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President of Guatemala
|President of the
Republic of Guatemala
|Presidente de la República de Guatemala|
|Office of the President of Guatemala
National Security Council
Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic
|Status||Head of State
Head of Government
|Appointer||Supreme Electoral Court|
|Term length||Four years
|Constituting instrument||Guatemalan Constitution|
|Inaugural holder||Mariano Rivera Paz|
|Formation||3 December 1839|
|Deputy||Vice President of Guatemala|
|Salary||146,950 GTQ monthly
($19,742 as of May 2018)
The president of Guatemala (Spanish: Presidente de Guatemala), officially known as the President of the Republic of Guatemala (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Guatemala), is the head of state and head of government of Guatemala, elected to a single four-year term. The position of President was created in 1839.
Requirements to hold office
According to article 185 of the constitution, the following is required to be president:
- A Guatemalan of origin who is a citizen in good standing.
- Forty years of age.
Under article 186, relatives of the incumbent president or vice president are not allowed to run in the succeeding election.
Duties and competences
According to article 183 of the constitution, the following duties and competences are conferred to the president:
- Comply with and enforce the Constitution and laws.
- Provide the defense and security of the Nation, as well as the preservation of public order.
- Exercise the command of the Armed Forces of Guatemala with all the respective functions and attributions.
- Exercise the command of the National Police.
- Approve, promulgate, execute and enforce laws.
- Dictate the provisions that are necessary in cases of serious emergency or public calamity, having to report to the Congress in its immediate sessions.
- Submit proposals of laws to the Congress.
- Exercise the right of veto with respect to the laws issued by the Congress, except in cases in which it is not necessary to sanction the executive branch in accordance with the Constitution.
- Present annually to the Congress, at the beginning of its session, written report on the general situation of the Republic and of the business of its administration carried out during the previous year.
- Submit annually to the Congress, for approval with no less than one hundred and twenty days prior to the date on which the fiscal year begins, through the Ministry of Public Finance, the draft budget that contains in detail the income and expenditures of the State. If the Congress is not in session, it must hold extraordinary sessions to hear about the project.
- Submit for consideration of the Congress for approval, and before ratification, treaties and conventions of international character and contracts and concessions on public services.
- To summon the Legislative Organism to extraordinary sessions when the interests of the Republic demand it.
- Coordinate the development policy of the Nation through the Council of Ministers.
- Preside over the Council of Ministers and exercise the function of hierarchical superior of the officials and employees of the Executive Organism.
- Maintain the territorial integrity and dignity of the Nation.
- Direct foreign policy and international relations, pronounce, ratify and denounce treaties and agreements in accordance with the Constitution.
- Receive the diplomatic representatives, as well as issue and withdraw the exequatur to the patents of the consuls.
- Administer public finances in accordance with the law.
- Exonerate of fines and surcharges to the taxpayers who have incurred in them for not covering the taxes within the legal terms for acts or omissions in the administrative order.
- Appoint and remove ministers of state, deputy ministers, secretaries and undersecretaries of the presidency, ambassadors and other officials that correspond to it according to the law.
- Grant premiums, pensions and subsidies in accordance with the Law.
- Award decorations to Guatemalans and foreigners.
- Within the fifteen days following its conclusion, inform the Congress about the purpose of any trip that has taken place outside the national territory and about the results thereof.
- Submit every four months to the Congress through the respective ministry an analytical report on the budget execution, for its knowledge and control.
- Exercise all other functions assigned by the Constitution or the law.
Heads of state of Guatemala within the Federal Republic of Central America (1824–1839)
|No.||Portrait||Name||Term of office||Political party|
|Took office||Left office||Time in Office|
|1||Alejandro Diaz Cabeza de Vaca
|15 September 1824||12 October 1824||3 weeks,
|2||Juan Barrundia||12 October 1824||9 September 1826||1 year,
10 months, 28 days
|9 September 1826||13 October 1826||1 month,
|4||Jose Domingo Estrada
|2 January 1827||1 March 1827||1 Months,
|5||Mariano de Aycinena y Piñol||1 March 1827||12 April 1829||2 years,
1 month, 11 days
|13 April 1829||30 April 1829||2 weeks,
|7||Juan Francisco Barrundia y Cepeda||30 April 1829||23 August 1829||3 months,
|8||Pedro Molina Mazariegos||23 August 1829||10 February 1831||1 years,
5 months, 18 days
|9||José Gregorio Márquez
|10 February 1831||28 August 1831||6 months,
|10||Mariano Gálvez||28 August 1831||3 March 1838||6 years,
6 months, 6 days
|11||Pedro José Valenzuela y Jáuregui
|3 March 1838||29 July 1838||4 months,
|12||Mariano Rivera Paz
(Acting (1st time))
|29 July 1838||30 January 1839||6 months,
|13||Carlos Salazar Castro
|30 January 1839||13 April 1839||2 months,
|14||Mariano Rivera Paz
(Acting (2nd time))
|13 April 1839||3 December 1839||7 months,
Presidents of independent Guatemala (1839–present)
|Elected||Term of office||Political party|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|1||Mariano Rivera Paz
|—||3 December 1839||25 February 1842||2 years, 84 days||Conservative|
|2||José Venancio López
Acting Head of State
|—||25 February 1842||14 May 1842||78 days||N/A|
|3||Mariano Rivera Paz
|—||14 May 1842||14 December 1844||2 years, 214 days||Conservative|
|—||14 December 1844||16 August 1848||3 years, 246 days||Conservative|
|5||Juan Antonio Martínez
|—||16 August 1848||28 November 1848||104 days||Conservative|
|6||José Bernardo Escobar
|—||28 November 1848||1 January 1849||34 days||Conservative|
|—||1 January 1849||6 November 1851||2 years, 309 days||Independent|
|—||6 November 1851||14 April 1865||13 years, 159 days||Conservative|
|9||Pedro de Aycinena y Piñol
|—||14 April 1865||24 May 1865||40 days||Conservative|
|10||Vicente Cerna Sandoval
|—||24 May 1865||29 June 1871||6 years, 36 days||Conservative|
|11||Miguel García Granados
|—||29 June 1871||4 June 1873||1 year, 340 days||Liberal|
|12||Justo Rufino Barrios
|4 June 1873||2 April 1885||11 years, 302 days||Liberal|
|13||Alejandro M. Sinibaldi
|—||2 April 1885||5 April 1885||3 days||Liberal|
|—||6 April 1885||15 March 1892||6 years, 345 days||Liberal|
|15||José María Reina Barrios
|1892||15 March 1892||8 February 1898||5 years, 330 days||Liberal|
|16||Manuel Estrada Cabrera
|8 February 1898||15 April 1920||22 years, 67 days||Liberal|
|15 April 1920||10 December 1921||1 year, 239 days||Unionist Party|
|18||José María Orellana
|10 December 1921||26 September 1926||4 years, 290 days||Liberal|
|19||Lázaro Chacón González
|1926||26 September 1926||12 December 1930||4 years, 98 days||Unionist Party|
|—||13 December 1930||17 December 1930||4 days||Conservative|
|—||Manuel María Orellana Contreras
|—||17 December 1930||2 January 1931||16 days||Liberal|
|20||José María Reina Andrade
|—||2 January 1931||14 February 1931||43 days||Liberal|
|1931||14 February 1931||1 July 1944||13 years, 138 days||Progressive Liberal Party|
|22||Juan Federico Ponce Vaides
|—||1 July 1944||20 October 1944||111 days||Progressive Liberal Party|
|23||Revolutionary Government Junta||–||20 October 1944||15 March 1945||146 days||Military|
|24||Juan José Arévalo
|1944||15 March 1945||15 March 1951||6 years||Revolutionary Action Party|
|1950||15 March 1951||27 June 1954
|3 years, 104 days||Revolutionary Action Party /
Party of the Guatemalan Revolution
|26||Carlos Enrique Díaz de León
|—||27 June 1954||29 June 1954||2 days||Military|
|27||Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre
Chairman of Military Junta
|–||29 June 1954||8 July 1954||9 days||Military|
|28||Carlos Castillo Armas
|1954||8 July 1954||26 July 1957||3 years, 18 days||National Liberation Movement|
|29||Luis Arturo González López
|–||27 July 1957||24 October 1957||89 days||Independent|
|30||Óscar Mendoza Azurdia
Chairman of Military Junta
|—||24 October 1957||26 October 1957||2 days||Military|
|31||Guillermo Flores Avendaño
|—||26 October 1957||2 March 1958||129 days||Military|
|32||Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes
|1958||2 March 1958||31 March 1963
|5 years, 29 days||Military /
|33||Enrique Peralta Azurdia
|—||31 March 1963||1 July 1966||3 years, 92 days||Institutional Democratic Party|
|34||Julio César Méndez Montenegro
|1966||1 July 1966||1 July 1970||4 years||Revolutionary Party|
|35||Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio
|1970||1 July 1970||1 July 1974||4 years||Institutional Democratic Party|
|36||Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García
|1974||1 July 1974||1 July 1978||4 years||Institutional Democratic Party|
|37||Fernando Romeo Lucas García
|1978||1 July 1978||23 March 1982||3 years, 265 days||Institutional Democratic Party|
|38||Efraín Ríos Montt
|—||23 March 1982||8 August 1983||1 year, 138 days||Military|
|39||Óscar Humberto Mejía Víctores
|—||8 August 1983||14 January 1986||2 years, 159 days||Military|
|1985||14 January 1986||14 January 1991||5 years||Guatemalan Christian Democracy|
|41||Jorge Serrano Elías
|1990||14 January 1991||1 June 1993||2 years, 138 days||Solidarity Action Movement|
|42||Gustavo Adolfo Espina Salguero
|—||1 June 1993||5 June 1993||4 days||Solidarity Action Movement|
|43||Ramiro de León Carpio
|1993||6 June 1993||14 January 1996||2 years, 222 days||Independent|
|1995-96||14 January 1996||14 January 2000||4 years||National Advancement Party /
|1999||14 January 2000||14 January 2004||4 years||Guatemalan Republican Front|
|2003||14 January 2004||14 January 2008||4 years||National Solidarity Party /
Grand National Alliance
|2007||14 January 2008||14 January 2012||4 years||National Unity of Hope|
|48||Otto Pérez Molina
|2011||14 January 2012||3 September 2015||3 years, 232 days||Patriotic Party /
Grand National Alliance
|—||3 September 2015||14 January 2016||133 days||Independent|
|2015||14 January 2016||14 January 2020||4 years||National Convergence Front|
|2019||14 January 2020||Incumbent||1 year, 251 days||Vamos|
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Sandra Torres||National Unity of Hope||1,122,630||25.54||1,384,005||42.05|
|Edmond Mulet||Humanist Party of Guatemala||492,799||11.21|
|Thelma Cabrera||Movement for the Liberation of Peoples||455,874||10.37|
|Roberto Arzú||National Advancement Party–Podemos||267,256||6.08|
|Isaac Farchi||Vision with Values||259,288||5.90|
|Estuardo Galdámez||National Convergence Front||180,983||4.12|
|Julio Héctor Estrada||Commitment, Renewal and Order||164,722||3.75|
|Pablo Ceto||Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity||94,810||2.16|
|Pablo Duarte||Unionist Party||63,018||1.43|
|Manfredo Marroquín||Encuentro por Guatemala||50,298||1.14|
|José Luis Chea Urruela||Productivity and Work Party||23,893||0.54|
|Source: Supreme Electoral Tribunal (both rounds preliminaries, 99% counted)|
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