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|Glottolog||oghu1243 (Oghuz + Kipchak + Uzbek)|
Turkish Gagauz Azerbaijani Qashqai Turkmen Khorasani Salar
The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 108 million people. The three languages with the largest number of speakers are Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen, which combined account for more than 95% of speakers.
Swedish turcologist and linguist Lars Johanson notes that Oghuz languages form a clearly discernible and closely related block within the Turkic language family as the cultural and political history of the speakers of Oghuz languages has linked them more closely up to the modern age.
The term "Oghuz" is applied to the southwestern branch of the Common Turkic languages. It is in reference to the Oghuz Turks, who migrated from the Altay Mountains to Central Asia in the 8th century and further expanded to the Middle East and to the Balkans as separate tribes.
The Oghuz languages currently spoken have been classified into three categories based on their features and geography: Western, Eastern, and Southern.
The extinct Pecheneg language was probably Oghuz, but as it is poorly documented, it is difficult to further classify it within the Oghuz family; it is therefore usually excluded from classification.
The Oghuz languages share a number of features that have led linguists to classify them together. Some of the features are shared with other Turkic languages, and others are unique to the Oghuz family.
- Loss of initial *h sound (shared with all Turkic languages but Khalaj)
- Loss of productivity of the original Turkic instrumental case -n (shared with all Turkic languages but Yakut and Khalaj)
- Voicing of stops (e.g. Anatolian Turkish gök < Ottoman گوك gök < Proto-Turkic kȫk, "sky"; Anatolian dağ < Ottoman داغ dağ < PTrk tāg "mountain")
- Loss of q/ɣ after ɯ/u (e.g. quru < quruq, "dry", sarɯ < sarɯɣ, "yellow")
- Change in form of participial from -gan to -an
The remarkable similarity between Oghuz languages may be demonstrated through the sentence, which employs a verbal noun in the dative as a link between the main verb and auxiliary. This feature is universally shared by all Oghuz languages. Turcologist Julian Rentzsch uses this particular sentence in his work titled "Uniformity and diversity in Turkic inceptive constructions":
English: ‘The dead man rose, sat down and began to speak.’
- Turkish: Ölü doğrulup oturdu ve konuşmaya başladı.
- Turkmen: Öli ýerinden galyp oturdy-da, geplemäge başlady.
- Azerbaijani: Ölü durub oturdu və danışmağa başladı.
- Gagauz: Ölü oturdu da bašladï lafetmää.
- Book of Dede Korkut
- Epic of Köroğlu
- Târîh-i Âli Selçûk (History of the House of Seljuk) by Yazıcıoğlu Ali
- Şikâyetnâme (شکايت نامه; "Complaint") by Fuzûlî
- Dâstân-ı Leylî vü Mecnûn by Fuzûlî
- Risâletü'n-Nushiyye by Yunus Emre
- Mârifetnâme (معرفتنامه; "Book of Gnosis") by İbrahim Hakkı Erzurumi
- D. T. Potts, (2014), Nomadism in Iran: From Antiquity to the Modern Era, p. 177
- Johanson, Lars (1998). The Turkic Languages. Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 0-415-08200-5.
- Danver, Steven (2015). The Native People of the World, An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues, Volume 1-3. Routledge. p. 565. ISBN 9780765682222. "Historically, all of the Western or Oghuz Turks have been called Turkmen or Turkomen... In the 7th century C.E., they migrated from their ancestral homeland in the Altay mountains westward..."
- Баскаков, Н. А. Тюркские языки, Москва 1960, с. 126-131.
- Julian Rentzsch, "Uniformity and diversity in Turkic inceptive constructions", Johannes Gutenberg University, p. 270
- Julian Rentzsch, "Uniformity and diversity in Turkic inceptive constructions", Johannes Gutenberg University, pp. 270-271
- Golden, Peter B. (2020). "Oghuz". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.
- Johanson, Lars & Csató, Éva Ágnes (1998). The Turkic Languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08200-5.
- Menges, Karl H. (1995). The Turkic Languages and Peoples. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3-447-03533-1.
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