Prime Minister of Albania

Prime Minister of Albania
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë.svg

Emblem of the Prime Minister
Edi Rama 2014.jpg
Incumbent
Edi Rama

since 15 September 2013
Residence Kryeministria
Appointer President
Inaugural holder Ismail Qemali
Formation 29 November 1912
Website Official Page

The prime minister of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially styled Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and as well the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics. The prime minister holds the executive power of the nation and represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings.

The prime minister is appointed by the president of Albania after each general election and must have the confidence of the Parliament of Albania to stay in office. The Council is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs. The prime minister is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a four-year term. The Constitution of Albania sets no limit as to office terms of the prime minister.

The 33rd and current officeholder is Edi Rama of the Socialist Party who was elected on 23 June 2013 and started his first four-year-term on 15 September 2013.

Powers, duties and responsibilities

The prime minister of the Albania, officially styled Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Albanian system of government.

One important role of the president is to designate a candidate for the office of prime minister who, in the opinion of the president, is best able to command a majority of the members of the Parliament.[1] As head of government, the prime minister is charged with directing the internal policy of the country and leads the public administration. In this regard, the government cooperates with other interested social actors. If the prime minister is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising its executive power, the deputy prime minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the cabinet and the council of ministers.

The Constitution states that the prime minister represents the council of ministers and chairs its meetings[2], outlines and presents the principal general policies of the state and is responsible for them, assures the implementation of legislation and policies approved by the Council of Ministers, coordinates and supervises the work of the members of the Council of Ministers and other institutions of the central state administration, performs other duties contemplated in the Constitution and laws, resolves disagreements among ministers, and issues orders in the exercise of his powers.[3] The prime minister can also initiate a proceeding of the Constitutional Court of Albania.[4]

Oath

Before assuming duty, the prime minister-elect is required to take an oath of office before the President, swearing loyalty to the Constitution. The text of the oath in its Albanian form is sensitive to gender and all nouns always retain a neutral form. The prime minister-elect takes the following oath of office, specified by the Constitution[5][6]:

Office and residence

The facade of the Kryeministria.

The Prime Minister's Office (Albanian: Kryeministria) is the official office and residence of the prime minister. It provides secretarial assistance to the prime minister. The prime minister through his office coordinates with all ministers in the central union cabinet, minister of independent charges and governors and ministers of state government. Furthermore informal meetings between the prime minister and other government or foreign officials takes place in the Office. It also consists of the immediate staff of the prime minister of Albania, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the prime minister. Since 1941, the building serves as the office and residence of the prime minister. The building is in the capital city of Tirana at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, near the Mother Teresa Square.

The building was planned by the Italian architects Florestano Di Fausto and Gherardo Bosio, and constructed together with the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, the Mother Teresa Square and all the buildings located on these squares, during the Italian occupation of Albania in 1939 to 1941, in a Rationalist style.

List of prime ministers (1912–present)

No. Portrait Name Term in office Party
Flag of Albanian Provisional Government (1912-1914).svg Albania (1912–1914)[7]
1 Ismail Qemali (portrait).jpg Ismail Qemali
(1844–1919)
Ismail Qemali (nënshkrim).svg
4 December 1912 22 January 1914 Independent
1 year, 1 month and 18 days
International Control Commission
(22 January 1914 – 6 September 1914)
Flag of Albania (1914–1920).svg Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
2 Turhan Pasha.jpg Turhan Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nënshkrim).svg
15 March 1914 3 September 1914 Independent
5 months and 19 days
3 Essad Pasha Toptani.jpg Esat Toptani
(1863–1920)
Esat Toptani (nënshkrim).svg
2 October 1914 27 January 1916 Independent
1 year, 3 months and 25 days
Austro-Hungarian Command
(24 February 1916 – 28 December 1918)
Turhan Pasha.jpg Turhan Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nënshkrim).svg
25 December 1918 29 January 1920 Independent
1 year, 1 month and 4 days
4 Sulejman Delvina (portrait).jpg Sulejman Delvina
(1884–1933)
Sylejman Delvina (nënshkrim).svg
30 January 1920 15 November 1920 Independent
9 months and 16 days
5 Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim).svg
15 November 1920 16 October 1921 Independent
11 months and 1 day
6 Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait).jpg Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nënshkrim).svg
16 October 1921 6 December 1921 Independent
1 month and 20 days
7 Qazim Koculi (side portrait).jpg Qazim Koculi
Acting Prime Minister
(1887–1943)
Qazim Koculi (nënshkrim).svg
6 December 1921 6 December 1921 Independent
0 days
8 Hasan Prishtina (portrait).jpg Hasan Prishtina
(1873–1933)
Hasan Prishtina (nënshkrim).svg
7 December 1921 12 December 1921 Progressive Party
5 days
9 Idhomen Kosturi.jpg Idhomen Kosturi
Acting Prime Minister
(1873–1943)
Idhomen Kosturi (nënshkrim).svg
12 December 1921 24 December 1921 Independent
12 days
10 Xhafer Ypi.jpg Xhafer Ypi
(1880–1940)
Xhafer Ypi (nënshkrim).svg
24 December 1921 2 December 1922 Popular Party
11 months and 8 days
11 King Zog I.jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
2 December 1922 25 February 1924 Conservative Party
1 year, 2 months and 23 days
12 Shefqet Vërlaci.jpg Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Vërlaci (nënshkrim).svg
30 March 1924 27 May 1924 Progressive Party
1 month and 27 days
Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim).svg
27 May 1924 10 June 1924 Independent
14 days
13 Fan Stilian Noli.jpg Fan Noli
(1882–1965)
Fan Noli (nënshkrim).svg
16 June 1924 24 December 1924 Liberal Party
6 months and 8 days
Iliaz Vrioni 1932.jpg Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim).svg
24 December 1924 5 January 1925 Independent
12 days
King Zog I.jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
6 January 1925 25 September 1925 Conservative Party
8 months and 19 days
Flag of Albania (1926–1928).svg Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
King Zog I.jpg Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
28 September 1925 1 September 1928 Conservative Party
2 years, 11 months and 4 days
Flag of Albania (1934–1939).svg Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
14 Koço Kotta.jpg Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nënshkrim).svg
1 September 1928 5 March 1930 Unaffiliated
1 year, 6 months and 4 days
Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait).jpg Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nënshkrim).svg
6 March 1930 16 October 1935 Unaffiliated
5 years, 7 months and 10 days
15 Mehdi Frashëri.jpg Mehdi Frashëri
(1872–1963)
Mehdi Frashëri (nënshkrim).svg
21 October 1935 7 November 1936 Unaffiliated
1 year and 17 days
Koço Kotta.jpg Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nënshkrim).svg
9 November 1936 7 April 1939 Unaffiliated
2 years, 4 months and 29 days
Flag of Albania (1939–1943).svg Italian Occupation (1939–1943)
Shefqet Vërlaci.jpg Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Vërlaci (nënshkrim).svg
12 April 1939 3 December 1941 Fascist Party
2 years, 7 months and 21 days
16 Mustafa Merlika Kruja.jpg Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
(1887–1958)
Mustafa Kruja (nënshkrim).svg
3 December 1941 4 January 1943 Fascist Party
1 year, 1 month and 1 day
17 Eqrem Libohova.jpg Eqrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nënshkrim).svg
18 January 1943 11 February 1943 Fascist Party
24 days
18 Maliq Bushati.png Maliq Bushati
(1880–1946)
Maliq Bushati (nënshkrim).svg
12 February 1943 28 April 1943 Fascist Party
2 months and 16 days
Eqrem Libohova.jpg Eqrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nënshkrim).svg
11 May 1943 10 September 1943 Fascist Party
3 months and 30 days
Flag of Albania (1943–1944).svg German Occupation (1943–1944)
19 Rexhep Mitrovica.jpg Rexhep Mitrovica
(1887–1967)
Rexhep Mitrovica (nënshkrim).svg
5 November 1943 16 June 1944 National Front
9 months and 11 days
20 Fiqiri Dine.jpg Fiqiri Dine
(1897–1960)
Fiqiri Dine (nënshkrim).svg
18 July 1944 28 August 1944[8] National Front
1 month and 10 days
21 Ibrahim Biçakçiu.jpg Ibrahim Biçaku
(1905–1977)
Ibrahim Biçakçiu (nënshkrim).svg
6 September 1944 25 October 1944 National Front
1 month and 19 days
Flag of Albania (1946–1992).svg People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1944–1991)
22 HODŽA druhá míza.jpg Enver Hoxha
(1908–1985)
Enver Hoxha (nënshkrim).svg
23 October 1944 19 July 1954 Communist Party
renamed in 1948 to
Party of Labour
9 years, 8 months and 26 days
23 1967-01 1966年阿尔巴尼亚穆罕默德·谢胡 Mehmet Ismail Shehu.jpg Mehmet Shehu
(1913–1981)
Mehmet Shehu (nënshkrim).svg
20 July 1954 18 December 1981 Party of Labour
27 years, 4 months and 28 days
24 Adil Çarçani
(1922–1997)
Adil Çarçani (nënshkrim).svg
15 January 1982 21 February 1991 Party of Labour
9 years, 1 month and 6 days
Flag of Albania.svg Republic of Albania (1991–present)
25 Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
22 February 1991 4 June 1991 Socialist Party
3 months and 13 days
26 Ylli Bufi
(born 1948)
Ylli Bufi (nënshkrim).svg
11 June 1991 6 December 1991 Socialist Party
5 months and 25 days
27 Vilson Ahmeti
(born 1951)
Vilson Ahmeti (nënshkrim).svg
14 December 1991 14 April 1992 Independent
4 months
28 Aleksandër Meksi.jpg Aleksandër Meksi
(born 1939)
Aleksandër Meksi (nënshkrim).svg
13 April 1992 1 March 1997 Democratic Party
4 years, 10 months and 16 days
29 Bashkim Fino
(born 1962)
Bashkim Fino (nënshkrim).svg
11 March 1997 24 July 1997 Socialist Party
4 months and 13 days
Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
25 July 1997 28 September 1998 Socialist Party
1 year, 2 months and 3 days
30 Pandeli Majko.jpg Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nënshkrim).svg
2 October 1998 25 October 1999 Socialist Party
1 year and 23 days
31 Ilir Meta (portrait).jpg Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
Ilir Meta (nënshkrim).svg
28 November 1999 29 January 2002 Socialist Party
2 years, 2 months and 1 day
Pandeli Majko.jpg Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nënshkrim).svg
22 February 2002 25 July 2002 Socialist Party
5 months and 3 days
Fatos Nano 2003.jpg Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
29 July 2002 1 September 2005 Socialist Party
3 years, 1 month and 3 days
32 Sali Berisha (cropped).jpg Sali Berisha
(born 1944)
Sali Berisha (nënshkrim).svg
12 September 2005 12 September 2013 Democratic Party
8 years
33 Edi Rama 2014.jpg Edi Rama
(born 1964)
Edi Rama (nënshkrim).svg
13 September 2013 Incumbent Socialist Party
5 years, 10 months and 8 days

See also

References

  1. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. At the beginning of a legislature, as well as when the position of Prime Minister is vacant, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly.
  2. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 20. represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings;
  3. ^ Article 102, Section 1-3 of the Constitution of Albania (22 November 1998)
  4. ^ Article 134, Section 1(b) of the Constitution of Albania (22 November 1998)
  5. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. Before taking office, the Prime Minister, the deputy prime minister, and the ministers take an oath before the President of the Republic.
  6. ^ "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF). wipo.int (in Albanian). Betohem se do t'i bindem Kushtetutes dhe ligjeve te vendit, do te respektoj te drejtat dhe lirite e shtetasve, do te mbroj pavaresine e Republikes se Shqiperise dhe do t'i sherbej interesit te pergjithshem dhe perparimit te Popullit Shqiptar". Presidenti mund te shtoje edhe: "zoti me ndihmofte
  7. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2012). Kryeministrat dhe ministrat e shtetit shqiptar në 100 vjet. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 273. ISBN 9994356224.
  8. ^ Pearson, Owen (2005). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism, 1940-1945. London: The Centre for Albanian Studies. p. 1982. ISBN 1-84511-014-5.

Copyright