Ruanda-Urundi ( dark green) depicted within the Belgian colonial empire ( light green), c. 1935.
|Status||Mandate of Belgium|
Also: Kinyarwanda, Kirundi and Swahili
Also: Protestantism, Islam and others
• Creation of mandate
|20 July 1922|
• Merged with Belgian Congo
|1 July 1962|
|Currency||Belgian Congo franc (1916–60)
Ruanda-Urundi franc (1960–62)
|Today part of|| Burundi
Ruanda-Urundi (French pronunciation: [ʁɥɑ̃da.yʁœ̃di]; sometimes rendered into Dutch as Roeanda-Oeroendi) was a territory in the African Great Lakes region, once part of German East Africa, which was ruled by Belgium between 1916 and 1962. Occupied by the Belgians during the East African Campaign during World War I, the territory was under Belgian military occupation from 1916 to 1922 and later became a Belgian-controlled Class B Mandate under the League of Nations from 1922 to 1945. After the disestablishment of the League and World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a Trust Territory of the United Nations, still under Belgian control. In 1962, the mandate became independent as the two separate countries of Rwanda and Burundi.
The Kingdoms of Ruanda and Burundi were two independent kingdoms in the Great Lakes region before the Scramble for Africa. In 1894, the two were annexed by the German Empire and became two provinces of German East Africa. The two monarchies were retained as part of the German policy of indirect rule, with the Ruandan king Yuhi V Musinga using German support to consolidate his control over subordinate chiefs in exchange for labour and resources.
World War I broke out in 1914. German colonies were originally meant to preserve their neutrality, but fighting soon broke out on the frontier between German East Africa and the Belgian Congo around Lakes Kivu and Lake Tanganyika. As part of the East African Campaign, Ruanda and Urundi were invaded by a Belgian force in 1916. The German forces in the region were small and hugely outnumbered. Ruanda was occupied over April–May and Urundi in June 1916. By September, a large portion of German East Africa was under Belgian occupation reaching as far south as Kigoma and Karema in modern-day Tanzania and as far eastwards as Tabora. In Ruanda and Urundi, the Belgians were welcomed by many Africans who were opposed to the autocratic behaviour of the kings. The territory captured was administered by a Belgian military occupation authority ("Belgian Occupied East African Territories") pending an ultimate decision about its political future, though Belgian forces were ordered to withdraw from the Tabora region by the British in February 1917.
Occupation and League of Nations mandate (1919–46)
The Treaty of Versailles divided the German colonial empire among the Allied nations. German East Africa was also partitioned, with Tanganyika allocated to the British and a small area allocated to Portugal. Belgium was allocated Ruanda-Urundi which represented only a fraction of the territories occupied by the Belgian forces in East Africa, even though it had originally been hoped that Belgian claims in the region could be traded for Portuguese territory in Angola to expand the Congo's access to the sea. The League of Nations officially awarded Ruanda-Urundi to Belgium as a B-Class Mandate on 20 July 1922. The mandatory regime was also controversial in Belgium and it was not approved by Belgium's parliament until 1924.
After a period of inertia, the Belgian administration became actively involved in Ruanda-Urundi between 1926 and 1931 under the governorship of Charles Voisin. 
To implement their vision, the Belgians used the existing indigenous power structure. This consisted of a largely Tutsi ruling class controlling a mostly Hutu population. The Belgian administrators believed that the Tutsi were superior and deserved power. While before colonization the Hutu had played some role in governance, the Belgians simplified matters by further stratifying the society on racial lines. Hutu anger at the Tutsi domination was largely focused on the Tutsi elite rather than the distant colonial power.
Although promising the League it would promote education, Belgium left the task to subsidised Catholic missions and mostly unsubsidised Protestant missions. As late as 1961, shortly before independence arrived, fewer than 100 natives had been educated beyond secondary level. The policy was one of low-cost paternalism, as explained by Belgium's special representative to the Trusteeship Council: "The real work is to change the African in his essence, to transform his soul, [and] to do that one must love him and enjoy having daily contact with him. He must be cured of his thoughtlessness, he must accustom himself to living in society, he must overcome his inertia."
United Nations trust territory (1946–62)
Ruanda-Urundi became a United Nations trust territory in 1946, following the dissolution of the League of Nations. The transition was accompanied by a promise that the Belgians would prepare the territory for independence, but the Belgians felt the area would take many decades to ready for self-rule and wanted the process to take enough time before happening.
Independence came largely as a result of actions elsewhere. African anti-colonial nationalism emerged in the Belgian Congo in the late 1950s and the Belgians became convinced they could no longer control the territory. Unrest also broke out in Ruanda where the monarchy was deposed in the Rwandan Revolution (1959–1961). The Belgian Congo was granted independence in 1960, beginning a period of instability in the region known as the Congo Crisis. After two more years of hurried preparations, Ruanda-Urundi became independent on 1 July 1962, broken up along traditional lines as the independent Republic of Rwanda and Kingdom of Burundi. It took two more years before the government of the two became wholly separate.
- Royal Commissioners
- Justin Malfeyt (November 1916 – May 1919)
- Alfred Marzorati (May 1919 – August 1926)
- Governors (Vice-Governors-General of the Belgian Congo)
- Alfred Marzorati (August 1926 – February 1929)
- Louis Postiaux (February 1929 – July 1930)
- Charles Voisin (July 1930 – August 1932)
- Eugène Jungers (August 1932 – July 1946)
- Maurice Simon (July 1946 – August 1949)
- Léo Pétillon (August 1949 – January 1952)
- Alfred Claeys-Boúúaert (January 1952 – March 1955)
- Jean-Paul Harroy (March 1955 – January 1962)
- History of Burundi
- History of Rwanda
- List of colonial residents of Burundi
- List of colonial residents of Rwanda
- Archives Africaines (Belgium), which keeps material related to Ruanda-Urundi
- 1914–1918 Online Encyclopedia 2016.
- William Roger Louis, Ruanda-Urundi 1884-1919 (Oxford U.P., 1963).
- Peter Langford, "The Rwandan Path to Genocide: The Genesis of the Capacity of the Rwandan Post-colonial State to Organise and Unleash a project of Extermination". Civil Wars Vol. 7 n.3
- Mary T. Duarte, "Education in Ruanda-Urundi, 1946-61, " Historian (1995) 57#2 pp 275-84
- "Rwanda profile". BBC Online. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Samson, Anne (2016). "Ruanda and Urundi". 1914-1918 Online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- Chrétien, Jean-Pierre (2003). The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History (English trans. ed.). New York: Zone Books. ISBN 9781890951344.
- Gahama, Joseph (1983). Le Burundi sous administration Belge: la période du mandat, 1919-1939 (2nd rev. ed.). Paris: Karthala. ISBN 9782865370894.
- Louis, William Roger (1963). Ruanda-Urundi 1884-1919. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Newbury, Catharine (1994). The Cohesion of Oppression: Clientship and Ethnicity in Rwanda, 1860-1960. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231062572.
- Rumiya, Jean (1992). Le Rwanda sous le régime du mandat belge, 1916-1931. Paris: Éd. L'Harmattan. ISBN 9782738405401.
- Vijgen, Ingeborg (2005). Tussen mandaat en kolonie: Rwanda, Burundi en het Belgische bestuur in opdracht van de Volkenbond (1916-1932). Leuven: Acco. ISBN 9789033456213.