Rudrapur, Uttarakhand

Rudrapur
Radisson Hotel
Atariya temple
Gandhi Park
Metropolis mall
Clockwise from top:
Radisson Hotel, Gandhi Park, Metropolis mall and Atariya temple.
Rudrapur is located in Uttarakhand
Rudrapur
Rudrapur
Location in Uttarakhand, India
Show map of Uttarakhand
Rudrapur is located in India
Rudrapur
Rudrapur
Rudrapur (India)
Show map of India
Coordinates: 28°59′N 79°24′E / 28.98°N 79.40°E / 28.98; 79.40Coordinates: 28°59′N 79°24′E / 28.98°N 79.40°E / 28.98; 79.40
Country  India
State Uttarakhand
District Udham Singh Nagar
Founded 1588
Municipality 1942
Founded by Rudra Chand
Named for Rudra Chand
Government
 • Type Mayour–Council
 • Body Rudrapur Municipal Corporation
 • Member Of the Legislative Assembly Shri. Tilak Raj Behar (INC)
 • Mayor Rampal Singh (BJP)
 • Municipal Commissioner Mahesh Chandra Pathak, IAS
Area
 • City 27.65 km2 (10.68 sq mi)
Population
 (2011) [1]
 • City 140,857
 • Density 5,100/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
[2]
154,485
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Kumaoni
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
263153
Telephone code +91-5944
Vehicle registration UK-06
Website nagarnigamrudrapur.com

Rudrapur is a city in Udham Singh Nagar district in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Located at a distance of about 250 km (160 mi) northeast of New Delhi and 250 km (160 mi) south of Dehradun, Rudrapur has a history of over 500 years. It was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand, and was the residence of the governor of Tarai region of Kumaon. The city continues to serve as the headquarters of the Udham Singh Nagar district apart from being a major industrial and educational hub today.

Rudrapur is located in the fertile Terai region over an area of 27.65 km2. With a population of 140,857 according to the 2011 census of India, Rudrapur is the fifth most populous city of Uttarakhand. Since the establishment of the State Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand, the city has undergone rapid development, along with literacy growth and higher employment.

One interesting thing in this area is that there are some artesian water wells where the underground water comes out itself due to underground water pressure. For this a well is to be drilled and a slotted casing pipe is to be lowered to take the water out. In such artesian wells no pump is required.[3] However, in the last two decades, this auto-flow system has drastically declined, leading Rudrapur into a groundwater crisis.[4]

Etymology

The name "Rudrapur" comprises of two words "Rudra" and "Pur". Its is believed to be named after the King Rudra Chandra who was handed over this region by the Emperor Akbar in 1588.[5] Pur is a placename element common to the Indian subcontinent which is derived from the Sanskrit word 'pura' which refers to a city or settlement.[6]

History

Ruins of the Ancient city of Govisana at Kashipur. Govisana is the earliest known settlement in the region, visited by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang in the 7th century.

The Terai area, where Rudrapur is located was considered an impenetrable forest for much of the ancient period. Marshy land, extreme heat, rains which lasted months, wild animals, diseases and no means of transportation prevented people from settling here. No historical settlements, except Govishana (50 kilometres (31 mi) northwest of the city), has been recorded in the area.[7]:174–175 Mughal historians mention that the Chand ruler of Champawat, Gyan Chand, visited Delhi Sultanate and received the regions of Bhabar-Terai up to the Ganges as a grant from then Sultan;[8] thus bringing it under the Kingdom of Kumaon. This area remained under local chieftains; it was Kirti Chand (1488–1503), who first ruled the Terai area, along with the rest of Kumaon.[8]

Rudrapur town was established in the 16th century by King Rudra Chand of Almora.[9]:6 It was the residence of the Adhikari (Governor) of Tarai, till the town of Kashipur was Established in 1718.[10]:81 The Kumaoni Army, under Shiv Deo Joshi faced severe defeat during the Battle of Rudrapur, that was fought between Chands and Rohillas in AD 1744.[10]:92 Later, King Deep chand built a fort at Rudrapur to keep vigil over the Rohillas.[9]:8[10]:95

By the end of Eighteenth century, Nand Ram, the Adhikari of Kashipur, murdered the governor of Rudrapur, Manorath Joshi, and declared himself the de facto ruler of the low-lying Terai land, with his capital at Kashipur.[11]:320 After the fall of Almora in 1790, Rudrapur and its surrounding areas were ceded to the Nawab of Oudh, who remained its suzerain until the British occupation in 1801.[12]

Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University, which was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru on 17 November 1960, is situated at Pantnagar near Rudrapur.

In 1837, Rudrapur was annexed to the collectorate of Rohilkhand.[11]:445 Rudrapur was brought under Kumaon Division in 1858, however it was brought back to Rohilkhand division in 1861.[11]:445 In 1864-65 the whole Tarai and Bhabar was put under "Tarai and Bhawar Government Act" which was governed directly by the British crown. In 1891, the Tarai district was dismantled, and Rudrapur was put in the newly created Nainital district. Post independence Rudrapur and other parts of Nainital district were merged with United Provinces, which was later renamed the state of Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh Agricultural University, the first agricultural university of India, was established near Rudrapur on 17 November 1960.[13] The University was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru, and soon became a significant force in the development and transfer of High Yielding Variety seeds and related technology.[14]

After Operation Blue Star in 1984, several Sikh extremists fled Punjab and took refuge in U.P. Tarai.[9]:214 Subsequently, several cases of explosions and Bombings were reported in 1991. A bomb blast occurred in Rudrapur market in mid 1991, and another bomb in a state roadways bus was defused in the nick of time.[15] On 17 October 1991, Two bombs exploded at Ramlila celebration in the town, killing 41 people and wounding more than 140.[16] Later, two members of the Khalistan Commando force were shot dead by a joint team of the commandos of the National Security Guard and the Delhi Police.[17][18]

By 1994, the demand for separate statehood for Uttarakhand achieved almost unanimous acceptance among both the local populace and political parties all over the region.[19] Rudrapur was made the headquarter of the district of Udham Singh Nagar, which was carved out from the Nainital district on 30 September 1995.[20] After the Parliament of India passed the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 on 9 November 2000, Rudrapur became a part of Uttarakhand, the 27th state of the Republic of India.[21]

Culture and Cityscape

Culture and Lifestyle

The land lends itself to different forms of agriculture, giving rise to agriculture related activities and industry. Pantnagar University is a place of learning in the fields of agriculture and technology.

Bengali, Punjabi & Baniya community is a major community in Rudrapur . Punjabi & Baniya (caste) people came here during the partition of India at 1947. The first refugee in this City who was settled and allotted land by an Indian Government, who was Merchant and Farmer Late. Gurumukh Ram Chhabra ji (Kanakpur Village),[citation needed] All refugees from pakistan after division were settled here by Indian government in lait 1948. The Punjabi culture is also affecting the regional culture and in return getting affected by it.

The history of development started with 1948, when the problem of partition brought the refugee problem with it. Immigrants from north west and eastern areas were re-established in 164.2 square km land area under "Uttar Pradesh nivesh yojana". Individual citizens were not allotted land in accordance with crown grant act. The first batch of immigrants came in December 1948.

People from Kashmir, Punjab, Kerala, Eastern UP, Garhwal, Kumaon, Bengal, Haryana, Rajasthan and Nepal live in groups in this district. This community is an example of unity in diversity with people from many religions and professions and so is the Tarai, which has its heart at Rudrapur.

Landmark

Rudrapur is known as the 'Gateway to Kumaon', which is in close proximity to regional attractions like Nainital, Corbett National Park, Bhimtal and Almora. The city itself has numerous antient monuments spread through the city, though not maintained in the best condition. Rudrapur is lined with suburbs around the city which offer spiritual relief to those who visit the city.[22]

Nanakmatta (also called, Gurdwara Sri Nanak Matta Sahib Ji ) is an important Sikh pilgrimage centre, located at Nanakmatta. It is located on the Rudrapur - Tanakpur route, 17 km from Khatima and 56 km from the Rudrapur district headquarter. The gurudwara is named after Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first Sikh guru, who is believed to have visited the place on his way to Kailash Parvat in 1515 AD. The gurudwara is a sacred place for the Sikh community and is visited by thousands of pilgrims year-round.[23]

Local Attraction

Located close to the Nanak Matta Gurudwara, is the Nanak Matta Dam which is built over the Saryu river. The area around the Nanak Matta Dam with its rich greens, still lake waters and fresh air, serve as a picnic spot for the locals and tourists, where one can enjoy boating and fishing.[23]

Atariya Temple is an old temple with mythological significance, which is locally preached.[24] The temple encompasses a sacred shrine dedicated to the deity goddess Atariya. The temple is known for its 10 day fair held during sacred Navratras week during which the pilgrims visit the shrine in thousands. Atariya Temple is located at a distance of 2 km from the Rudrapur bus stand.[25]

The Metropolis mall in Rudrapur is the upcoming local attraction which is located on main Delhi-Nainital NH-87. It has 3 floors which has 3,00,000 Sqft of retail space and 400 ft frontage. The mall offers a Wave cinema 4-screen Cineplex, which will be the first cineplex-mall development in the region. This mall is a part of 55 acre group housing development. which also proposes to have serviced apartments, multi-specialty hospitals as well as banquet halls.[26]

Demographics

Population growth 
Census Population
1961 9,662
1971 25,173 160.5%
1981 34,658 37.7%
1991 61,280 76.8%
2001 88,676 44.7%
2011 140,857 58.8%
Source: DCHB: Udham Singh Nagar[27]:369

According to the 2011 census, the Rudrapur Urban Agglomeration (Rudrapur UA) has a population of 154,485,[2][28] with the municipality contributing 140,884 of it.[1] The Rudrapur Urban Agglomeration consists of area falling under Rudrapur Municipal Corporation, Rudrapur SIDCUL and 2 Out growths of Jagatpura and Rampura.[29] This makes Rudrapur the Second most populous city in Kumaon, and the Fifth most populous city in Uttarakhand. About 80% population of Rudrapur lives on Illegally encroached Government land.[30] In addition to that, 41.95% of total population of Rudrapur lives in Slums.[31]

The city has witnessed massive population growth most of the time. The population of the city increased around three times during the census years 1961-1971 and nearly doubled during 1981-1991.[32] Rudrapur surpassed Jaspur in 1971 and Kashipur in 2011 to become the second most populous city in Kumaun.[27] The high growth rate has been attributed to the migration of people from upper hills, and the development of SIDCUL Industrial Estate in recent years.

As of the 2001 India census,[33] Rudrapur had a population of 88,720, which increased to 140,857 in 2011. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47% according to the 2011 census.[31] Rudrapur has an average literacy rate of 71%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 63%.[31] In Rudrapur, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age.[31]

Religion

According to the 2011 Census of India, 80.29% people in Rudrapur were Hindus.[34] 15.76% people followed Islam, making it the second most popular religion in city.[34] Christianity was followed by 0.43%, Jainism by 0.12%, Sikhism by 3.17% and Buddhism by 3.17%.[34] Around 0.03% stated 'Other Religion' while approximately 0.17% stated 'No Particular Religion'.[34]

The city witnessed communal clashes on 2 October 2011 following an alleged act of sacrilege, prompting authorities to impose an indefinite curfew.[35][36] Though unconfirmed reports said three persons were killed,[37] an official statement later confirmed two deaths in the violence that spread to different parts of the town.[38] In the ensuing clashes, nearly 5 shops and scores of vehicles were also torched.[37]

Geography

Rudrapur is geographically located at latitude: 28.98⁰N and longitude: 79.40⁰E[39] and is 830 feet above the sea level.[40] The city is located 72 km away from Nainital, 259 km from the state capital Dehradun and 230 km from the national capital, Delhi.[41] The Udham Singh Nagar district where the city is situated, lies within the seismic zone 4 in a scale of 2 to 5 (in order of increasing vulnerability to earthquakes)[42] as per the (IS 1893 (Part 1), 2002). [43]

Topology

The Rudrapur city is placed in the Terai belt of Uttarakhand state[44] with the two rivers Kalyani and Begul flowing through it.[39] This belt is extremely fertile for agriculture[45] with alluvial soil types -Udifluventic Ustochrepts, Typic Ustipsamments, Udic Ustochrepts, Udic Haplusstolls, Typic Ustochreptscrops- which support crops like paddy, wheat, sugarcane, maize and other pulses grown in the region.[46]

Climate

Rudrapur has a tropical climate with an annual average temperature of 24.3 °C. The warmest month annually is June, where the average temperature is 31.6 °C. January is the coldest month with an average annual temperature of 14.9 °C. The average temperature variation which occurs between the warmest and coldest months is 16.7 °C.[47] The city experiences an average annual rainfall of 1302mm per year with very high ground water levels ranging between 1m to 3 m.[39] The average precipitation that the city experiences ranges between 38mm to 3mm monthly.[47]

Government and Politics

Civic Administration

The Rudrapur constituency is one of the 70 Vidhan Sabha Assembly Constituencies (AC)[48] of the Uttarakhand state which has a total of 5 Parliamentary Constituencies (PC).[49] Mr. Rajkumar Thukral from BJP party is the current sitting MLA from the Rudrapur constitutency.[50] The administrative district headquarter of Udham Singh Nagar District is located in Rudrapur.[51][52]

The Rudrapur city is governed by the civic body of Rudrapur Municipal Corporation which is called Nagar Nigam Rudrapur. [44] It is one of the 8 Nagar Palika Parishad (NPP) in the Udham Singh Nagar district[51] with an area of 27.65 sq. km.[39] In a process to expand its Municipal Councils, the Uttarakhand government upgraded the Rudrapur city administration from First Class Municipality to Municipal Corporation on 28 February 2013.[41] The Rudrapur Municipal Corporation is divided into 20 wards which is governed by 20 elected municipal councilors and a Mayor of the city.[53]

The main political parties active in Rudrapur city are Bhartiya Janta Party (BJP), Indian National Congress (INC), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Uttarakhand Kranti Dal (UKD) among others.[50] The current Mayor of the Rudrapur city is Mr. Rampal Singh from BJP.[44]

Civic Utilities

Water Supply

Most of the city depends on ground water for its daily water requirement,[39] where only around 11% of the city has a coverage of water supply network supplying 49 liter per capita per day (lpcd) of water daily.[54] According to a 2019 Sanitation Capacity building platform (SCBP) report, under AMRUT program, the city plans to increase the water supply coverage of the city to approximately 53% with 87 lpcd of daily water capacity[39] whereas the AMRUT mission site boasts a target mission of 100% water supply coverage and 135 lpcd of water by the end of the mission for its respective target cities.[54]

Sewerage and Sanitation

As per the census 2011, the total percentage of households which had Individual Household Toilets (IHHT) was reported to be around 66.2% of the total number of households in the city. This number according to the AMRUT mission has now been increased to a 100% for the city of Rudrapur [54] whereas the sewage network coverage in the city according to the 2011 census was 8.4% due to high ground water table and high expenses and technical challenges in laying the system. Most of this system according to the SCBP report is non-functioning and around 68.4% of the households are connected to open drains which lead to the river without any sewage treatment. This has led to over-pollution of the two rivers Kalyani and Begul present within the city.[39]

Transport

Rampur road, a cut-off that connects Rudrapur with Haldwani, providing a shorter alternative to the National Highway 109.

The city is served by the Pantnagar Airport at Pantnagar 12.2 km (7.6 mi) from the city centre. The airport is operated by Airports Authority of India and caters to domestic flights to Delhi and Dehradun.[55] It has a single runway, which is 4,500 ft (1,400 m) in length and is capable of handling a turboprop aircraft.[56]

Train service in Rudrapur started in 1886, upon the construction of a branch line by Rohilkund and Kumaon Railway connecting Lalkuan on Bareilly-Kathgodam line with Rampur. Rudrapur railway station lies on the Rampur-Lalkuan Broad gauge railway line and the city falls under the Izzatnagar railway division of North Eastern Railway Zone of Indian Railways.

Three major National highways run through Rudrapur. National Highway 9, which runs from Malaut in Punjab to Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand passes through Rudrapur. This highway connects Rudrapur with several cities like Delhi, Rampur, Haridwar, Saharanpur, Dehradun, Nainital, Sitarganj, Khatima, Tanakpur and Pithoragarh. Other Highways starting from Rudrapur include National Highway 109 and National Highway 309. Rudrapur Bus Station serves as the central bus stand for Uttarakhand Transport Buses plying on InterState Routes from the city. The station was built before the 1960s and is spread over approximately 4 acres.[57]

Economy

Rudrapur has established itself as a significant trading center within the Udham Singh Nagar district, which itself is a big trading center in the region.The district exports include industrial as well as agricultural products, both of which are predominantly channeled from Rudrapur.[23] The Basmati rice from Rudrapur is among the top crop which is produced in the region. [41]Post the setup of State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL), enhanced by the broad-gauge railway network in the area, Rudrapur has developed into an industrial city with its city limits expanding to accommodate new residential demands of the workers and professionals moving into the area.[41]

Industry

The development of industries is attributed largely to the setting up of a large Integrated Industrial Estate under State Infrastructure and Industrial Development Corporation of Uttarakhand Limited (SIDCUL). This has propelled the town into the forefront of industrial activity and has attracted companies like LSC Infratech Ltd., Delta Power solutions, Tata Motors, Kumar Autowheels Pvt. Ltd., Roquette Riddhi Siddhi Pvt. Ltd., Nestle India, Bajaj Auto, Dabur India Limited, TVS Motors Unimax International, Unimax Scaffoldings, Britannia Industries, Mahindra Tractor, Micromax, Forme mobile, Greenply Industries Ltd., Parle Agro, HCL, HP, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Ashok Leyland, Ganesha polytex,GuruTie.com, Imagine Softech - Web Development Company, Biochem Laboratories (water treatment chemicals, plants & spares company),etc. The city has been transformed into a major industrial hub with many automobile and agro based industries.[58]

Colleges and Schools

See also

References

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  58. ^ [1], SIDCUL

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