Principality of Serbia

Principality of Serbia

Kняжество Сербія
Кнежевина Србија
1815–1882
The Principality of Serbia in 1878
The Principality of Serbia in 1878
Capital Belgrade (1841-82)
Kragujevac (1818–38)
Gornja Crnuća (1815–18)
Common languages Serbian
Religion
Serbian Orthodoxy
Demonym(s) Serbian
Government Absolute monarchy (1815–38)
Constitutional monarchy (1835, 1838–82)
Prince (Knez)  
• 1817–1839 (first)
Miloš Obrenović I
• 1868–1882 (last)
Milan Obrenović IV
Prime Minister  
• 1815–1816 (first)
Petar Nikolajević
• 1880–1882 (last)
Milan Piroćanac
History  
• Recognition by the Sublime Porte
1815
February 15, 1835
•  de facto independence
1867
July 13, 1878
1882
Area
1815[1] 24,440 km2 (9,440 sq mi)
1834 37,511 km2 (14,483 sq mi)
Population
• 1815 [1]
322,500–342,000
• 1834
702,000
• 1874
1,353,000
ISO 3166 code RS
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Sanjak of Smederevo
Revolutionary Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
Today part of Serbia

The Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Кнежевина Србија, romanizedKneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817.[2] Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising, and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the expulsion of all Ottoman troops from the country; its independence was recognized internationally in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom.

History

The Serbian revolutionary leaders — first Karađorđe and then Miloš Obrenović — succeeded in their goal of liberating Serbia from centuries-long Turkish rule. Turkish authorities acknowledged the state by the 1830 Hatt-i Sharif, and Miloš Obrenović became a hereditary prince (knjaz) of the Serbian Principality.

At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831–33 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1866 Serbia began the campaign of forging The First Balkan Alliance by signing the series of agreements with other Balkan entities in the period 1866–68. On 18 April 1867 the Ottoman government ordered the Ottoman garrison, which since 1826 had been the last representation of Ottoman suzerainty in Serbia, withdrawn from the Belgrade fortress. The only stipulation was that the Ottoman flag continue to fly over the fortress alongside the Serbian one. Serbia's de facto independence dates from this event.[3] A new constitution in 1869 defined Serbia as an independent state. Serbia was further expanded to the southeast in 1878, when its independence from the Ottoman Empire won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin. The Principality would last until 1882 when it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia.

Political history

Constitutions

Autonomy

  • Akkerman Convention (7 October 1826), treaty between the Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire, contained article 5 on Serbia: autonomy, and return of lands removed in 1813, Serbs were also granted freedom of movement through the Ottoman Empire. Rejected by Mahmud II in 1828.
  • 1829 hatt-i sharif
  • 1830 hatt-i sharif
  • 1833 hatt-i sharif

Administrative divisions

Military

Demographics

In the first decades of the principality, the population was about 85% Serb and 15% non-Serb. Of those, most were Vlachs, and there were some Muslim Albanians, which were the overwhelming majority of the Muslims that lived in Smederevo, Kladovo and Küprili. The new state aimed to homogenize of its population. As a result, from 1830 to the wars of the 1870s in which Albanians were expelled from the environs of Nis, it has been estimated that up to 150,000 Albanians that lived in the territories of the Principality of Serbia had been expelled.[4]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1834 678,192 —    
1841 828,895 +22.2%
1843 859,545 +3.7%
1846 915,080 +6.5%
1850 956,893 +4.6%
1854 998,919 +4.4%
1859 1,078,281 +7.9%
1863 1,108,668 +2.8%
1866 1,216,219 +9.7%
1878 1,669,337 +37.3%
Name 1866 Census % population
Ethnicities
Serbs 1,057,540 87%
Vlachs (Romanians) 127,326 10.5%
Roma (Gypsies) 25,171 2.1%
Others 5,539 0.5%
Religion
Orthodox 1,205,898 99.20%
Islam 6,498 0.54%
Catholic 4,161 0.31%
Others 0.2%

Rulers

The Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty, except for a period under Prince Aleksandar of the Karađorđević dynasty. Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović each reigned twice.

Portrait Name Birth Death From Until Notes
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg Miloš Obrenović I March 17, 1780 September 26, 1860 November 6, 1817 June 25, 1839
Milan Obrenović II, Prince of Serbia.jpg Milan Obrenović II October 21, 1819 July 8, 1839 June 25, 1839 July 8, 1839 son of Miloš Obrenović I
Knez Mihajlo III Obrenovic.jpg Mihailo Obrenović III September 16, 1823 June 10, 1868 July 8, 1839 September 14, 1842 son of Miloš Obrenović I
PrinceAlexander I w.jpg Aleksandar Karađorđević October 11. 1806 May 3. 1885 September 14, 1842 December 23, 1858
MilosObrenovic 1848.jpg Miloš Obrenović I March 17, 1780 September 1860 December 23, 1858 September 26, 1860
Knez Mihajlo III Obrenovic.jpg Mihailo Obrenović III September 16, 1823 June 10, 1868 September 26, 1860 June 10, 1868
MilanIDeSerbia--dasknigreichse03kaniuoft.jpg Milan Obrenović IV August 22, 1854 February 11, 1901 June 10, 1868 March 6, 1882

See also

References

  1. ^ Michael R. Palairet (2002). The Balkan Economies C.1800-1914: Evolution Without Development. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–. ISBN 978-0-521-52256-4.
  2. ^ Roth, Clémentine (2018). Why Narratives of History Matter: Serbian and Croatian Political Discourses on European Integration. Nomos Verlag. p. 263. ISBN 3845291001. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  3. ^ Stanford J. Shaw and Ezel Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, Volume 2: Reform, Revolution and Republic—The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808–1975 (Cambridge University Press, 1977), p. 148.
  4. ^ Rama, Shinasi (2019). Nation Failure, Ethnic Elites, and Balance of Power: The International Administration of Kosova. Springer. p. 72. ISBN 3030051927. Retrieved 27 March 2020.

Further reading

External links

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