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A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory. In the latter case, a government stops short of going into exile because it still controls part of its former territory.
- The state of Xu, which originally controlled much of the Huai River valley, was gradually reduced to the area around its capital, starting from the 7th century BC.
- The Kingdom of Soissons survived the territorial losses and subsequent fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 CE under Aegidius, who had been appointed to govern the area by Emperor Majorian in 458. The kingdom fell to the Franks' king Clovis in 486.
- After the Jurchen Jin Dynasty assumed control over north China, a rump Song state endured in the South.
- After the Ming dynasty established control over China, the Yuan dynasty continued in Mongolia as the rump state of Northern Yuan.
- Neo-Inca State was a remnant of the Inca Empire left after the Spanish conquest of Peru. It persisted until 1572.
- After the Qing Empire assumed control over most of Ming China, the Southern Ming formed a rump state from 1644 to 1659.
- The Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed in March 1919 after the resignation of the government of the First Hungarian Republic, when following the alliance with the Social Democrats the Communists took control of the country. Though sometimes controlling only around 23% of the Hungarian state, after some initial military successes, in the end the army was defeated and the government fell in August, 1919.
- The Republic of German-Austria was created in 1918 as the initial rump state for areas with a predominantly German-speaking population within what had been the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- The rump Republic of Salò (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, 1943-1945), led by Benito Mussolini, claimed to be the legitimate successor of the Kingdom of Italy; it was in fact a puppet state of Nazi Germany.
- Russia can be considered a rump state of the former Soviet Union.
- Ethiopia was left a rump state by the independence of Eritrea in 1991 after the Eritrean War of Independence.
- The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, that is, the name the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro used from 1992 to 2003, was often viewed as the rump state left behind by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945–1992) when it broke up. This view of it was held not only by its founders, but also by many people antagonistic to them.
- Since the secession of South Sudan in 2011, the northern portion of Sudan has formed a rump state.
- The Republic of China: Following the victory of the Communist Party of China in establishing the People's Republic of China on Mainland China during the Chinese Civil War, the Government of the Republic of China fled to the island of Taiwan and continues to claim authority over all of China. Since then, some regard it as a rump state while some others regard it as a government in exile. For more details, see political status of Taiwan.
- Tir, Jaroslav (Feb 22, 2005). Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States. Annual meeting of the International Studies Association. Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu: Hawaii Online. Retrieved Oct 26, 2014.
- Shaughnessy (1999), p. 324.
- State, Paul F. A brief history of France. Facts On File. p. 35. ISBN 9781438133461.
- Des Forges, Roger V. (2003). Cultural centrality and political change in Chinese history : northeast Henan in the fall of the Ming. Stanford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780804740449.
- Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 115.
- Struve, Lynn A. (1998). "The Ming-Qing Conflict, 1619-1683: A Historiography and Source Guide": 110-111.
- John C. Swanson (2017). Tangible Belonging: Negotiating Germanness in Twentieth-Century Hungary. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 80. ISBN 9780822981992.
- Magocsi, Paul Robert (2018). Historical atlas of Central Europe: Third Revised and Expanded Edition. University of Toronto Press. p. 128. ISBN 9781487523312.
- James Hartfield, Unpatriotic History of the Second World War, ISBN 178099379X, 2012, p. 424
- Eric Morris, Circles of Hell: The War in Italy 1943-1945, ISBN 0091744741, 1993, p. 140
- Neville, Peter (2014). Mussolini (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 199. ISBN 9781317613046.
- Tir, Jaroslav (2006). Redrawing the Map to Promote Peace: Territorial Dispute Management Via Territorial Changes. Lexington Books. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7391-1286-1.
in addition to the creation of the rump state (e.g. Russia)
- Tir, Jaroslav (2005). "Keeping the Peace after Secession: Territorial Conflicts between Rump and Secessionist States". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 49 (5): 714.
- Sudetic, Chuck (1991-10-24), "Top Serb Leaders Back Proposal To Form Separate Yugoslav State", New York Times, retrieved 2018-03-07.
- Beber, Bernd; Roessler, Philip; Scacco, Alexandra (2014). "Intergroup Violence and Political Attitudes: Evidence from a Dividing Sudan". The Journal of Politics. 76 (3): 652.
- Krasner, Stephen D. (2001). Problematic Sovereignty: Contested Rules and Political Possibilities. Columbia University Press. p. 148.
For some time the Truman administration had been hoping to distance itself from the rump state on Taiwan and to establish at least a minimal relationship with the newly founded PRC.
- "TIMELINE: Milestones in China-Taiwan relations since 1949". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2015.
1949: Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalists lose civil war to Mao Zedong's Communist forces, sets up government-in-exile on Taiwan.
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