Punic Wars 264–146 BC, by Nigel Bagnall
- Sallust, De Bello Iugurthino
- The Berbers BBC World Service: The Story of Africa
- The Middle East and North Africa: Pg 156
- Sketches of Algeria During the Kabyle War By Hugh Mulleneux Walmsley: Pg 118
- The Kabyle People By Glora M. Wysner
- The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1: Pg 568
- The art journal London, Volume 4: Pg 45
- The Barbary Coast By Henry Martyn Field: Pg 93
- Küng, Hans (2006). Tracing The Way: Spiritual Dimensions of the World Religions. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0-8264-9423-8., page 248
- Populations Crises and Population Cycles Archived 2013-05-27 at the Wayback Machine, Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell, Galton Institute, March 1996
- Essa, Azad (February 21, 2011). "In search of an African revolution". Al Jazeera.
- Cesari, Jocelyne. The awakening of Muslim democracy: Religion, modernity, and the state (Cambridge University Press, 2014).
- Fischbach, ed. Michael R. Biographical encyclopedia of the modern Middle East and North Africa (Gale Group, 2008).
- Ilahiane, Hsain. Historical dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen) (Rowman & Littlefield, 2017).
- Issawi, Charles. An economic history of the Middle East and North Africa (Routledge, 2013).
- Naylor, Phillip C. North Africa, Revised Edition: A History from Antiquity to the Present (University of Texas Press, 2015).
- Беларуская (тарашкевіца)
- Bahasa Indonesia
- Kreyòl ayisyen
- Lingua Franca Nova
- Bahasa Melayu
- Norsk bokmål
- Norsk nynorsk
- Саха тыла
- Sesotho sa Leboa
- Simple English
- Српски / srpski
- Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
- Tiếng Việt
- This page is based on the Wikipedia article North Africa; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.