President of Guatemala

President of the
Republic of Guatemala
Presidente de la República de Guatemala
Coat of Arms of the President of the Republic of Guatemala.png
Flag of the President of Guatemala.svg
Alejandro Giammattei (48934164796) (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Alejandro Giammattei

since 14 January 2020
Office of the President of Guatemala
National Security Council
Style Mr. President
(informal)
Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic
(official)
His Excellency
(alternative formal, diplomatic outside of Guatemala)
Member of Cabinet
Residence National Palace
Seat Guatemala City
Appointer Supreme Electoral Court
Term length Four years
non-renewable
Constituting instrument Guatemalan Constitution
Inaugural holder Mariano Rivera Paz
Formation 3 December 1839
Deputy Vice President of Guatemala
Salary 146,950 GTQ monthly
($19,742 as of May 2018)[1]
Website http://www.presidencia.gob.gt/

The president of Guatemala (Spanish: Presidente de Guatemala), officially known as the president of the Republic of Guatemala (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Guatemala), is the head of state and head of government of Guatemala, elected to a single four-year term. The position of President was created in 1839.

Requirements to hold office

According to article 185 of the constitution, the following is required to be president:

  • A Guatemalan of origin who is a citizen in good standing.
  • Forty years of age.

Under article 186, relatives of the incumbent president or vice president are not allowed to run in the succeeding election.

Duties and competences

According to article 183 of the constitution, the following duties and competences are conferred to the president:

  • Comply with and enforce the Constitution and laws.
  • Provide the defense and security of the Nation, as well as the preservation of public order.
  • Exercise the command of the Armed Forces of Guatemala with all the respective functions and attributions.
  • Exercise the command of the National Police.
  • Approve, promulgate, execute and enforce laws.
  • Dictate the provisions that are necessary in cases of serious emergency or public calamity, having to report to the Congress in its immediate sessions.
  • Submit proposals of laws to the Congress.
  • Exercise the right of veto with respect to the laws issued by the Congress, except in cases in which it is not necessary to sanction the executive branch in accordance with the Constitution.
  • Present annually to the Congress, at the beginning of its session, written report on the general situation of the Republic and of the business of its administration carried out during the previous year.
  • Submit annually to the Congress, for approval with no less than one hundred and twenty days prior to the date on which the fiscal year begins, through the Ministry of Public Finance, the draft budget that contains in detail the income and expenditures of the State. If the Congress is not in session, it must hold extraordinary sessions to hear about the project.
  • Submit for consideration of the Congress for approval, and before ratification, treaties and conventions of international character and contracts and concessions on public services.
  • To summon the Legislative Organism to extraordinary sessions when the interests of the Republic demand it.
  • Coordinate the development policy of the Nation through the Council of Ministers.
  • Preside over the Council of Ministers and exercise the function of hierarchical superior of the officials and employees of the Executive Organism.
  • Maintain the territorial integrity and dignity of the Nation.
  • Direct foreign policy and international relations, pronounce, ratify and denounce treaties and agreements in accordance with the Constitution.
  • Receive the diplomatic representatives, as well as issue and withdraw the exequatur to the patents of the consuls.
  • Administer public finances in accordance with the law.
  • Exonerate of fines and surcharges to the taxpayers who have incurred in them for not covering the taxes within the legal terms for acts or omissions in the administrative order.
  • Appoint and remove ministers of state, deputy ministers, secretaries and undersecretaries of the presidency, ambassadors and other officials that correspond to it according to the law.
  • Grant premiums, pensions and subsidies in accordance with the Law.
  • Award decorations to Guatemalans and foreigners.
  • Within the fifteen days following its conclusion, inform the Congress about the purpose of any trip that has taken place outside the national territory and about the results thereof.
  • Submit every four months to the Congress through the respective ministry an analytical report on the budget execution, for its knowledge and control.
  • Exercise all other functions assigned by the Constitution or the law.

Heads of state of Guatemala within the Federal Republic of Central America (1824–1839)

No. Portrait Name Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in Office
1
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
Alejandro Diaz Cabeza de Vaca

(Provisional)

15 September 1824 12 October 1824 3 weeks,

6 days

Conservative
2
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
Juan Nepomuceno Barrundia Cepeda 12 October 1824 9 September 1826 1 year,

10 months, 28 days

Liberal
3
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
Cirilo Flores

(Acting)

9 September 1826 13 October 1826 1 month,

4 days

N/A
4
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
Jose Domingo Estrada

(Acting)

2 January 1827 1 March 1827 1 Months,

30 days

Conservative
5
Aycinena.jpg
Mariano de Aycinena y Piñol 1 March 1827 12 April 1829 2 years,

1 month, 11 days

Conservative
6
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
Mariano Zenteno

(Provisional)

13 April 1829 30 April 1829 2 weeks,

3 days

Conservative
7
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
Juan Nepomuceno Barrundia y Cepeda 30 April 1829 23 August 1829 3 months,

24 days

Liberal
8
Pedro Molina Mazariegos.jpg
Pedro Molina Mazariegos 23 August 1829 10 February 1831 1 years,

5 months, 18 days

Liberal
9
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
José Gregorio Márquez

(Acting)

10 February 1831 28 August 1831 6 months,

18 days

N/A
10
Mariano Gálvez.jpg
Mariano Gálvez 28 August 1831 3 March 1838 6 years,

6 months, 6 days

Liberal
11
Coat of arms of Guatemala (1825-1843).svg
Pedro José Valenzuela y Jáuregui

(Acting)

3 March 1838 29 July 1838 4 months,

26 days

N/A
12
Mariano Rivera Paz

(Acting (1st time))

29 July 1838 30 January 1839 6 months,

1 days

Liberal
13
Carlos Salazar Castro (San Salvador, 1800 - San José, 23 de julio de 1867) fue un militar liberal salvadoreño.jpg
Carlos Salazar Castro

(Provisional)

30 January 1839 13 April 1839 2 months,

14 days

N/A
14
Mariano Rivera Paz

(Acting (2nd time))

13 April 1839 3 December 1839 7 months,

20 days

Liberal

Presidents of independent Guatemala (1839–present)

[a 1]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Mariano Rivera Paz.jpg Mariano Rivera Paz
(1804–1849)
3 December 1839 25 February 1842 2 years, 84 days Conservative
2 Jlrequenaguatemalapresd.jpg José Venancio López
(1791–1863)
Acting Head of State
25 February 1842 14 May 1842 78 days Liberal
3 Mariano Rivera Paz.jpg Mariano Rivera Paz
(1804–1849)
14 May 1842 14 December 1844 2 years, 214 days Conservative
4 Carrerayturcios 2014-06-22 09-46.jpg Rafael Carrera
(1814–1865)
14 December 1844 16 August 1848 3 years, 246 days Conservative
5 Juan Antonio Martinez presidente interino Guatemala.jpg Juan Antonio Martínez
(?–1854)
Acting
16 August 1848 28 November 1848 104 days Conservative
6 Blank.png José Bernardo Escobar
(1797–1849)
Acting
28 November 1848 1 January 1849 34 days Conservative
7 ParedesGuatemala.jpg Mariano Peredes
(1800–1856)
Acting
1 January 1849 6 November 1851 2 years, 309 days Independent
8 Carrerayturcios 2014-06-22 09-46.jpg Rafael Carrera
(1814–1865)
6 November 1851 14 April 1865 13 years, 159 days Conservative
9 Aycinenacolor.jpg Pedro de Aycinena y Piñol
(1802–1897)
Acting
14 April 1865 24 May 1865 40 days Conservative
10 VicenteCerna.jpg Vicente Cerna Sandoval
(1815–1885)
24 May 1865 29 June 1871 6 years, 36 days Conservative
11 MiguelGarcia.jpg Miguel García Granados
(1809–1878)
29 June 1871 4 June 1873 1 year, 340 days Liberal
12 Justo Rufino Barrios.jpg Justo Rufino Barrios
(1835–1885)
1873
1880
4 June 1873 2 April 1885 11 years, 302 days Liberal
13 Alejandrosinibaldi.jpg Alejandro M. Sinibaldi
(1825–1896)
Acting
2 April 1885 5 April 1885 3 days Liberal
14 Barillas.jpg Manuel Barillas
(1845–1907)
6 April 1885 15 March 1892 6 years, 345 days Liberal
15 Reina barrios3.jpg José María Reina Barrios
(1854–1898)
1892 15 March 1892 8 February 1898 5 years, 330 days Liberal
16 Manuelestradaretrato.jpg Manuel Estrada Cabrera
(1857–1924)
1898
1904
1910
1916
8 February 1898 15 April 1920 22 years, 67 days Liberal
17 CarlosHerrerayLuna.jpg Carlos Herrera
(1856–1930)
1920
1920
15 April 1920 10 December 1921 1 year, 239 days Unionist Party
18 José María Orellana Pinto recortado.jpg José María Orellana
(1872–1926)
1922 10 December 1921 26 September 1926 4 years, 290 days Liberal
19 Lazarochacon1926.jpg Lázaro Chacón González
(1873–1931)
1926 26 September 1926 2 January 1931 4 years, 98 days Unionist Party
20 Jose maria reina andrade.jpg José María Reina Andrade
(1860–1947)
Acting
2 January 1931 14 February 1931 43 days Liberal
21 Ubico Castaneda, Jorge.jpg Jorge Ubico
(1878–1946)
1931 14 February 1931 1 July 1944 13 years, 138 days Progressive Liberal Party
22 Federicoponcevaides.jpg Juan Federico Ponce Vaides
(1889–1956)
Acting
1 July 1944 20 October 1944 111 days Progressive Liberal Party
23 Juntagobierno1944.jpg Revolutionary Government Junta 20 October 1944 15 March 1945 146 days Military
24 JuanJoseArevaloBermejo - cropped.jpg Juan José Arévalo
(1904–1990)
1944 15 March 1945 15 March 1951 6 years Revolutionary Action Party
25 Jacoboarbenz1950.jpg Jacobo Árbenz
(1913–1971)
1950 15 March 1951 27 June 1954
(Deposed)
3 years, 104 days Revolutionary Action Party /
Party of the Guatemalan Revolution
26 Carlos Enrique Diaz.jpg Carlos Enrique Díaz de León
(1915–2014)
Provisional President
27 June 1954 29 June 1954 2 days Military
27 Blank.png Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre
(1912–1981)
Chairman of Military Junta
29 June 1954 8 July 1954 9 days Military
28 Carlos Castillo Armas.jpg Carlos Castillo Armas
(1914–1957)
8 July 1954 26 July 1957 3 years, 18 days National Liberation Movement
29 Blank.png Luis Arturo González López
(1900–1965)
Acting
27 July 1957 24 October 1957 90 days Independent
30 Oscar Mendoza Azurdia.png Óscar Mendoza Azurdia
(1917–1995)
Chairman of Military Junta
24 October 1957 26 October 1957 2 days Military
31 Blank.png Guillermo Flores Avendaño
(1894–1982)
Acting
26 October 1957 2 March 1958 2 days Military
32 Miguel Ydigoras Fuentes.jpg Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes
(1895–1982)
1958 2 March 1958 31 March 1963
(Deposed)
5 years, 156 days Military /
REDENCION
33 Enrique Peralta Azurdia (cropped).jpg Enrique Peralta Azurdia
(1908–1997)
31 March 1963 1 July 1966 3 years, 92 days Institutional Democratic Party
34 Julio César Méndez Montenegro (1968).jpg Julio César Méndez Montenegro
(1915–1996)
1966 1 July 1966 1 July 1970 4 years Revolutionary Party
35 Carlos Arana Osorio.png Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio
(1918–2003)
1970 1 July 1970 1 July 1974 4 years Institutional Democratic Party
36 Kjell Laugerud.png Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García
(1930–2009)
1974 1 July 1974 1 July 1978 4 years Institutional Democratic Party
37 Blank.png Fernando Romeo Lucas García
(1924–2006)
1978 1 July 1978 23 March 1982 3 years, 265 days Institutional Democratic Party
38 Rios Montt.png Efraín Ríos Montt
(1926–2018)
23 March 1982 8 August 1983 1 year, 138 days Military
39 Blank.png Óscar Humberto Mejía Víctores
(1930–2016)
8 August 1983 14 January 1986 2 years, 159 days Military
40 Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo DN-SN-86-05174.JPEG Vinicio Cerezo
(born 1942)
1985 14 January 1986 14 January 1991 5 years Guatemalan Christian Democracy
41 Jorge Serrano Elias.jpg Jorge Serrano Elías
(born 1945)
1990 14 January 1991 1 June 1993 2 years, 138 days Solidarity Action Movement
42 Blank.png Gustavo Adolfo Espina Salguero
(born 1946)
Acting
1 June 1993 5 June 1993 4 days Solidarity Action Movement
43 León Carpio 1993.jpg Ramiro de León Carpio
(1942–2002)
1993 6 June 1993 14 January 1996 2 years, 222 days Independent
44 AlvaroArzuIrigoyenFoto (cropped).jpg Álvaro Arzú
(1946–2018)
1995-96 14 January 1996 14 January 2000 4 years National Advancement Party /
Unionist Party
45 Alfonso Portillo Cabrera.jpg Alfonso Portillo
(born 1951)
1999 14 January 2000 14 January 2004 4 years Guatemalan Republican Front
46 Oscar Berger 2005 (cropped).jpg Óscar Berger
(born 1946)
2003 14 January 2004 14 January 2008 4 years National Solidarity Party /
Grand National Alliance
47 Alvaro Colom Caballeros.jpg Álvaro Colom
(born 1951)
2007 14 January 2008 14 January 2012 4 years National Unity of Hope
48 Otto Perez Molina at World Economic Forum 2013-cropped.jpg Otto Pérez Molina
(born 1950)
2011 14 January 2012 3 September 2015 3 years, 232 days Patriotic Party /
Grand National Alliance
49 Alejandro Maldonado 2015 (cropped).jpg Alejandro Maldonado
(born 1936)
Acting
3 September 2015 14 January 2016 133 days Independent
50 President Trump Meets with the President of Guatemala (49235087891) (cropped).jpg Jimmy Morales
(born 1969)
2015 14 January 2016 14 January 2020 4 years National Convergence Front
51 Alejandro Giammattei (48934164796) (cropped).jpg Alejandro Giammattei
(born 1956)
2019 14 January 2020 Incumbent 289 days Vamos

Latest election

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Alejandro Giammattei Vamos 613,302 13.95 1,907,696 57.95
Sandra Torres National Unity of Hope 1,122,630 25.54 1,384,005 42.05
Edmond Mulet Humanist Party of Guatemala 492,799 11.21
Thelma Cabrera Movement for the Liberation of Peoples 455,874 10.37
Roberto Arzú National Advancement PartyPodemos 267,256 6.08
Isaac Farchi Vision with Values 259,288 5.90
Manuel Villacorta Winaq 229,466 5.22
Estuardo Galdámez National Convergence Front 180,983 4.12
Julio Héctor Estrada Commitment, Renewal and Order 164,722 3.75
Fredy Cabrera Todos 137,769 3.13
Amílcar Rivera Victoria 111,734 2.54
Pablo Ceto Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity 94,810 2.16
Pablo Duarte Unionist Party 63,018 1.43
Manfredo Marroquín Encuentro por Guatemala 50,298 1.14
Aníbal García Libre 41,672 0.95
Benito Morales Convergence 37,724 0.86
Luis Velásquez Unidos 26,990 0.61
José Luis Chea Urruela Productivity and Work Party 23,893 0.54
Danilo Roca Avanza 21,179 0.48
Invalid/blank votes 667,460
Total 5,062,867 100 3,291,701 100
Registered voters/turnout 8,150,221 62.12 40.39
Source: Supreme Electoral Tribunal (both rounds preliminaries, 99% counted)

Living former presidents

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