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List of presidents of Czechoslovakia
|President of Czechoslovakia|
|Czech: Prezident Československa
Slovak: Prezident Česko-Slovenska
|Formation||14 November 1918|
|First holder||Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk|
|Final holder||Václav Havel|
|Abolished||20 July 1992|
|Succession|| President of the Czech Republic
President of Slovakia
The president of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prezident Československa, Slovak: Prezident Česko-Slovenska) was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic on 1 January 1993.
In periods when the presidency was vacant, most presidential duties were assumed by the prime minister. However, the Czechoslovak Constitutions never defined anything like a post of acting president.
The second section lists the leaders of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ) from 1948 to 1989. The post was titled as Chairman from 1948 to 1953, First Secretary from 1953 to 1971, and General Secretary from 1971 to 1989. After the 1948 coup d'état, the KSČ's leader was the country's de facto chief executive. However, three party leaders (Klement Gottwald, Antonín Novotný and Gustáv Husák) also served as president at some point in their tenures.
The last living former president of Czechoslovakia, Václav Havel, died in 2011.
As of September 2021, there is one living former general secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia: Karel Urbánek.
Presidents of Czechoslovakia (1918–1992)
- Czechoslovak National Social Party (ČSNS)
- Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ)
- Civic Forum (OF)
|Ethnicity||Elected||Term of office||Political party|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|1||Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk
|14 November 1918||14 December 1935||17 years, 30 days||Independent|
|Czech||1935||18 December 1935||5 October 1938||2 years, 291 days||ČSNS|
|Czech||1938||30 November 1938||15 March 1939||105 days||Independent|
Emil Hácha became State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, a de jure autonomous region incorporated into Nazi Germany.
Edvard Beneš proclaimed himself President within the Czechoslovak government-in-exile, which was the internationally recognized government of Czechoslovakia during World War II.
Jozef Tiso became President of the quasi-independent, pro-Nazi and clero-fascist Slovak Republic.
Avgustyn Voloshyn became President of the Carpatho-Ukraine few days before occupation by the Kingdom of Hungary.
|Czech||1946||4 April 1945||7 June 1948||3 years, 64 days||ČSNS|
Official names: Czechoslovak Republic (1948–1960), Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1960–1989)
|Czech||1948||14 June 1948||14 March 1953||4 years, 273 days||KSČ|
|Czech||1953||21 March 1953||13 November 1957||4 years, 237 days||KSČ|
|19 November 1957||22 March 1968||10 years, 124 days||KSČ|
|30 March 1968||29 May 1975||7 years, 60 days||KSČ|
|29 May 1975||10 December 1989||14 years, 195 days||KSČ|
Official names: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1989–1990), Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (1990–1992)
|29 December 1989||20 July 1992||2 years, 204 days||OF|
General Secretaries of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989)
Except for the final office-holder, the leader of the KSČ was de facto the most powerful person in the country during this period.
Title: Chairman (1948–1953) and First Secretary (1953–1971).
|Ethnicity||Term of office|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|Czech||February 1948||14 March 1953||5 years, 41 days|
|Czech||14 March 1953||5 January 1968||14 years, 297 days|
|Slovak||5 January 1968||17 April 1969||1 year, 102 days|
|Slovak||17 April 1969||17 December 1987||18 years, 244 days|
|Czech||17 December 1987||24 November 1989||1 year, 342 days|
|Czech||24 November 1989||20 December 1989||26 days|
- List of rulers of Czechs
- List of Bohemian monarchs
- List of rulers of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
- List of prime ministers of Czechoslovakia
- President of the Czech Republic
- Prime Minister of the Czech Republic
- President of Slovakia
- Prime Minister of Slovakia
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