Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

Prime Minister of Yugoslavia
Премијер Југославије
Premijer Jugoslavije
Standard of the Prime Minister of SFR Yugoslavia.svg
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg
Longest serving
Josip Broz Tito

2 November 1944 – 29 June 1963
Government of Yugoslavia
Member of Parliament of Yugoslavia
Reports to King of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) (1918–1945)
President of Yugoslavia (1945–1974)
Presidency of Yugoslavia (1974–1992)
Seat Belgrade, Serbia
Nominator King of Yugoslavia (Serbs, Croats and Slovenes) (1918–1945)
Central Committee of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (1945–1992)
Appointer Parliament of Yugoslavia
Precursor Prime Minister of Serbia
President of the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Formation 1 December 1918 (1 December 1918)
First holder Stojan Protić
Final holder Ante Marković
Abolished 14 July 1992 (14 July 1992)
Succession PM of Bosnia and Herzegovina
PM of Croatia
PM of Macedonia
PM of Serbia and Montenegro
PM of Slovenia
Deputy Deputy Prime Minister of Yugoslavia

The prime minister of Yugoslavia was the head of government of the Yugoslav state, from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

History

Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (Montenegro had united with Serbia five days previously, while the regions of Kosovo and Metohija, Baranya, Syrmia, Banat, Bačka and Vardar Macedonia were parts of Serbia prior to the unification) and the provisional State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (itself formed from territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire) on 1 December 1918.

Until 6 January 1929, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was a parliamentary monarchy. On that day, King Alexander I abolished the Vidovdan Constitution (adopted in 1921), prorogued the National Assembly and introduced a personal dictatorship (so-called 6 January Dictatorship). He renamed the country Kingdom of Yugoslavia on 3 October 1929, and although introduced the 1931 Constitution, he continued to rule as a de facto absolute monarch until his assassination on 9 October 1934, during a state visit to France. After his assassination, parliamentary monarchy was put back in place.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was defeated and occupied after the German invasion on 17 April 1941. The monarchy was formally abolished on 29 November 1945.

In 1945 there were ten living former prime ministers. Out of these, Nikola Uzunović, Dušan Simović, Miloš Trifunović and Ivan Šubašić lived in the Democratic Federal Republic of Yugoslavia while Petar Živković, Bogoljub Jevtić, Milan Stojadinović, Dragiša Cvetković, Slobodan Jovanović and Božidar Purić remained in exile.

SFR Yugoslavia

After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Partisan resistance in occupied Yugoslavia formed a deliberative council, the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 the AVNOJ proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, and appointed the National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ), led by Prime Minister Josip Broz Tito, as its government. Josip Broz Tito was quickly recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, and the royalist government-in-exile in London was pressured into agreeing on a merge with the NKOJ. In order to facilitate this, Ivan Šubašić was appointed by the King to head the London government.

For a period, Yugoslavia had two recognized prime ministers and governments (which both agreed to formally merge as soon as possible): Josip Broz Tito leading the NKOJ in occupied Yugoslavia, and Ivan Šubašić leading the King's government-in-exile in London. With the Tito-Šubašić Agreement in 1944, the two prime ministers agreed that the new joint government would be led by Tito. After the liberation of Yugoslavia's capital Belgrade in October 1944, the joint government was officially formed on 2 November 1944, with Josip Broz Tito as the prime minister.

After the war, elections were held ending in an overwhelming victory for Tito's People's Front. The new parliament deposed King Peter II on 29 November 1945, and declared a Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (in 1963, the state was renamed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia). The government was first headed by a prime minister up to 14 January 1953, when major decentralization reforms reorganized the government into the Federal Executive Council chaired by a President, who was still usually called "Prime Minister" in non-Yugoslav sources. Josip Broz Tito held the post from 1944 to 1963; from 1953 onward, he was also President of the Republic.

Five out of nine heads of government of Yugoslavia in this period were of Croatian ethnicity. Three were from Croatia itself (Josip Broz Tito, Mika Špiljak, and Milka Planinc), while two were Bosnian Croats (Branko Mikulić and Ante Marković). Ante Marković however, though a Croat from Bosnia and Herzegovina by birth, was a politician of Croatia like Špiljak and Planinc, serving (at different times) as both prime minister and president of the presidency of that federal unit.

List

  People's Radical Party   Democratic Party   Slovene People's Party   Yugoslav National Party   Yugoslav Radical Union   Croatian Peasant Party   League of Communists   Union of Reform Forces   Socialist Party of Serbia   Independent

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Ethnicity Term of office Political party Election Cabinet Notes
Took office Left office Time in office
In the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Nikola Pašić
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Acting
Serb 1 December 1918 22 December 1918 21 days NRS Pašić XII Acting prime minister, as the last prime minister of Serbia.
1
Stojan Protić
Stojan Protić
(1857–1923)
Serb 22 December 1918 16 August 1919 237 days NRS Protić I First Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (that will be renamed to "Yugoslavia").
2
Ljubomir Davidović
Ljubomir Davidović
(1863–1940)
Serb 16 August 1919 19 February 1920 187 days DS Davidović I .
(1)
Stojan Protić
Stojan Protić
(1857–1923)
Serb 19 February 1920 16 May 1920 87 days NRS Protić II .
3
Milenko Vesnić
Milenko Vesnić
(1863–1921)
Serb 16 May 1920 1 January 1921 230 days NRS 1920 Vesnić .
4
Nikola Pašić
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Serb 1 January 1921 28 July 1924 3 years, 209 days NRS 1923 Pašić XIII–XIV–XV–XVI–XVII–XVIII–XIX Second term.
Vidovdan Constitution adopted on June 28, 1921.
(2)
Ljubomir Davidović
Ljubomir Davidović
(1863–1940)
Serb 28 July 1924 6 November 1924 101 days DS Davidović II Second term
(4)
Nikola Pašić
Nikola Pašić
(1845–1926)
Serb 6 November 1924 8 April 1926 1 year, 153 days NRS 1925 Pašić XX–XXI–XXII Third term
5
Nikola Uzunović
Nikola Uzunović
(1873–1954)
Serb 8 April 1926 17 April 1927 1 year, 9 days NRS Uzunović I–II .
6
Velimir Vukićević
Velimir Vukićević
(1871–1930)
Serb 17 April 1927 28 July 1928 1 year, 102 days NRS 1927 Vukićević I–II Resigned after the assassination attempt on opposition leader Stjepan Radić in the Parliament.
7
Anton Korošec
Anton Korošec
(1872–1940)
Slovene 28 July 1928 7 January 1929 163 days SLS Korošec Appointed after the assassination attempt on Stjepan Radić, until the 6 January Dictatorship.
8
Petar Živković
Petar Živković
(1879–1947)
Serb 7 January 1929 4 April 1932 3 years, 88 days JRSD 1931 Živković Prime Minister during the 6 January Dictatorship.
Sentenced to death in absentia in 1946.
9
Vojislav Marinković
Vojislav Marinković
(1876–1935)
Serb 4 April 1932 3 July 1932 90 days JRSD Marinković Previously a (founding) member of the Democratic Party.
10
Milan Srškić
Milan Srškić
(1880–1937)
Serb 3 July 1932 27 January 1934 1 year, 208 days JRSD Srškić I–II .
(5)
Nikola Uzunović
Nikola Uzunović
(1873–1954)
Serb 27 January 1934 22 December 1934 329 days JNS Uzunović III The Yugoslav Radical Peasants' Democracy party was renamed into the Yugoslav National Party.
11
Bogoljub Jevtić
Bogoljub Jevtić
(1886–1960)
Serb 22 December 1934 24 June 1935 184 days JRZ
JNS
1935 Jevtić .
12
Milan Stojadinović
Milan Stojadinović
(1888–1961)
Serb 24 June 1935 5 February 1939 3 years, 226 days JRZ 1938 Stojadinović I–II–III .
13
Dragiša Cvetković
Dragiša Cvetković
(1893–1969)
Serb 5 February 1939 27 March 1941 2 years, 50 days JRZ Cvetković I–II Sentenced in absentia in 1945.[1]
In the Yugoslav government-in-exile
14
Dušan Simović
Dušan Simović
(1882–1962)
Serb 27 March 1941 11 January 1942 290 days Independent Simović Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army. Took power by military coup d'état. He led the government into exile in London.
15
Slobodan Jovanović
Slobodan Jovanović
(1869–1958)
Serb 11 January 1942 26 June 1943 1 year, 166 days Independent Jovanović I-II Headed government-in-exile.
Found guilty of treason in absentia in 1946.
16
Miloš Trifunović
Miloš Trifunović
(1871–1957)
Serb 26 June 1943 10 August 1943 45 days NRS Trifunović Headed government-in-exile
17
Božidar Purić
Božidar Purić
(1891–1977)
Serb 10 August 1943 8 July 1944 333 days Independent Purić Headed government-in-exile
18
Ivan Šubašić
Ivan Šubašić
(1892–1955)
Croat 8 July 1944 2 November 1944 117 days HSS Šubašić Headed government-in-exile.
Merged into coalition government on November 2, 1944, with Josip Broz Tito presiding.[2][3]
In the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
19
(1)
Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito
(1892–1980)
Croat 2 November 1944 29 June 1963 18 years, 239 days KPJ
SKJ
1945
1950
1953
1958
1963
Tito I–II–III–IV–V–VI Held post simultaneously (as head of the NKOJ) first with Božidar Purić, then Ivan Šubašić. Headed joint coalition government.
20
(2)
Petar Stambolić
Petar Stambolić
(1912–2007)
Serb 29 June 1963 16 May 1967 3 years, 321 days SKJ Stambolić .
21
(3)
Mika Špiljak
Mika Špiljak
(1916–2007)
Croat 16 May 1967 18 May 1969 2 years, 2 days SKJ Špiljak .
22
(4)
Mitja Ribičič
Mitja Ribičič
(1919–2013)
Slovene 18 May 1969 30 July 1971 2 years, 73 days SKJ 1969 Ribičič .
23
(5)
Džemal Bijedić
Džemal Bijedić
(1917–1977)
Bosniak 30 July 1971 18 January 1977 † 5 years, 172 days SKJ 1974 Bijedić Killed in a plane crash.
24
(6)
Veselin Đuranović
Veselin Đuranović
(1925–1997)
Montenegrin 18 January 1977 16 May 1982 5 years, 118 days SKJ 1978 Đuranović .
25
(7)
Milka Planinc
Milka Planinc
(1924–2010)
Croat 16 May 1982 15 May 1986 3 years, 364 days SKJ 1982 Planinc First female head of the government.
26
(8)
Branko Mikulić
Branko Mikulić
(1928–1995)
Croat 15 May 1986 16 March 1989 2 years, 305 days SKJ 1986 Mikulić Resigned on 30 December 1988, amid widespread protests.
27
(9)
Ante Marković
Ante Marković
(1924–2011)
Croat 16 March 1989 20 December 1991 2 years, 279 days SRSJ
SKJ
1990 Marković Last prime minister of Yugoslavia.
League of Communists was dissolved in 1990, Marković formed his own party.
Aleksandar Mitrović
Aleksandar Mitrović
(1933–2012)
Acting
Serb 20 December 1991 14 July 1992 207 days SPS Marković Acting Prime Minister, installed by Serbia and Montenegro.

See also

References

  1. ^ Rehabilitovan Dragiša Cvetković
  2. ^ Lampe, John R.; Yugoslavia as history: twice there was a country; Cambridge University Press, 2000 ISBN 0-521-77401-2
  3. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P.; The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005; Indiana University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-253-34656-8

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