October 20

October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 72 days remain until the end of the year.


  • 1568 – The Spanish Duke of Alba defeats a Dutch rebel force under William the Silent.[1]
  • 1572 – Eighty Years' War: Three thousand Spanish soldiers wade through fifteen miles of water in one night to effect the relief of Goes.[2]
  • 1740 – France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction, and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.
  • 1781 – The Patent of Toleration, providing limited freedom of worship, is approved in Austria.
  • 1803 – The United States Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
  • 1818The Convention of 1818 is signed between the United States and the United Kingdom, which settles the Canada–United States border on the 49th parallel for most of its length.
  • 1827 – In the Battle of Navarino, a combined Turkish and Egyptian fleet is defeated by British, French and Russian naval forces in the last significant battle fought with wooden sailing ships.
  • 1883 – Peru and Chile sign the Treaty of Ancón, by which the Tarapacá province is ceded to the latter, bringing an end to Peru's involvement in the War of the Pacific.
  • 1904 – Chile and Bolivia sign the Treaty of Peace and Friendship, delimiting the border between the two countries.
  • 1935 – The Long March, a mammoth retreat undertaken by the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party a year prior, ends.
  • 1941 – World War II: Thousands of civilians in German-occupied Serbia are murdered in the Kragujevac massacre.
  • 1944 – World War II: The Soviet Army and Yugoslav Partisans liberate Belgrade.
  • 1944 – Liquefied natural gas leaks from storage tanks in Cleveland and then explodes, leveling 30 blocks and killing 130 people.
  • 1944 – American general Douglas MacArthur fulfills his promise to return to the Philippines when he comes ashore during the Battle of Leyte.
  • 1947 – The House Un-American Activities Committee begins its investigation into Communist infiltration of the Hollywood film industry, resulting in a blacklist that prevents some from working in the industry for years.
  • 1951 – The "Johnny Bright incident" occurs during a football game between the Drake Bulldogs and Oklahoma A&M Aggies.
  • 1952 – The Governor of Kenya declares a state of emergency and begins arresting hundreds of suspected leaders of the Mau Mau Uprising.
  • 1961 – The Soviet Union performs the first armed test of a submarine-launched ballistic missile, launching an R-13 from a Golf-class submarine.
  • 1962 – China launches simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line, igniting the Sino-Indian War.
  • 1973 – "Saturday Night Massacre": United States President Richard Nixon fires U.S. Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus after they refuse to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox, who is finally fired by Robert Bork.
  • 1973 – The Sydney Opera House is opened by Elizabeth II after 14 years of construction.
  • 1976The ferry George Prince is struck by a ship while crossing the Mississippi River. Seventy-eight passengers and crew die, and only 18 people aboard the ferry survive.
  • 1981 – Two police officers and an armored car guard are killed during an armed robbery carried out by members of the Black Liberation Army and Weather Underground.
  • 1982 – During the UEFA Cup match between FC Spartak Moscow and HFC Haarlem, 66 people are crushed to death in the Luzhniki disaster.
  • 1986Aeroflot Flight 6502 crashes while landing at Kuibyshev Airport (now Kuromoch International Airport) in Kuibyshev (now present-day Samara, Russia), killing 70 people.[3]
  • 1991 – A 6.8 Mw earthquake strikes the Uttarkashi region of India, killing more than 1,000 people.
  • 2011 – Libyan Civil War: Rebel forces capture Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi and his son Mutassim in his hometown of Sirte and kill him shortly thereafter, ending the first Libyan civil war.



Holidays and observances


  1. ^ Jeremy Black (2002). European Warfare, 1494-1660. Psychology Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-415-27531-6.
  2. ^ Montaigne and the Low Countries (1580-1700). Brill. 24 April 2007. p. 286. ISBN 978-90-474-1981-5.
  3. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev Tu-134A CCCP-65766 Kuybyshev Airport (KUF)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
  4. ^ Hugh Chisholm (1910). The Encyclopædia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information. The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.
  5. ^ Albert Tezla (1970). Hungarian Authors; a Bibliographical Handbook. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-674-42650-4.
  6. ^ Nicholas Canny; Nicholas P. Canny (12 August 1982). The Upstart Earl: A Study of the Social and Mental World of Richard Boyle, First Earl of Cork, 1566-1643. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-0-521-24416-9.
  7. ^ John Lemprière; Eleazar Lord (1825). Lempriere's Universal Biography: Containing a Critical and Historical Account of the Lives, Characters, and Labours of Eminent Persons, in All Ages and Countries. Together with Selections of Foreign Biography from Watkin's Dictionary, Recently Published, and about Eight Hundred Original Articles of American Biography. R. Lockwood. pp. 177–.
  8. ^ Adrian Tinniswood (2002). His Invention So Fertile: A Life of Christopher Wren. Pimlico. pp. 330–. ISBN 978-0-7126-7364-8.
  9. ^ Fayette Phelps Leach (1932). Thomas Hungerford of Hartford and New London, Conn: And Some of His Descendants with Their English Ancestors. Supplement.
  10. ^ Sylvanus Urban (1864). THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE. pp. 767–.
  11. ^ Stanley S. Sokol; Sharon F. Mrotek Kissane; Alfred L. Abramowicz (1992). The Polish Biographical Dictionary: Profiles of Nearly 900 Poles who Have Made Lasting Contributions to World Civilization. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers. pp. 229–. ISBN 978-0-86516-245-7.
  12. ^ Henry Stoddard Ruggles (1897). General Timothy Ruggles, 1711-1795. Priv. print.
  13. ^ George Naylor, The Register's of Thorrington (n.n.: n.n., 1888). Hereinafter cited as Registers of Thorrington.
  14. ^ Norman L. Johnson; Samuel Kotz (26 September 2011). Leading Personalities in Statistical Sciences: From the Seventeenth Century to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-1-118-15072-6.
  15. ^ Heinz Dietrich Fischer; Erika J. Fischer (1994). American History Awards, 1917-1991: From Colonial Settlements to the Civil Rights Movement. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-3-598-30177-3.
  16. ^ Brian Anthony; Andy Edmonds (23 December 1997). Smile When the Raindrops Fall: The Story of Charley Chase. Scarecrow Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-4617-3418-5.
  17. ^ The Encyclopedia of Country Music. Oxford University Press. 16 December 2004. pp. 923–. ISBN 978-0-19-984044-1.
  18. ^ Scott, Cavan; Wright, Mark (2013). Doctor Who Whology: The Official Miscellany. London: BBC Books. p. 120. ISBN 9781849906197.
  19. ^ Gigney, George (2016) "Aaron Pryor dies at 60", boxingnewsonline.net, October 9, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016
  20. ^ http://www.cincinnati.com/story/news/2016/10/09/former-boxing-champion-aaron-pryor-dies/91823876/
  21. ^ "About Sheldon". Sheldon Whitehouse. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  22. ^ Rose, Mike (October 20, 2018). "Today's top celebrity birthdays list for October 20, 2018". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  23. ^ FashionModelDirectory.com, The FMD -. "Elyse Taylor - Fashion Model - Models - Photos, Editorials & Latest News - The FMD". The FMD - FashionModelDirectory.com.
  24. ^ "Senior List". Essendon Football Club. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  25. ^ "Lydia Maria Child | American author". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  26. ^ Lamphier, Peg A.; Welch, Rosanne (2017). Women in American History: A Social, Political, and Cultural Encyclopedia and Document Collection. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 360. ISBN 978-1-61069-602-9.
  27. ^ Bauer, Patricia. "Junko Tabei | Japanese mountaineer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  28. ^ Valentine, Paul W. (October 21, 2020). "James Randi, magician and stage artist devoted to debunking the paranormal, dies at 92". Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2020.
  29. ^ "International Days". www.un.org. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2021.

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