Open-mid back unrounded vowel

Open-mid back unrounded vowel
ʌ
IPA Number 314
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʌ
Unicode (hex) U+028C
X-SAMPA V
Audio sample
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The open-mid back unrounded vowel or low-mid back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʌ⟩, graphically a rotated lowercase "v" (called a turned V but created as a small-capital ⟨ᴀ⟩ without the crossbar). Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as a "wedge", "caret" or "hat". In transcriptions for English, this symbol is commonly used for the near-open central unrounded vowel and in transcriptions for Danish, it is used for the (somewhat mid-centralized) open back rounded vowel.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan Solsonès[2] tarda [ˈtaɾð̞ʌ̃ː] 'afternoon' Realization of final unstressed /ə/
Emilian-Romagnol [3] most Emilian dialects Bulåggna [buˈlʌɲːɐ] 'Bologna' It corresponds to a sound between /ɔ/ a /ä/; written ò in some spellings
English Cape Town[4] lot [lʌt] 'lot' It corresponds to a weakly rounded [ɒ̈] in all other South African dialects. See South African English phonology
Natal[4]
Cardiff[5] thought [θʌːt] 'thought' For some speakers it may be rounded and closer. See English phonology
General South African[6] no [nʌː] 'no' May be a diphthong [ʌʊ̯] instead.[7] See South African English phonology
General American[8] gut About this sound[ɡʌt]  'gut' In most dialects, fronted to [ɜ], or fronted and lowered to [ɐ]. See English phonology and Northern Cities Vowel Shift
Inland Northern American[9]
Multicultural London[10]
Newfoundland[11]
Northern East Anglian[12]
Philadelphia[13]
Scottish[14]
Some Estuary English speakers[15]
French Picardy[16] alors [aˈlʌʀ̥] 'so' Corresponding to /ɔ/ in standard French.
German Chemnitz dialect[17] machen [ˈmʌχɴ̩] 'to do' Allophone of /ʌ, ʌː/ (which phonetically are central [ɜ, ɜː])[18] before and after /ŋ, kʰ, k, χ, ʁ/. Exact backness varies; it is most posterior before /χ, ʁ/.[19]
Haida[20] ḵwaáay [qʷʰʌʔáːj] 'the rock' Allophone of /a/ (sometimes also /aː/) after uvular and epiglottal consonants.[21]
Irish Ulster dialect[22] ola [ʌl̪ˠə] 'oil' See Irish phonology
Kaingang[23] [ˈɾʌ] 'mark' Varies between back [ʌ] and central [ɜ].[24]
Kensiu[25] [hʌʎ] 'stream'
Korean[26] / neo [nʌ] 'you' See Korean phonology
Lillooet [example needed] Retracted counterpart of /ə/.
Mah Meri[27] [example needed] Allophone of /ə/; can be mid central [ə] or close-mid back [ɤ] instead.[27]
Nepali असल/asal [ʌsʌl] 'good' See Nepali phonology
Oʼodham Pima corresponds to [ɨ] in Papago.
Russian Standard Saint Petersburg[28] голова/golová [ɡəɫ̪ʌˈvä] 'head' Corresponds to [ɐ] in standard Moscow pronunciation;[28] occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Tamil[29] [example needed] Nasalized. Phonetic realization of the sequence /am/, may be [õ] or [ã] instead.[29] See Tamil phonology

Before World War II, the /ʌ/ of Received Pronunciation was phonetically close to a back vowel [ʌ], which has since shifted forward towards [ɐ] (a near-open central unrounded vowel). Daniel Jones reported his speech (southern British) as having an advanced back vowel [ʌ̟] between his central /ə/ and back /ɔ/; however, he also reported that other southern speakers had a lower and even more advanced vowel that approached cardinal [a].[30] In American English varieties, such as in the West, the Midwest, and the urban South, the typical phonetic realization of the phoneme /ʌ/ is an open-mid central [ɜ].[31][32] Truly backed variants of /ʌ/ that are phonetically [ʌ] can occur in Inland Northern American English, Newfoundland English, Philadelphia English, some of African-American English, and (old-fashioned) white Southern English in coastal plain and Piedmont areas.[33][34] However, the letter ⟨ʌ⟩ is still commonly used to indicate this phoneme, even in the more common varieties with central variants [ɐ] or [ɜ]. That may be because of both tradition and some other dialects retaining the older pronunciation.[35]

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