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Open-mid back unrounded vowel
|Open-mid back unrounded vowel|
The open-mid back unrounded vowel or low-mid back unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʌ⟩, graphically a rotated lowercase "v" (called a turned V but created as a small-capital ⟨ᴀ⟩ without the crossbar). Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as a "wedge", "caret" or "hat". In transcriptions for English, this symbol is commonly used for the near-open central unrounded vowel and in transcriptions for Danish, it is used for the (somewhat mid-centralized) open back rounded vowel.
- Its vowel height is open-mid, also known as low-mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between an open vowel (a low vowel) and a mid vowel.
- Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
- It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.
|Catalan||Solsonès||tarda||[ˈtaɾð̞ʌ̃ː]||'afternoon'||Realization of final unstressed /ə/|
|Emilian-Romagnol ||most Emilian dialects||Bulåggna||[buˈlʌɲːɐ]||'Bologna'||It corresponds to a sound between /ɔ/ a /ä/; written ò in some spellings|
|English||Cape Town||lot||[lʌt]||'lot'||It corresponds to a weakly rounded [ɒ̈] in all other South African dialects. See South African English phonology|
|Cardiff||thought||[θʌːt]||'thought'||For some speakers it may be rounded and closer. See English phonology|
|General South African||no||[nʌː]||'no'||May be a diphthong [ʌʊ̯] instead. See South African English phonology|
|General American||gut||[ɡʌt] (help·info)||'gut'||In most dialects, fronted to [ɜ], or fronted and lowered to [ɐ]. See English phonology and Northern Cities Vowel Shift|
|Inland Northern American|
|Northern East Anglian|
|Some Estuary English speakers|
|French||Picardy||alors||[aˈlʌʀ̥]||'so'||Corresponding to /ɔ/ in standard French.|
|German||Chemnitz dialect||machen||[ˈmʌχɴ̩]||'to do'||Allophone of /ʌ, ʌː/ (which phonetically are central [ɜ, ɜː]) before and after /ŋ, kʰ, k, χ, ʁ/. Exact backness varies; it is most posterior before /χ, ʁ/.|
|Haida||ḵwaáay||[qʷʰʌʔáːj]||'the rock'||Allophone of /a/ (sometimes also /aː/) after uvular and epiglottal consonants.|
|Irish||Ulster dialect||ola||[ʌl̪ˠə]||'oil'||See Irish phonology|
|Kaingang||[ˈɾʌ]||'mark'||Varies between back [ʌ] and central [ɜ].|
|Korean||너 / neo||[nʌ]||'you'||See Korean phonology|
|Lillooet||[example needed]||Retracted counterpart of /ə/.|
|Mah Meri||[example needed]||Allophone of /ə/; can be mid central [ə] or close-mid back [ɤ] instead.|
|Nepali||असल/asal||[ʌsʌl]||'good'||See Nepali phonology|
|Oʼodham||Pima||corresponds to [ɨ] in Papago.|
|Russian||Standard Saint Petersburg||голова/golová||[ɡəɫ̪ʌˈvä]||'head'||Corresponds to [ɐ] in standard Moscow pronunciation; occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology|
|Tamil||[example needed]||Nasalized. Phonetic realization of the sequence /am/, may be [õ] or [ã] instead. See Tamil phonology|
Before World War II, the /ʌ/ of Received Pronunciation was phonetically close to a back vowel [ʌ], which has since shifted forward towards [ɐ] (a near-open central unrounded vowel). Daniel Jones reported his speech (southern British) as having an advanced back vowel [ʌ̟] between his central /ə/ and back /ɔ/; however, he also reported that other southern speakers had a lower and even more advanced vowel that approached cardinal [a]. In American English varieties, such as in the West, the Midwest, and the urban South, the typical phonetic realization of the phoneme /ʌ/ is an open-mid central [ɜ]. Truly backed variants of /ʌ/ that are phonetically [ʌ] can occur in Inland Northern American English, Newfoundland English, Philadelphia English, some of African-American English, and (old-fashioned) white Southern English in coastal plain and Piedmont areas. However, the letter ⟨ʌ⟩ is still commonly used to indicate this phoneme, even in the more common varieties with central variants [ɐ] or [ɜ]. That may be because of both tradition and some other dialects retaining the older pronunciation.
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