Anne, Princess Royal

Anne
Princess Royal (more)
Anne speaking
The Princess Royal, October 2015
Born Princess Anne of Edinburgh
(1950-08-15) 15 August 1950 (age 70)
Clarence House, London
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise Mountbatten-Windsor[a]
House Windsor
Father Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Mother Elizabeth II

Anne, Princess Royal, KG, KT, GCVO, GCStJ, QSO, CD[2][3][4] (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise; born 15 August 1950) is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She is 14th in the line of succession to the British throne[b] and has been Princess Royal since 1987.[5]

Born at Clarence House, Anne was educated at Benenden School and began undertaking royal duties upon adulthood. She became a respected equestrian, winning one gold medal in 1971 and two silver medals in 1975 at the European Eventing Championships[6] In 1976, she became the first member of the British royal family to have competed in the Olympic Games.

The Princess Royal performs official duties and engagements on behalf of the Queen.[7] She holds patronage within over 300 organisations, including WISE, Riders for Health, and Carers Trust.[7] Her charity work revolves around sport, sciences, people with disabilities, and health in developing countries. She has been associated with Save the Children for over fifty years and has visited a number of their projects; her work resulted in her nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990.[8]

In 1973, Anne married Captain Mark Phillips, but they separated in 1989 and divorced in 1992. The couple have two children, Zara and Peter Phillips, and four grandchildren. Within months of her divorce, Anne married Commander (now Vice Admiral) Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mother's equerry between 1986 and 1989.

Early life and education

Princess Anne with her parents and elder brother in October 1957

Anne was born during the reign of her maternal grandfather, King George VI, at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11:50 am,[9] the second child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh, and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. A 21-gun salute in Hyde Park signalled the birth.[10] Anne was christened in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, Cyril Garbett.[c] At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her mother – at that time Princess Elizabeth – and older brother, Charles. She rose to second after her mother's accession; she is currently 14th in line.[d]

A governess, Catherine Peebles, was appointed to look after Anne and was responsible for her early education at Buckingham Palace;[12] Peebles also served as early governess for Anne's older brother, Charles. After the death of George VI in February 1952, Anne's mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II. Given her young age at the time, Anne did not attend the coronation in June 1953.

A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company to include the Holy Trinity Brompton Brownie pack, was re-formed in May 1959, specifically so that, as her mother and aunt had done as children, Anne could socialise with girls her own age. The company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school.[13] Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963. In 1968, she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels.[12] She began to undertake royal engagements in 1969, at the age of 18.[14]

In 1970, she briefly had a relationship with Andrew Parker Bowles, who later married Camilla Shand. Shand much later married Anne's brother, Prince Charles as his second wife.[15]

Equestrianism

Medal record
Representing  United Kingdom
Equestrian
European Championships
Gold medal – first place 1971 Burghley Individual eventing
Silver medal – second place 1975 Luhmuhlen Team eventing
Silver medal – second place 1975 Luhmuhlen Individual eventing
Anne riding at an event in The Netherlands

In spring 1971, Princess Anne finished fourth at the Rushall Horse Trials.[16] At the age of 21, Anne won the individual title at the European Eventing Championship[17] and was voted the BBC Sports Personality of the Year in 1971.[18] She also rode winners in horse racing, competing in the Grand Military Steeplechase in Sandown Park Racecourse and Diamond Stakes at Royal Ascot.[19]

For more than five years, she also competed with the British eventing team, with her home-bred horse, Doublet suffering an injury during the 1972 Badminton Horse Trials,[16] and winning a silver medal in both individual and team disciplines in the 1975 European Eventing Championship.[20] The following year, Anne participated in the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal as a member of the British team, riding the Queen's horse, Goodwill, in Eventing.[21] Anne suffered a concussion halfway through the course but remounted and finished the event; she has stated she cannot remember making the rest of the jumps.[19] She finished sixth at the Badminton Horse Trials in 1979.[16] In 1985, she rode in a charity horse race at the Epsom Derby, finishing fourth.[19]

Anne assumed the Presidency of the Fédération Équestre Internationale from 1986 until 1994.[22] On 5 February 1987, she became the first member of the royal family to appear as a contestant on a television quiz-show when she competed on the BBC panel game A Question of Sport.[20]

Marriages and children

Marriage to Mark Phillips

Anne met Mark Phillips, a lieutenant in the 1st Queen's Dragoon Guards, in 1968 at a party.[23] Their engagement was announced on 29 May 1973.[24][25] On 14 November 1973, the couple married at Westminster Abbey in a televised ceremony, with an estimated audience of 100 million.[26] They subsequently took up residence at Gatcombe Park. As was customary for untitled men marrying into the royal family, Phillips was offered an earldom, which he declined; consequently their children were born without titles.[27] Anne and her husband had two children: Peter (born 1977) and Zara Phillips (born 1981).[28] Anne and Phillips have four grandchildren. On 31 August 1989, Anne and Phillips announced their intention to separate; the couple had been rarely seen in public together and both were romantically linked with other people.[23][29][30] They shared custody of their children, and initially announced that "there were no plans for divorce."[31][32] However, on 13 April 1992 the Palace announced that Anne had filed for divorce, which was finalised ten days later.[33][34]

Marriage to Sir Timothy Laurence

The Princess Royal with her husband, Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence

Anne met Timothy Laurence, a Commander in the Royal Navy, while he was serving on the Royal Yacht Britannia. Their relationship developed in early 1989, three years after he was appointed as an equerry to the Queen.[35] In 1989, the existence of private letters from Laurence to the Princess was revealed by The Sun newspaper.[30] The couple married at Crathie Kirk near Balmoral Castle in Scotland, on 12 December 1992.[36] Approximately 30 guests were invited for the private marriage service.[37] Unlike the Church of England at the time, the Church of Scotland considered marriage to be an ordinance of religion rather than a sacrament and permitted the remarriage of divorced persons under certain circumstances.[38][39][40] Anne became the first royal divorcée to remarry since Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, granddaughter of Queen Victoria.

For the wedding ceremony, Anne wore a white jacket over a "demure, cropped-to-the-knee dress" and a spray of white flowers in her hair.[41] Her engagement ring was made of "a cabochon sapphire flanked by three small diamonds on each side".[42] Following the marriage service, the couple and guests headed to Craigowan Lodge for a private reception.[36] Laurence received no peerage, and the couple leased a flat in Dolphin Square, London. They now reside between an apartment at St James's Palace and Gatcombe Park.[43]

Kidnapping attempt

On 20 March 1974 Princess Anne and Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace from a charity event; their Princess IV car was forced to stop on the Mall by a Ford Escort.[44] The driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol. Inspector James Beaton, Anne's personal police officer, responded by exiting the car in order to shield her and to attempt to disarm Ball. However, Beaton's firearm, a Walther PPK, jammed, and he was shot by the assailant, as was Anne's chauffeur, Alex Callender, when he tried to disarm Ball.[45] Brian McConnell, a nearby tabloid journalist, also intervened, and was shot in the chest.[46] Ball approached Anne's car and told her that he intended to kidnap her and hold her for ransom, the sum given by varying sources as £2 million[47] or £3 million, which he claimed he intended to give to the National Health Service.[44] Ball told Anne to get out of the car, to which she replied: "Not bloody likely!", and reportedly briefly considered hitting Ball.[48]

Eventually, she exited the other side of the limousine as had her lady-in-waiting, Rowena Brassey. A passing pedestrian, a former boxer named Ron Russell, punched Ball in the back of the head and led Anne away from the scene. At that point, Police Constable Michael Hills happened upon the situation; he too was shot by Ball, but he had already called for police backup. Detective Constable Peter Edmonds answered, gave chase, and finally arrested Ball.[45]

Beaton, Hills, Callender, and McConnell were hospitalised, and recovered from their wounds. For his defence of Princess Anne, Beaton was awarded the George Cross by the Queen, who was visiting Indonesia when the incident occurred;[49] Hills and Russell were awarded the George Medal, and Callender, McConnell, and Edmonds were awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal. Russell also had his mortgage paid off by the Queen.[50][44][51] Anne visited Beaton in hospital and thanked him for his assistance. In 1984, the princess spoke about the event on Parkinson saying she was 'scrupulously polite' to her would-be kidnapper as she thought it would be 'silly to be too rude at that stage'.[49]

Ball pleaded guilty to attempted murder and kidnapping. As of 2019, he was still detained under the Mental Health Act, at Broadmoor Hospital.[52]

Activities

Anne visiting the British School in the Netherlands in 1984

Anne undertakes a number of duties and engagements on behalf of her mother, in support of her role as sovereign of the Commonwealth realms. Kevin S. MacLeod, the Canadian Secretary to the Queen, said of Anne in 2014: "Her credo is, 'Keep me busy. I'm here to work. I'm here to do good things. I'm here to meet as many people as possible'."[53] It was revealed in December 2017 that the Princess Royal had undertaken the most official engagements that year out of all the royal family, her mother included.[54][55]

Her first public engagement was at the opening of an educational and training centre in Shropshire in 1969. Anne travels abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom up to three times a year. She began to undertake overseas visits upon leaving secondary school,[12] and accompanied her parents on a state visit to Austria in the same year.[56] Her first tour of Australia was with her parents in 1970, since which she has returned on numerous occasions to undertake official engagements as a colonel-in-chief of an Australian regiment, or to attend memorials and services, such as the National Memorial Service for victims of the Black Saturday bushfires in Melbourne, Australia, on 22 February 2009.[57] In 1990 she was the first member of the royal family to make an official visit to the Soviet Union when she went there as a guest of President Mikhail Gorbachev and his government.[56][58]

The Princess Royal visits USNS Comfort on 11 July 2002, while the vessel docked at Southampton

Anne is involved with over 200 charities and organisations in an official capacity. She works extensively for Save the Children, serving as president from 1970 to 2017, and has been patron for over 50 years.[8] Anne has visited the organisation's projects in Bangladesh, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Mozambique, Ethiopia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.[8] As a result of her work, she was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 by Kenneth Kaunda, President of Zambia.[8] She initiated The Princess Royal Trust for Carers in 1991.[59] Anne is the patron of Transaid, a charity founded by Save the Children and the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport which aims to provide safe and sustainable transport in developing countries.[60] She is also the Royal Patron of WISE, an organisation that encourages young women to pursue careers in science, engineering and construction.[61] Her extensive work for St. John Ambulance as Commandant-in-Chief of St. John Ambulance Cadets has helped to develop many young people, as she annually attends the Grand Prior Award Reception.[62][63] She is Patron of St. Andrew's First Aid.[64][65] She is a British representative in the International Olympic Committee as an administrator,[66] and was a member of the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games.[67] She was President of BAFTA from 1973 to 2001.[68] She maintains a relationship with student sport and is the Patron of British Universities and Colleges Sport.[69] She has been Patron of the Royal National Children's Foundation since 2002[70][71] and the industrial heritage museum, Aerospace Bristol, since 2016.[72] In 1986 she was appointed Master of the Worshipful Company of Carmen.[73]

Following the retirement of the Queen Mother in 1981, Anne was elected by graduates of the University of London as that institution's Chancellor.[74] Throughout May 1996, Anne served as Her Majesty's High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and held the post again in 2017.[75] In 2007, she was appointed by the Queen as Grand Master of the Royal Victorian Order, a position her grandmother had also held.[76] She is a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society[77] and the Academy of Medical Sciences.[78] Royal Fellows are members of the Monarchy who are recommended and elected by the Society's Council. The Royal Society has only five Royal Fellows, including the Princess Royal herself, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Kent, and the Duke of Cambridge.[79] She is the Academy of Medical Sciences' first Royal Fellow.[78]

The Princess Royal speaking at the 100th Maritime Safety Committee session in 2018

She was elected Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh effective 31 March 2011, succeeding her father, who stepped down from the role in 2010.[80] Likewise, she accepted in 2011 the roles of President of City and Guilds of London Institute,[81] Master of the Corporation of Trinity House[82][83] and President of the Royal Society of Arts, also in succession to her father. She is also Patron of the Royal College of Occupational Therapists,[84] Edinburgh University's Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies,[85] Royal Holloway, University of London,[86][87] International Students House, London,[88][89] Acid Survivors Trust International,[90] Townswomen's Guilds[91] and Citizens Advice.[92]

She represented Great Britain in the International Olympic Committee at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics in Russia.[93] In August 2016, she returned to the country to visit the Russian city of Arkhangelsk for the 75th anniversary of Operation Dervish, which was one of the first Arctic convoys of World War II.[94] In September 2016, the Princess suffered from chest infection and was required to cancel official engagements.[95] In late October 2016, she visited the Malaysian state of Sarawak for a two-day study tour.[96] In 2017, she became Prime Warden of the Worshipful Company of Fishmongers and a Governor of Gresham's School.[97]

Public image and style

The Princess Royal is one of the few women in the royal family to wear a military uniform

The Princess Royal has been referred to as the royal family's "trustiest anchor" and "beacon of good, old-fashioned public service", having carried out over 20,000 engagements since her eighteenth birthday.[98] In her early adulthood, she was cited as a "royal renegade" with her choices to forego titles for her children despite her status as "spare to the heir" at the time.[99] A young Anne was often described as "aloof" and "haughty" by the media, earning the nickname "her royal rudeness" from members of the press.[98] The Princess spurred controversy for famously telling photographers to "naff off" at the Badminton Horse Trials in 1982.[100] Vanity Fair states that Anne "has a reputation for having inherited her father’s famously sharp tongue and waspish wit".[100] Of early public role, she has stated: "It’s not just about, Can I get a tick in the box for doing this? No, it’s about serving….It took me probably 10 years before I really felt confident enough to contribute to Save the Children’s public debates, because you needed to understand how it works on the ground and that needed a very wide coverage. So my early trips were really important.[100]

The Princess remains one of Britain's most popular royals.[101][102][103] Telegraph Editor Camilla Tominey describes her as a "national treasure", and states that she is "hailed as one of the great English eccentrics", whose work ethic contributes to her regard.[99] Tominey states that Anne's public role is a "contradiction of both protocol taskmaster and occasional rule-breaker".[98] Reportedly, Anne "insists on doing her own make-up and hair" and drives herself to engagements, having pleaded guilty for two separate speeding fines on account of being late.[98] Princess Anne does not shake hands with the public during walkabouts, stating that "the theory was that you couldn't shake hands with everybody, so don't start."[98] Members of the public have reported observing her "mending fences at Gatcombe" and "queuing up for the Portaloos" at her daughter's horse competitions.[98] Her reputation is also coupled with her advocacy for causes out of the mainstream, such as Wetwheels Foundation's commitment to accessible sailing and her association with the National Lighthouse Museum.[98] On her 60th and 70th birthdays, she was asked by the BBC and Vanity Fair respectively if she would retire, with her denying speculation both times, citing her parents' example as well as her commitment to her royal duties.[100] Anne's public personality has been described as "not suffering fools lightly", while maintaining a "still-impressive level of grace and courtesy".[104][105]

British Vogue editor Edward Enninful has stated that "Princess Anne is a true style icon and was all about sustainable fashion before the rest of us really knew what that meant".[100] Her style has been noted for its timelessness; she almost solely relies on British fashion brands, with tweed and tailored suits as her hallmarks.[100] She is known for recycling outfits, such as her floral-print dress worn both to the wedding of the Prince of Wales in 1981 and the wedding of Lady Rose Windsor in 2008.[106] Anne is the patron of U.K. Fashion and Textile Association.[107] She has been noted for wearing "bold patterns and vibrant pops of color".[108] Her style choices often reflect her equestrian interests as well as the practicality of her fast-paced schedule.[109][100] In the 1970s and 1980s, she was often photographed wearing trends such as puff sleeves, cardigans, bright floral patterns, and multicolored stripes.[108][110] Princess Anne is also one of the few women in the royal family to wear a military uniform.[108] The Guardian states that she is "rarely seen without a brooch" during royal events.[110] Her millinery styles have included jockey caps and hats of multiple colors and bold patterns.[110] She presented the Queen Elizabeth II award for British design at London Fashion Week in 2020.[110]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Monogram of Princess Anne

Titles and styles

  • 15 August 1950 – 6 February 1952: Her Royal Highness Princess Anne of Edinburgh[111]
  • 6 February 1952 – 14 November 1973: Her Royal Highness The Princess Anne
  • 14 November 1973 – 13 June 1987: Her Royal Highness The Princess Anne, Mrs Mark Phillips[112]
  • 13 June 1987 – present: Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal

Anne is the seventh Princess Royal,[5] an appellation given only to the eldest daughter of the sovereign. The previous holder was King George V's daughter, Mary, Countess of Harewood.

Honours

The Princess Royal processing at the Garter Service, Windsor, with her brothers, Charles, Andrew and Edward on 19 June 2006
Fellowships
Civic
Academic
Honorary academic degrees

As with other senior royals, Princess Anne holds a number of appointments in the armed forces of Commonwealth realms:

Australia Australia
The Princess Royal at a parade on the 75th anniversary of the Royal Australian Corps of Signals, 5 July 2000
Canada Canada
New Zealand New Zealand
United Kingdom United Kingdom

Arms

Coat of arms of the Princess Royal
Coat of Arms of Anne, the Princess Royal.svg
Notes
The Princess Royal's personal arms are those of the Sovereign in right of the United Kingdom with a label for difference.
Adopted
1962
Coronet
The coronet of a daughter of the Sovereign Proper.
Escutcheon
Quarterly 1st and 4th, Gules three lions passant guardant Or; 2nd, Or a lion rampant Gules within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules; 3rd, Azure a harp Or stringed Argent.
Supporters
Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.
Orders
The Order of the Garter circlet:
HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE
(Shame be to him who thinks evil)
Other elements
The whole differenced by a label of three points Argent, first and third charged with a St George's cross the second with a heart Gules.
Banner
Royal Standard of Princess Anne, Princess Royal.svg The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom labelled for difference as in her arms. (In Scotland: Royal Standard of Princess Anne, Princess Royal (in Scotland).svg)
Symbolism
As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland.

Personal flag for Canada

Flag of the Princess Royal for use in Canada

Since 2013, the Princess Royal has a personal heraldic flag for use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of an "A" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, the centre one charged with a red heart and the other two with red crosses.[158][159]

Other honours

In February 2015, the Princess Royal became one of the first female honorary members of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews.[160]

Descendants

Name Birth Marriage Issue
Peter Phillips 15 November 1977 17 May 2008 Autumn Kelly Savannah Phillips
Isla Phillips
Zara Phillips 15 May 1981 30 July 2011 Mike Tindall Mia Tindall
Lena Tindall

Ancestry

The Princess Royal's ancestry can be traced as far back as Cerdic, King of Wessex (519–534).[161]

In popular culture

Copyright