Russian Republic

Russian Republic
Российская Республика

Government Seal :
Capital Petrograd
Common languages Russian
Government Democratic federal republic
•  Sep–Nov 1917
Alexander Kerensky[b]
Legislature Provisional Council
Constituent Assembly[c]
Historical era World War I/Russian
8–16 March 1917
• Republic proclaimed
14 September 1917
7 November 1917
•  Constituent Assembly
19 January 1918
Currency Ruble
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Provisional Government
Russian SFSR
Russian State

The Russian Republic[d] was a short-lived state which controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September, N.S.) 1917 in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-Chairman and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.[1]

After the seizure of power, the Bolsheviks used the name "Russian Republic" for some time,[when?] until the name "Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic" was officially adopted.

In 1918, an unsuccessful attempt was made to revive the Russian Republic under the name "Russian Democratic Federative Republic". This decision was made by the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, which adopted a new constitution, but it was not executed as it was considered to be without legal force, because the Assembly was dissolved the same day, and the territory of Russia was controlled by the Bolsheviks who proclaimed the RSFSR.[2]

The term "Russian Republic" is sometimes used erroneously for the period between the abdication of the Emperor Nicholas II on 3 March 1917 (16 March, N.S) and the declaration of the Republic in September. However, during that period the future status of the monarchy remained unresolved.[citation needed]


Officially, the Republic's government was the Provisional Government, although de facto control of the country was contested between it, the soviets (chiefly the Petrograd Soviet), and various ethnic-based separatists (such as the Central Council of Ukraine). Soviets were political organizations of the proletariat, strongest in industrial regions, and were dominated by left-wing parties. Soviets, whose influence was supplemented with paramilitary forces, were occasionally able to rival the Provisional Government which had an ineffective state apparatus.[citation needed]

The Government's control of the military was also tenuous. Seamen of the Baltic Fleet, for example, had far-left views and openly engaged in political activism in the capital. Right-wing proclivities among the army officers were also a problem – Kerensky's attempt to dismiss Gen. Lavr Kornilov led to a failed coup.[citation needed]

Principal institutions

See also


  1. ^ The Russian Republic Proclaimed at, accessed 12 June 2017
  2. ^ Ikov, Marat Sal. "ROUND TABLE THE INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL RELATIONS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FEDERATIVE STATE STRUCTURE AND ON THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL REALITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION". Prof.Msu.RU. Retrieved 9 February 2021. However, historically, the first proclamation of the federation was made somewhat earlier - by the Constituent Assembly of Russia. In his short resolution of January 6 (18), 1918, the following was enshrined: "In the name of the peoples, the state of the Russian constituent, the All-Russian Constituent Assembly decides: the Russian state is proclaimed by the Russian Democratic Federal Republic, uniting peoples and regions in an indissoluble union, within the limits established by the federal constitution, Of course, the above resolution, which did not thoroughly regulate the entire system of federal relations, was not considered by the authorities as having legal force, especially after the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly.