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The Padroado (Portuguese pronunciation: [pɐðɾuˈaðu], "patronage") was an arrangement between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Portugal and later the Republic of Portugal, through a series of concordats by which the Vatican delegated the administration of the local churches and granted some theocratic privileges to Portuguese monarchs. The Portuguese Padroado dates from the beginning of the Portuguese maritime expansion in the mid-15th century and was confirmed by Pope Leo X in 1514. At various times the system was called Padroado Real (Royal patronage), Padroado Ultramarino Português (Portuguese Overseas Patronage) and, since 1911 (following the Portuguese Law on the Separation of Church and State), Padroado Português do Oriente (Portuguese Patronage of the East). The system was progressively dismantled throughout the 20th century.
When the Empire of Brazil became independent from Portugal in 1822, in addition to the Catholic Faith being confirmed as the official religion of the new State, the Padroado regime was retained, with all its institutions and privileges (now vested, regarding Brazil, on the Emperor and on his government), and this was recognized by the Holy See in 1826. Shortly after Brazil became a republic in 1889, the Padroado was abolished in the country, by the same decree that enacted the separation of Church and State (decree of 7 January 1890).
The Portuguese kings ordered the construction of churches, and nominated pastors and bishops. Thus the structure of the kingdom of Portugal had both religious and political dimensions. Under the Padroado many characteristic activities of the Catholic Church were functions of powerful politicians. The Inquisition functioned more to determine secular politics than its genuine religious function. The Padroado was modified over time, but its vestiges were not suppressed until the Second Vatican Council concluded in 1965. For example, until this council, it was the Head of Portuguese State which bestowed the cardinal's red biretta on the Patriarch of Lisbon.
Historically, this system caused some problems, especially in the years leading up to the Second Vatican Council. An example was the island-state of Singapore, where the Portuguese mission, under the Padroado, operated Saint Joseph's Church independently of the Roman Catholic Mission and later the Archdiocese of Singapore. This led to a situation of dual ecclesiastical administration. The situation had to eventually be resolved via a diplomatic settlement between the governments of Portugal and the Holy See. This was in line with the Second Vatican Council, in which the Holy See actively asked governments to give up and annul treaties or privileges similar to the Padroado. St. Joseph's Church eventually came under the administration of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Singapore. Due to issues relating to parish culture and Portuguese missionary activity, however, the church was granted certain privileges and to this day is not officially considered a parish church.
- Patronato real, a similar arrangement with Spain
- History of Roman Catholicism in Brazil
- Romanus Pontifex
- Protectorate of missions
- Christianity and colonialism
- Donald F. Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, vol. 1: The Century of Discovery (Book 1 of 2), Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1965, pp. 230–245 (The Portuguese "Padroado" [Patronage] of the East)
- E. Wijeysingha (2006), Going Forth. The Catholic Church in Singapore 1819-2004, ISBN 981-05-5703-5
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