Tornado outbreak of November 1992

Tornado outbreak of November 1992
Map of reports from the November 1992 tornado outbreak.
Formed November 21, 1992
Duration 41 hours
Dissipated November 23, 1992
Max. rating1 F4 tornado
Casualties 26 deaths, 641 injuries
Damage >$300 million (1992 USD)
Areas affected Southeastern United States, Ohio Valley

1Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita scale

The Tornado outbreak of November 1992, sometimes referred to as The Widespread Outbreak (as was the 1974 Super Outbreak initially), was a devastating, three-day outbreak that struck the Eastern and Midwestern United States on November 21-23. This exceptionally long-lived and geographically large outbreak produced 95 tornadoes over a 41 hour period, making it one of the longest-lasting and largest outbreaks ever recorded in the US, and published studies of the outbreak have indicated the possibility of even more tornadoes (92, 94, 146 and 143, with higher numbers reflected in NOAA studies).[1] There were 26 fatalities, 641 injuries, and over $300 million in damage.

Meteorlogical synopsis

Outbreak death toll
State Total County County
Georgia 6 Greene 1
Lumpkin 1
Putnam 4
Kentucky 1 Carroll 1
Mississippi 15 Choctaw 1
Kemper 1
Leake 1
Rankin 10
Webster 2
North Carolina 2 Orange 2
South Carolina 1 Saluda 1
Tennessee 1 Hardeman 1
Totals 26
All deaths were tornado-related

The outbreak began on November 21 with a cluster of six tornadoes, ranging from F1 to F4 intensities, that struck parts of the Houston metropolitan area. Later on the same day, the deadliest tornado of the outbreak, a long-tracked F4 tornado, struck Brandon, Mississippi, causing 10 deaths, 98 injuries and over $25 million in damage. Other F4 tornadoes struck Cobb County, GA, in the Atlanta suburbs, and Switzerland County, Indiana, just southwest of Cincinnati. Of the five tornadoes reported in North Carolina on November 22–23, the last left a damage path over 160 miles (260 km) in length (at consistent F2-F3 intensity), the longest tornado damage track to have ever been recorded in the state, producing damage in Wilson and Elizabeth City. The last tornado of the outbreak, a short-lived F1, touched down in Prince George's County, Maryland.

Confirmed tornadoes

Confirmed tornadoes by Fujita rating
FU F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 Total
0 12 36 26 15 6 0 95

November 21 event

F# Location County Time (UTC) Path length Damage
F1 NE of Glen Flora Wharton 1930 0.5 miles (0.8 km) This and the following event damaged or destroyed many barns.[2]
F1 NE of Jones Creek Wharton 1940 1 miles (1.6 km) Same as the above.
F1 W of Wharton Wharton 2015 1 miles (1.6 km) One unoccupied home was destroyed.
F2 NE of Foster to W of Deco Harris 2020 25 miles (40 km) Tornado began in the Cinco Ranch area before moving into Katy, where roofs and walls were removed from homes, garages were destroyed, and some homes under construction collapsed. The tornado crossed I-10 and struck West Houston Lakeside Airport, destroying several metal hangars and 12 planes. The tornado continued through residential areas of northwest Houston, destroying garages and causing roof damage to homes. Several apartment complexes and a Randalls store sustained roof damage as well.[3] The tornado caused substantial roof and wall damage to more than 100 homes. Camera footage revealed that the tornado sometimes exhibited multiple vortices.[2]
F1 Pecan Grove area Fort Bend 2040 1 miles (1.6 km) Tornado damaged roofs and destroyed garages in Pecan Grove. 78 homes were reported to have received roof damage.[2][3]
F1 E of Thompsons Fort Bend 2045 1 miles (1.6 km) A tornado damaged several large trees and destroyed a barn and many outbuildings.[2]
F1 Pearland area Brazoria, Harris 2110 2.5 miles (4 km) Tornado removed shingles and cladding from homes. Six homes sustained roof damage as the tornado was sighted from Hobby Airport, just 2 miles (3.2 km) away.[2][3]
F3 SE of Huffman to W of Rye Harris, Liberty 2120 32 miles (51.2 km) F3 tree damage began near the northeast end of Lake Houston. Less-intense damage occurred to residential buildings in Tarkington and Hoot and Holler, east of Romayor.[2][3]
F2 SW of Riverside Terrace to NW of Jacinto City Harris 2120 12 miles (19.2 km) The tornado began near Hermann Park, close to Rice University in Houston, before moving through residential and industrial areas. Many homes lost their roofs and walls were collapsed at masonry buildings.[2][3] After touching down, the tornado crossed heavily trafficked U.S. Route 59, Interstate 45, I-10, and I-610, damaging more than 600 buildings, including 500 residences, but only causing six negligible injuries, despite having crossed busy roads.[2]
F4 W of Galena Park to N of Dayton Harris, Liberty 2127 30 miles (48 km) This tornado developed from the supercell that generated the Hobby Airport tornado and first touched down near the Houston Ship Channel, snapping trees in a wooded area.[2][3] The tornado then rapidly intensified and widened to 1 mile (1.6 km) shortly after touching down, reaching F4 intensity as it moved through several subdivisions in the Channelview area, where the most severe damage occurred. 271 homes were heavily damaged or destroyed, and 14 were left with no walls standing.[2][3] The tornado crossed the San Jacinto River before dissipating near Dayton. Despite having been a large and intense tornado, the storm only produced 15 injuries and no deaths along the entire path. It was one of only two recorded F4 tornadoes in Greater Houston, the other having hit Galveston on September 12, 1961.[4]
F2 SE of Schwab City Polk 2212 2 miles (3.2 km) A few trees were downed and two barns were destroyed. The tornado injured one person.[2]
F1 NE of Crosby Harris, Liberty 2215 4 miles (6.4 km) Developed from the Hobby Airport–Channelview supercell. Several homes reported minor damage, but mostly losses were to outbuildings on farms.[2]
F0 E of Texas City Galveston 2245 0.1 miles (0.16 km) Trees were downed and windows were smashed. A radio antenna was also bent over.[2]
F1 S of Buna Jasper 0000 0.5 miles (0.8 km) Power lines were downed and trees were prostrated. Some roofs were removed and windows were broken.[2]
F2 W of Simpson Vernon 0112 6 miles (9.6 km) A mobile home was thrown on top of a van and trees were prostrated.[2] Rating disputed, ranked F1 by Grazulis.[5]
F3 Iowa area Calcasieu 0130 6 miles (9.6 km) Six homes were destroyed and 18 damaged. There was $100,000 damage to an outlet mall that had its I-beams deformed and its roof blown away. Two people were injured.[2]
F2 Tioga area Rapides 0250 0.5 miles (0.8 km) Some homes were damaged and trees uprooted.[2] Rating disputed, ranked F1 by Grazulis.[5]
F2 NE of Lozes to NE of Parks Iberia, St. Marin 0330 15 miles (24 km) Six mobile homes were destroyed, and one was overturned with a woman injured inside. The damage swath was discontinuous.[2]
F2 N of Monterey Catahoula 0345 0.5 miles (0.8 km) The first of two tornadoes in Catahoula Parish destroyed 18 mobile homes, damaged two permanent homes, and downed trees. The tornado also caused $200,000 in timber damage alone.[2][6]
F3 W of Monterey Concordia 0345 3 miles (4.8 km) A barn was unroofed and two homes and a mobile home were destroyed. The tornado caused an additional $200,000 in timber damage and injured six people.[6]
F3 SW of Foules to SE of Richmond Catahoula, Tensas, Madison 0355 38 miles (60.8 km) The second tornado to strike Catahoula Parish first struck Foules, where it destroyed 12 mobile homes and a church. The tornado also damaged three permanent homes in Foules. It then struck Cooter Point, where it partially destroyed eight homes and completely destroyed a mobile home. In Madison Parish, the tornado heavily damaged two permanent homes and destroyed two mobile homes and three barns. It continued intermittently to near Tallulah before dissipating, completely destroying a church and three homes. Five other homes were damaged and eight nearly destroyed.[2][6]
F2 N of Jackson West Feliciana, East Feliciana 0400 13 miles (20.8 km) Numerous greenhouses and six residences were destroyed.
F2 W of Goldman to S of Newellton Tensas 0418 16 miles (26.6 km) A tornado first downed numerous trees near Goldman before destroying three barns and damaging four other buildings near St. Joseph. The tornado destroyed several outbuildings and heavily damaged five homes south of Newellton before dissipating. In all, five homes were severely damaged and many outbuildings destroyed.[2][6]
F1 W of Woodland East Feliciana 0430 11 miles (17.6 km) One home was destroyed and some others were damaged nearby.
F1 Centreville area Wilkinson 0330 4 miles (6.4 km) A mobile home and barns were destroyed.
F2 SE of West Lincoln to W of Beauregard Lincoln, Copiah 0450 16 miles (26.6 km) A tornado struck the town of Brookhaven. Four homes were destroyed and five others sustained major damage. Extensive tree and power pole damage occurred as well.[2][6]
F1 E of Hazlehurst Copiah 0515 9 miles (14.4 km) One house was destroyed and several others were damaged. Numerous trees were downed as well.[2][6]
F3 E of Oak Vale to Mount Olive Jefferson Davis, Covington 0523 27 miles (43.2 km) Many well-constructed homes were destroyed, including 14 in Jefferson Davis County and 32 in Mount Olive. In Jefferson Davis County, a total of 14 homes were destroyed and numerous trees were downed. In the town of Mount Olive, 32 homes were destroyed and 55 others were damaged. At least 105 people were injured.[2][6]
F4 N of Hopewell to W of Sherwood Copiah, Simpson, Rankin, Scott, Leake, Attala, Choctaw 0527 128 miles (204.8 km) 12 deaths — See section on this tornado – 122 people were injured.[2][6]
F1 NE of Kelso Sharkey 0530 10 miles (16 km) A tornado damaged many vehicles and trees, and destroyed one mobile home. One house was damaged as well.[2][6]
F4 NW of Wisner to Newton Smith, Jasper, Newton 0614 40 miles (65 km) This large and violent tornado produced a path 1 mi (1.6 km) wide through the Bienville National Forest and sparsely-populated areas. Most of the damage was in Smith County, near Sylvarena. There, a large church was leveled and 90 homes were destroyed. The tornado then moved into Jasper County, where three houses and four mobile homes were destroyed. In the area, 21 houses and two mobile homes were damaged. In Newton County, six homes were damaged, one mobile home was destroyed, and one commercial building was destroyed. Timber loss was well into the millions of dollars, mainly through the Bienville National Forest, where substantial tree damage occurred over a wide, long swath.[2][6]
F1 N of Little Rock Newton, Neshoba 0722 9 miles (14.4 km) One church had roof damage and four homes received severe damage. Two mobile homes were destroyed, four houses sustained major damage, and 16 homes had minor damage, mainly in the small community of House. Numerous trees and power lines were also downed.[2][6]
Sources: Tornado History Project Storm Data - November 21, 1992,[2]

November 22 event

F# Location County Time (UTC) Path length Damage
F1 W of Clarkson Webster, Chickasaw 0814 9 miles (14.4 km) 2 deaths — The tornado destroyed a small wood frame home in Clarkson, killing the two occupants. Four additional homes were seriously damaged and numerous trees were downed.[2][6]
F2 E of Bloomfield to E of Dinsmore Kemper, Noxubee 0815 27 miles (43.2 km) 1 death — One house and several mobile homes were destroyed. Several other mobile homes were also damaged. One person was killed and another was injured in a wood frame home just west of Wahalak.[2][6]
F0 NW of Anchor Chickasaw 0831 4 miles (6.4 km) Trees were downed.
F1 W of Parkersburg Chickasaw 0845 7 miles (11.2 km) Four mobile homes and one barn were destroyed. Airborne debris damaged a few cars.
F2 E of Prairie Point Noxubee 0845 15 miles (25 km) Major damage to 17 frame homes was reported, along with considerable tree damage. Six mobile homes were destroyed and two mobile homes had major damage.[2][6]
F2 SE of Blackwater to SE of Millington Kemper 0845 23 miles (36.8 km) Large trees were torn up from the soil, many mobile homes were destroyed, and several houses sustained major damage.[2][6]
F0 NW of Increase Lauderdale 0920 2 miles (3.2 km) Trees and power lines were blown down.
F2 SW of Panola Sumter 0930 6 miles (9.6 km) A church and five mobile homes were destroyed. Severe roof damage occurred to a school and many homes.[2][7]
F2 NW of Ethelsville Pickens 0930 2 miles (3.2 km) A tornado destroyed half a dozen mobile homes, injuring seven people.[2][7]
F1 N of Oakman Walker 1118 10 miles (16 km) 35 structures were damaged or destroyed.[2][7]
F0 Eva area Morgan 1220 6 miles (9.6 km) A narrow, weak tornado unroofed a church and damaged a chicken coop. Other outbuildings were also damaged. Damage was mainly to outbuildings.[2][7]
F2 NE of New Hope Madison 1255 6 miles (9.6 km) This was the same storm that produced the Eva tornado in Morgan County. 27 mobile homes were damaged and 11 destroyed. 10 homes received varying amounts of damage. All five injuries occurred in mobile homes.[2][7]
F1 E of Rainsville DeKalb 1400 6 miles (9.6 km)
F2 S of Crossville DeKalb 1415 5 miles (8 km)
F2 NE of Sardis City Etowah, DeKalb 1415 12 miles (19.2 km) Numerous trees were downed and structures were damaged. 12 people were injured.[2][7]
F0 E of Lakeview DeKalb 1420 3 miles (4.8 km) Trees and utilities were damaged along the path. One woman found herself trapped when her mobile home flipped over. 17 homes were destroyed and a total of 133 damaged.[2]
F2 E of Keith to NE of Rising Fawn, GA DeKalb, GA, Dade, GA 1440 10.5 miles (16.8 km)
F1 NW of Zana to SE of Wadley Tallapoosa, Randolph 1450 17 miles (27.2 km) Three homes were destroyed and 40 others were damaged. 29 businesses were damaged or destroyed. 10 people were injured, all of which occurred in mobile homes.[2][7]
F1 Belltown area Cleburne 1530 10 miles (16 km) Several trees downed and several structures were damaged.[2][7]
F0 NW of Coffee Springs Geneva 2010 2.2 miles (3.5 km)
F1 NE of Bolivar Hardeman 0950 16 miles (26.6 km) 1 death
F1 E of Rock Spring Walker, Catoosa 1530 2 miles (3.2 km)
F4 SW of Pine Mountain to W of Hickory Flat Cobb, Cherokee 1644 20 miles (32 km) This destructive tornado, which may have consisted of twin tornadoes,[8] touched down north of Powder Springs before moving through the northwest Atlanta suburbs, near Marietta, where it leveled homes and trees. The tornado struck and devastated Kennesaw, damaging or destroying more than 325 homes and businesses in the city. A church in Woodstock was destroyed during service, though everyone inside survived.[2][9]
F3 NE of Dahlonega Lumpkin 1810 10 miles (16 km) 1 death – This tornado caused major damage near Dahlonega. On a large ranch, the tornado damaged or destroyed 40 structures, including offices, cabins, stables, and the lodge. Many hardwood trees were downed as well. One person died from severe head injuries,[8] and seven other people were injured,[2] some of whom were carried 65 to 300 yards (59.4 to 274 m).[8]
F2 SW of Hampton Spalding, Henry 1904 10 miles (16 km)
F1 W of Box Springs Muscogee, Talbot 1935 4 miles (6.4 km)
F0 E of Smarr Monroe 2040 0.5 miles (0.8 km)
F2 SW of Round Oak Monroe, Jones 2100 10 miles (16 km)
F4 NE of Ethridge to SE of White Plains Putnam, Greene 2145 32 miles (51.2 km) 5 deaths – Large tornado, up to almost 1 mi (1.6 km) wide in some places. Worst damage occurred in the White Plains area. 68 homes were destroyed in Putnam County and 66 homes were destroyed in Greene County. Over 300 cattle were killed.[2][10]
F1 NW of Cohentown Wilkes 2240 1 miles (1.6 km)
F3 NE of Amity to W of Jenkinsville, South Carolina Lincoln, GA, McCormick, South Carolina, Edgefield, Saluda, Newberry 2300 67 miles (107.2 km) 1 death – Tornado began near the Georgia/South Carolina border and moved northeast. 14 houses, nine mobile homes, and five businesses were destroyed. A parked car and truck were thrown from a garage into a nearby field, and an A-frame house was moved off its foundation. Many trees were downed and mobile homes were damaged as well. The tornadoes destroyed a home in McCormick County, South Carolina, killing one occupant.[11][12]
F1 NE of Pimento Vigo 1906 0.1 miles (0.16 km)
F3 N of Elletsville Monroe 1935 5.3 miles (8.5 km) This tornado destroyed three houses, seven mobile homes, and three barns, with the worst damage being north of Elletsville. The tornado destroyed 135 acres (55 ha) of corn as well.[2]
F3 Fincastle area Putnam, Montgomery 1950 12 miles (19.2 km) This tornado struck about 50 farms, though only a few homes were severely damaged or destroyed.[2]
F3 NE of Paragon to Five Points Morgan 1955 15 miles (24 km)
F1 NE of Raccoon Montgomery 2007 2.5 miles (4 km)
F3 Indianapolis to Fishers Marion 2045 9 miles (14.4 km) Caused severe damage on the east side of Indianapolis, though only a few homes were destroyed. Many trees were downed at Fort Harrison.[2][13]
F3 W of Shelbyville Shelby 2105 10 miles (16 km) Major damage near Shelbyville. Three houses, five barns, and many outbuildings were destroyed. A semi-truck was flipped on I-74.[2][13]
F2 N of Hardscrabble Hamilton, Madison 2120 2 miles (3.2 km)
F1 NE of Fishers Hamilton 2123 1 miles (1.6 km)
F2 SW of Waynesburg Bartholomew, Decatur 2134 5 miles (8 km)
F2 N of Gwynneville Shelby, Hancock, Rush 2145 7.5 miles (12 km)
F1 NW of Linwood Madison 2154 0.2 miles (0.32 km)
F2 Liberty area Union, Wayne 2235 12 miles (19.2 km)
F1 Portland Jay 2300 0.2 miles (0.32 km)
F0 SE of Smithfield Henry 2120 0.5 miles (0.8 km)
F0 SE of Campbellsburg Henry 2140 3 miles (4.8 km)
F4 Worthville to NE of Antioch, Indiana Carroll, Kentucky, Switzerland, Indiana, Boone 2152 26.7 miles (42.7 km) 1 death – Tornado crossed the Ohio River twice, reaching maximum intensity in Carroll County. Debris from destroyed structures was found 5 mi (8.0 km) away from where it originated.[14]
F1 S of Gratz Owen 2217 2 miles (3.2 km)
F3 SE of Campbellstown to S of Arcanum Preble, Darke 2300 20 miles (32 km) Major damage in Arcanum with 100 buildings damaged, and 40 houses destroyed. Many trees and power lines were downed and one person was injured.[15]
F1 S of Eastwood Brown 2315 1 miles (1.6 km)
South Carolina
F2 N of Johnston to SE of Stoney Hill Saluda, Newberry 0000 30 miles (48 km)
F0 SW of White Oak Fairfield 0145 0.6 miles (1 km) Numerous trees were downed.[11]
F0 SE of Simpson Fairfield 0212 2.7 miles (4.3 km) Tornado touched down near SC Highway 34 and Interstate 77, blowing cars off I-77 and trees and power lines onto both highways. One house was also damaged. Listed as an F1 on the SCSC website.[11]
North Carolina
F1 N of Lawndale Cleveland 0315 5 miles (8 km)
F1 W of Catawba to NE of Turnersburg Catawba, Iredell 0340 26 miles (41.6 km)
F1 N of Courtney to SW of Meadows Yadkin, Forsyth, Stokes 0420 31 miles (49.6 km) A tornado destroyed 11 homes and damaged 150. Rating disputed, ranked F2 by Grazulis.[16]
F3 NW of Hillsborough Orange 0720 5.5 miles (8.8 km) 2 deaths – Tornado moved through a subdivision of Hillsborough, resulting in major damage. 10 people were injured as well.[17]
F1 W of Quinque Greene 0605 3 miles (4.8 km)
F0 S of Aylor Madison 0610 0.5 miles (0.8 km)
Sources: Tornado History Project Storm Data - November 22, 1992, Storm Data[2]

November 23 event

F# Location County Time (CDT) Path length Damage
F1 Hillcrest Heights area Prince George's 0800 1 miles (1.6 km)
F1 W of Ruthville Charlotte 0900 2 miles (3.2 km)
North Carolina
F3 N of Barclaysville to N of Elizabeth City Harnett, Johnston, Wilson, Edgecombe, Martin, Bertie, Chowan, Pasquotank 0910 160 miles (256 km) This was the longest-tracked tornado ever documented in North Carolina, but may have been a tornado family that was improperly surveyed by inexperienced surveyors.[16] The tornado caused F2 and F3 damage along the majority of the path, and impacted the Wilson and Elizabeth City areas. A school bus weighing 28,000 pounds (12,701 kg) was picked up and carried more than 75 yd (69 m), injuring 21 students.[16][17]
Sources: Tornado History Project Storm Data - November 23, 1992, Storm Data[2]

Hopewell–Florence–Pine Tree–Weir, Mississippi

Hopewell–Florence–Pine Tree–Weir, Mississippi
F4 tornado
Max. rating1 F4 tornado
Casualties 12 fatalities, 122 injuries
1Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita scale

This devastating, long-tracked, violent tornado began near Hopewell and moved northeast across Copiah and Simpson Counties, downing numerous trees as it moved toward the Jackson area. The tornado entered Rankin County and struck the south side of Florence as it moved through a mobile home park at that location. Several homes and mobile homes were destroyed in Florence, and two people were killed. The tornado exited Florence and struck another mobile home park, killing four more people. The tornado then tore directly through the Jackson suburb of Brandon, where numerous homes and 30 mobile homes were destroyed. Large and well-built brick homes were destroyed in the Easthaven Subdivision of Brandon, including a massive, well-constructed, brick mansion that was completely leveled, killing four people, one of whom was found .25 miles (0.40 km) from the foundation.[18] In Rankin County alone, a total of 60 homes were destroyed, over 500 homes were damaged. 10 people died in Rankin County, where the tornado attained its peak intensity. The tornado moved into Scott County, downing numerous trees and power lines. The tornado also damaged several homes in the town of Ludlow. The tornado then crossed into Leake County and struck the community of Pine Tree, where one person was killed in a mobile home. Three homes were destroyed and nine others were damaged in Leake County, and 26 chicken houses and several outbuildings were also destroyed. In neighboring Attala County, 36 homes were severely damaged or destroyed. The tornado then crossed into Choctaw County and struck Weir, where one person was killed in a mobile home. A total of 101 homes were damaged or destroyed in Choctaw County before the tornado dissipated. Extensive tree damage occurred along the entire path length—including thousands of uprooted trees[18]—and 122 people were injured. Eight of the 12 deaths were in mobile homes.

See also


  1. ^ Grazulis 2001, p. 247
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Goodge, G. W., ed. (November 1992). "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena". Storm Data. Asheville, North Carolina: United States Department of Commerce. 34.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Marshall, Tim (January–February 1993). "Cluster Tornado Outbreak in Houston, TX". Storm Track. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  4. ^ Grazulis 1993, p. 1038
  5. ^ a b Grazulis 1997, p. 1341
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o JAN Webmaster (19 November 2012). "November 21-22, 1992 Tornado Outbreak". Jackson, Mississippi: National Weather Service. Retrieved 31 December 2013.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h BMX Webmaster (23 April 2013). "Alabama Tornadoes 1992". Birmingham, Alabama: National Weather Service. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  8. ^ a b c Grazulis 1997, p. 1343
  9. ^ "Twisters Kill 24 In South". Inquire Wire Services. unknown. November 23, 1992. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  10. ^ George, Tom (May 22, 2013). "Putnam County Remembers 1992 F4 Tornado". WMAZ. Hancock-Putnam, Georgia. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  11. ^ a b c "Significant Tornadoes in South Carolina 1992". South Carolina State Climatology Office. DNR. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
  12. ^ "South Carolina Tornadoes 1950-2012". Tornado History Project.
  13. ^ a b "November 22, 1992 Tornado Outbreak". NWS Indianapolis. NOAA. July 16, 2008. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  14. ^ "Violent Tornadoes in Kentucky". NWS Louisville. NOAA. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  15. ^ Hastings, Tara (November 22, 2012). "Tornado Touchdown 20 Years Ago". WDTN. Dayton, Ohio. Archived from the original on December 24, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  16. ^ a b c Grazulis 1997, p. 1344
  17. ^ a b "November 22, 1992 North Carolina Tornado Outbreak". NWS Raleigh. November 1993. Retrieved December 23, 2013.
  18. ^ a b Grazulis 1997, p. 1342


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