Open-mid front unrounded vowel

Open-mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ
IPA Number 303
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɛ
Unicode (hex) U+025B
X-SAMPA E
Braille ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Audio sample
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The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, ⟨ɛ⟩.

Features

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic See Imāla
Armenian Eastern[2] էջ/ēǰ [ɛd͡ʒ] 'page'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩.
Bengali[4] /ek [ɛk] 'one' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5] пет/pet [pɛt̪] 'five' See Bulgarian phonology
Burmese[6] မေ/me [mɛ] 'mother'
Catalan[7] mel [mɛɫ] 'honey' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin[8] / tiān About this sound[tʰi̯ɛn˥] 'sky' Height varies between mid and open depending on the speaker. See Standard Chinese phonology
Chuvash ҫепĕç ['ɕɛp̬ɘɕ] 'gentle, tender'
Czech[9][10] led [lɛt] 'ice' In Bohemian Czech, this vowel varies between open-mid front [ɛ], open-mid near-front [ɛ̠] and mid near-front [ɛ̝̈].[9] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[11][12] frisk [ˈfʁɛsk] 'fresh' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[13] bed About this sound[bɛt]  'bed' See Dutch phonology
The Hague[14] jij About this sound[jɛ̞ː]  'you' Corresponds to [ɛi] in standard Dutch.
English General American[15] bed About this sound[bɛd]  'bed'
Northern England[16] May be somewhat lowered.[16]
Received Pronunciation[17][18] Older RP speakers pronounce a closer vowel []. See English phonology
Scottish[19]
Cockney[20] fat [fɛt] 'fat'
Singaporean[21]
New Zealand[22] See New Zealand English phonology
Some Broad
South African speakers[23]
Other speakers realize this vowel as [æ] or [a]. See South African English phonology
Belfast[24] days [dɛːz] 'days' Pronounced [iə] in closed syllables; corresponds to [eɪ] in RP.
Zulu[25] mate [mɛt] 'mate' Speakers exhibit a met-mate merger.
Faroese[26] frekt [fɹɛʰkt] 'greedy' See Faroese phonology
French[27][28] bête About this sound[bɛt̪]  'beast' See French phonology
Galician ferro [ˈfɛro̝] 'iron' See Galician phonology
Georgian[29] დი/gedi [ɡɛdi] 'swan'
German Standard[30][31] Bett About this sound[b̥ɛt]  'bed' Also described as mid [ɛ̝].[32] See Standard German phonology
Franconian accent[33] oder [ˈoːdɛ] 'or' Used instead of [ɐ].[33] See Standard German phonology
Coastal Northern accents[33]
Swabian accent[34] fett [fɛt] 'fat' Contrasts with the close-mid [e].[34] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[35] See [z̥ɛː] 'lake' Close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the near-open [æː].[36] See Standard German phonology
Hindustani Hindi रहना [ˈɾɛɦna] 'to stay' See Hindustani phonology
Urdu رہنا
Italian[37] bene About this sound[ˈbɛːne]  'good' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[38] mbre [ˈᵐbɾɛ] 'with'
Korean 매미 / maemi [mɛːmi] 'cicada' See Korean phonology
Kurdish Kurmanji (Northern) hevde [hɛvdɛ] 'seventeen' See Kurdish phonology
Sorani (Central) هه‌ڤده/hevda [hɛvdæ]
Palewani (Southern) [hɛvda]
Limburgish[39][40][41] crème [kʀ̝ɛːm] 'cream' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian mesti [mɛs̪t̪ɪ] 'throw' See Lithuanian phonology
Lower Sorbian[42] serp [s̪ɛrp] 'sickle'
Luxembourgish[43] Stär [ʃtɛːɐ̯] 'star' Allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/.[43] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian[44][45] Standard мед/med [ˈmɛd̪] 'honey' See Macedonian language § Vowels
Malay Negeri Sembilan cepat [cɔpɛɁ] 'quick' See Negeri Sembilan Malay
Kelatan-Pattani ayam [äjɛː] 'chicken' See Kelatan-Pattani Malay
Terengganu biasa [bɛsə] 'normal' See Terengganu Malay
Norwegian Sognamål[46] pest [pʰɛst] 'plague' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[47] ten About this sound[t̪ɛn̪]  'this one' (nom. m.) See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[48][49] pé [ˈpɛ] 'foot' Stressed vowel might be lower [æ]. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨e⟩ allophones, such as [ e ɪ i ɨ], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[50] tempo [ˈt̪ɛ̃mpu] 'time' Timbre differences for nasalized vowels are mainly kept in European Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[51] vede [ˈvɛɟe] '(he) sees' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[52] это/eto About this sound[ˈɛt̪ə]  'this' See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[53] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.
Slovene met [mɛ́t] 'throw' (n.) See Slovene phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[54] las madres [læ̞ː ˈmæ̞ːð̞ɾɛː] 'the mothers' Corresponds to [] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[54]
Swahili shule [ʃulɛ] 'school'
Swedish Central Standard[55] ät [ɛ̠ːt̪] 'eat' (imp.) Somewhat retracted.[55] See Swedish phonology
Thai ตร / trae [trɛː˧] 'horn (instrument)'
Turkish[56][57] ülke [y̠l̠ˈcɛ] 'country' Allophone of /e/ described variously as "word-final"[56] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[57] See Turkish phonology
Twi ɛyɛ 'it is good/fine' See Twi phonology
Ukrainian[58] день/den' [dɛnʲ] 'day' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[42][59] čelo [ˈt͡ʃɛlɔ] 'calf' See Upper Sorbian phonology
Welsh nesaf [nɛsav] 'next' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian[60] beppe [ˈbɛpə] 'grandma' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[61] sẹ̀ [ɛ̄sɛ] 'leg'

See also

Copyright