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Richard Francis Fenno Jr. (December 12, 1926 – April 21, 2020) was an American political scientist known for his pioneering work on the U.S. Congress and its members. He was Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at the University of Rochester. He published numerous books and scholarly articles focused on how members of Congress interacted with each other, with committees, and with constituents. Political scientists considered the research groundbreaking and startlingly original and gave him numerous awards. Many followed his research design on how to follow members from Washington back to their home districts. Fenno was best known for identifying the tendency — dubbed "Fenno’s Paradox" — of how most voters say they dislike Congress as a whole, but they trust and reelect their local Congressman.
Fenno grew up in Boston and served in the U.S. Navy during World War II. After the war, he graduated from Amherst College in 1948 and completed a Ph.D. degree in political science under William Yandell Elliott at Harvard University in 1956. Fenno moved in 1958 to the University of Rochester where he spent his career. He wrote about Republicans and Democrats and explored rural, urban and African American congressional districts in depth. An independent who never publicized his personal political views, he never endorsed any candidates.
Fenno's books Congressmen in Committees (1973) and Home Style: House Members in Their Districts (1978) (for which he won the first D. B. Hardeman Prize) established him as a leading scholar of American politics. With William Riker, Fenno built the reputation of Rochester's political science department. Riker focused on positive political science, while Fenno focused on establishing Rochester as a center for congressional studies. He built the first internship program for undergraduates to work in Congress.
Fenno's trademark style of political science research is sometimes referred to as "Soak and Poke" (see Fenno 1986). Rather than relying primarily on data sets or rational choice theory, Fenno undertook empirical observation of the movements of political actors on the stage of politics. His most famous book Home Style is written in this fashion.
Fenno won the American Political Science Association's (APSA) Woodrow Wilson Award for the best book in political science in 1978 for Home Style. In 1996, the Association for Budgeting & Financial Management awarded Fenno its Aaron Wildavsky Award for Lifetime Scholarly Achievement in Public Budgeting, for his work on Congress and appropriations. Congress at the Grassroots won the 2001 V. O. Key Award for the best book on southern politics.
Fenno served as book review editor of the American Political Science Review (1968–1971), as a director of the Social Science Research Council, and as president of APSA (1984–1985). He was also a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Since 1986, APSA's Legislative Studies Section has awarded the Richard F. Fenno Jr. Prize for the best book on legislative studies.
Fenno's archival collection is housed at the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries Department of Rare Books, Special Collections, and Preservation. Research interview and oral history notes are also housed at the National Archives and Records Administration's Center for Legislative Activities.
According to Norman J. Ornstein:
- Fenno was hands down the most significant student of Congress of the last half of the 20th century. He was the first to note that voters loved their congressman while hating Congress, he wrote the definitive study of the appropriations process (“The Power of the Purse”) and a series of books where he explored the relationship between legislators at home and in Washington. 
- The President’s Cabinet: An Analysis in the Period from Wilson to Eisenhower. 1959. Harvard University Press. online free to borrow
- The Power of the Purse: Appropriations Politics in Congress. 1966. Little, Brown. online free to borrow
- Congressmen in Committees. 1973. Little, Brown.
- Home Style: House Members in their Districts. 1978. Little, Brown. online free to borrow
- The United States Senate: a bicameral perspective (1982) online free to borrow
- "Observation, Context, and Sequence in the Study of Politics." 1986. American Political Science Review 80(1): 3–15. online
- The making of a senator: Dan Quayle (1989) online free to borrow
- The presidential odyssey of John Glenn (1990) online free to borrow
- Learning to legislate : the Senate education of Arlen Specter (1991) online free to borrow
- The emergence of a Senate leader: Pete Domenici and the Reagan budget (1991) online free to borrow
- "Strategy and Sophisticated Voting in the Senate." 1994. Journal of Politics 56(2): 349–376. (with Randall L. Calvert). DOI: 10.2307/2132143 online
- Senators on the Campaign Trail: The Politics of Representation. 1996. University of Oklahoma Press.
- Congress at the Grassroots: Representational Change in the South, 1970–1998. 2000. University of North Carolina Press.
- Going Home: Black Representatives and their Constituents. 2003. University of Chicago Press online free to borrow.
- Congressional Travels: Places, Connections, and Authenticity. 2007. Pearson/Longman.
- "A giant in the field of American Politics". NewsCenter. April 24, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2020.
- Bernstein, Jonathan (April 22, 2020). "So Long to Richard Fenno, a Giant of Political Science". Bloomberg News. New York City. Retrieved April 22, 2020.
- "Faculty Directory: Department of Political Science : University of Rochester". www.sas.rochester.edu. Retrieved March 15, 2020.
- Nelson Polsby, "The Contributions of President Richard F. Fenno Jr". PS – Political Science & Politics (1984). 17#4: 778–781.
- Schudel, 2020.
- Schudel, 2020.
- King, Gary; Keohane, Robert O.; Verba, Sidney (1994). Designing Social Inquiry. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 38. doi:10.1515/9781400821211. ISBN 978-1-4008-2121-1.
- Craig, Gary (April 28, 2020). "'Giant in the field,' emeritus UR political scientist Richard 'Dick' Fenno dies at 93". Rochester Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Polsby, Nelson (1984). "The Contributions of President Richard F. Fenno Jr". PS – Political Science & Politics. 17 (4): 778–781. doi:10.1017/S1049096500025026.
- Schudel, Matt. "Richard F. Fenno Jr., preeminent scholar of Congress, dies at 93" Washington Post April 30, 2020
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