A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory. In the latter case, a government stops short of going into exile because it still controls part of its former territory.
- The Kingdom of Judah as successor to the United Monarchy after the Kingdom of Israel seceded c. 930 BC to its conquest by Babylonia in 586 BC, particularly during Egyptian and Kushite aggression from then until c. 901 BC.
- Ancient Egypt from the late 8th century BC until its Assyrian conquest. See also Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt (the period of Kushite rule.)
- The state of Xu, which originally controlled much of the Huai River valley, was gradually reduced to the area around its capital from the 7th century BC
- After the Jurchen Jin Dynasty assumed control over north China, a rump Song state continued
- After the Qing Empire assumed control over most of Ming China, there was resistance by the Southern Ming and the longer-lived Kingdom of Tungning.
- Hungarian Soviet Republic (1919) which controlled only around 23% of the Hungarian state.
- Republic of German-Austria (1918) was created following World War I as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- Pakistan is considered to be a rump state after East Pakistan with a higher population of 72 million than that of 60 million of West Pakistan, broke out to become the independent Republic of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971
- Russia is considered by one source to be a rump state of the former Soviet Union.
- The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that is, the name the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro used from 1992 to 2003, was often viewed as the rump state left behind by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1992) when it broke up. This view of it was held not only by its founders but also by many people antagonistic to them, who perceived Serbians and Montenegrins as unofficially or unwelcomely dominant among the various peoples under the socialist regime.
- The Republic of China: Following the victory of the Communist Party of China in establishing the People's Republic of China on Mainland China during the Chinese Civil War, the Government of the Republic of China fled to the island of Taiwan. Since then, some regard it as a rump state while some others regard it as a government in exile.
- Tir, Jaroslav (Feb 22, 2005). Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States. Annual meeting of the International Studies Association. Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu: Hawaii Online. Retrieved Oct 26, 2014.
- "Bible Gateway passage: 1 Kings 12:1-25 - New International Version". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Bible Gateway passage: 2 Chronicles 12-14 - New International Version". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Ancient Egypt: The Assyrian Conquest". Reshafim.org. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Shaughnessy (1999), p. 324.
- John C. Swanson (2017). Tangible Belonging: Negotiating Germanness in Twentieth-Century Hungary. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780822981992.
- Schanberg, Sydney H. (1970-04-12). "Population Huge in East Pakistan". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-03-05.
- Tir, Jaroslav (2006). Redrawing the Map to Promote Peace: Territorial Dispute Management Via Territorial Changes. Lexington Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7391-1286-1.
in addition to the creation of the rump state (e.g. Russia)
- Sudetic, Chuck (1991-10-24), "Top Serb Leaders Back Proposal To Form Separate Yugoslav State", New York Times, retrieved 2018-03-07.
- Krasner, Stephen D. (2001). Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political Possibilities. Columbia University Press. p. 148.
For some time the Truman administration had been hoping to distance itself from the rump state on Taiwan and to establish at least a minimal relationship with the newly founded PRC.
- "TIMELINE: Milestones in China-Taiwan relations since 1949". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
1949: Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists lose civil war to Mao Zedong's Communist forces, sets up government-in-exile on Taiwan.
- Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999). "Western Zhou History". In Michael Loewe; Edward L. Shaughnessy. The Cambridge History of ancient China - From the Origins of Civilization to 221 B.C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 292–351. ISBN 9780521470308.