Sebastian Kurz

Sebastian Kurz
Sebastian Kurz (2018-02-28) (cropped).jpg
Kurz in 2018
Chancellor of Austria
In office
7 January 2020 – 11 October 2021
President Alexander Van der Bellen
Vice Chancellor Werner Kogler
Preceded by Brigitte Bierlein
Succeeded by Alexander Schallenberg
In office
18 December 2017 – 28 May 2019
President Alexander Van der Bellen
Vice Chancellor Heinz-Christian Strache
Hartwig Löger
Preceded by Christian Kern
Succeeded by Brigitte Bierlein
Chairman of the People's Party
Assumed office
14 May 2017
Secretary-General Karl Nehammer
Preceded by Reinhold Mitterlehner
Parliamentary Leader of the People's Party
Assumed office
11 October 2021
Deputy August Wöginger
Preceded by August Wöginger
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
16 December 2013 – 18 December 2017
Chancellor Werner Faymann
Christian Kern
Preceded by Michael Spindelegger
Succeeded by Karin Kneissl
Member of the National Council
Assumed office
14 October 2021
Preceded by Irene Neumann-Hartberger
In office
23 October 2019 – 7 January 2020
Nominated by Himself
Succeeded by Irene Neumann-Hartberger
In office
9 November 2017 – 22 January 2018
Nominated by Himself
Succeeded by Karl Mahrer
In office
29 October 2013 – 16 December 2013
Nominated by Michael Spindelegger
Succeeded by Erwin Rasinger
Personal details
Born (1986-08-27) 27 August 1986 (age 35)
Meidling, Vienna, Austria
Political party People's Party (2003–present)
Domestic partner Susanne Thier
Parents
  • Elisabeth Döller
  • Josef Kurz
Residence Meidling, Vienna
Education GRG 12 Erlgasse (Matura)
Signature
Website
Military service
Allegiance  Austria
Branch/service Bundesheer
Years of service October 2004 – June 2005
Stationed at Maria-Theresien-Kaserne

Sebastian Kurz (German: [zeˈbasti̯a(ː)n ˈkʊrts]; born 27 August 1986) is an Austrian politician currently serving as chairman and parliamentary leader of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP). He was twice chancellor of Austria, initially from December 2017 to May 2019 and then a second time from January 2020 to October 2021. For about four years, Kurz was the youngest head of government in the world as well as the youngest chancellor in Austrian history, being first elected into office at age 31.

Kurz was born and raised in Meidling, Vienna. In 2004, he graduated from the GRG 12 Erlgasse and completed mandatory military service a year later. Kurz attended law school at the University of Vienna but later dropped out to focus on his political career. He entered politics by joining the Young People's Party (JVP) in 2003. Five years later he assumed his first political post as chairman of the JVP in Vienna. In 2010, Kurz successfully ran for the Viennese State Diet. As a result of a cabinet reshuffle in 2011, Kurz was nominated and appointed state secretary of the interior ministry for social integration. After the 2013 legislative election, Kurz became the country's foreign minister and remained its top diplomat until December 2017.

Following the resignation of Austrian vice-chancellor Reinhold Mitterlehner as chairman of the ÖVP in May 2017, Kurz was named his successor. Mitterlehner's withdrawal from politics led to the end of the Kern cabinet and triggered the 2017 Austrian legislative election, in which Kurz participated as the top candidate of his party. As leader of the largest party after the election, Kurz was charged with forming his first cabinet and subsequently entered a coalition government with the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). During his first chancellorship, Kurz passed various changes and overhauls but suffered multiple scandals. Following the Ibiza affair and the end of the ÖVP–FPÖ coalition, the National Council ousted Kurz through a motion of no confidence. Kurz's youth and political tenor were credited with revitalizing the traditional conservative movement in Austria, and to a larger extent in Europe. Opponents have denounced him as uncooperative and hasty, particularly with respect to his major political issues.

After the 2019 legislative election, he returned to power, forming another coalition; this time with the environmentalist Green Party. Kurz and his new cabinet were inaugurated in January 2020; however, the coalition's program was quickly impeded by the COVID-19 pandemic in Austria. An investigation into the Ibiza affair by a parliamentary subcommittee, an ongoing corruption inquiry, and several other scandals have resulted in a sharp decline of his popularity and job approval. On 9 October 2021, as a consequence of the Kurz corruption probe, he announced his resignation as chancellor and nominated Alexander Schallenberg to succeed him, while remaining party leader as well as returning to parliament as the party's parliamentary group leader.

Personal life

Kurz was born in Vienna, the only child[1] of Elisabeth (née Döller) and Josef Kurz. His father is an engineer and his mother is a grammar school teacher.[2] Kurz's maternal grandmother Magdalena Müller, born 1928 in Temerin, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (today Vojvodina, Serbia), is a Danube Swabian who fled from the city and settled in Zogelsdorf (today in Austria) during World War II, after the Yugoslav Partisans and the Red Army started to liberate the territory that was then occupied by the Kingdom of Hungary.[3][4][5] Kurz was brought up in Meidling, the 12th district of Vienna, where he still lives. He obtained his Matura certificate in 2004,[6][7] completed compulsory military service in 2005,[8] and began studying law at the University of Vienna[9][10] the same year. Later, he dropped out of university and focused on his political career.[11][12][13] Kurz has been in a relationship with economics teacher Susanne Thier since the time they spent in school together.[14][15]

Political career

Youth branch

Kurz had been a member of the Young People's Party (JVP) since 2003 and was sponsored by Markus Figl.[16][17][18] From 2008 to 2012, he was chairman of the JVP for Vienna.[19][20][21] During his chairmanship, he led the youth campaign of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) in the 2010 Viennese state election and coined the campaign's controversial electoral slogan Schwarz macht geil ("Black Makes Cool"), a play on the official party colour as well as the colloquial term geil which literally means "horny". While campaigning, he commissioned that a black-painted car termed the Geilomobil ("cool/horny automobile") be driven through Vienna.[22][23][24] In 2009, Kurz was elected federal chairman of the JVP at a party convention, where he received 99 percent of the vote; five years later he was reelected with 100 percent of the vote.[25] In 2017, he handed over the office of federal chair to Austrian attorney Stefan Schnöll.[26] From 2009 to 2016, Kurz additionally served as a deputy chair of the ÖVP in Vienna.[27] From 2010 to 2011, he was a member of the Viennese State and Municipality Diet, where he focused on equality for all generations and ensuring fair pensions, before being nominated as state secretary of the Interior Ministry for integration in June 2011, ensuing a reshuffle of the first Faymann cabinet.[28][29] Following the 2013 Austrian legislative election, in which he had won the most direct votes of any candidate, he briefly served as a member of the National Council.[30] In December 2013, Kurz resigned his parliamentary seat to become the country's youngest foreign minister at the age of 27.[31]

State Secretary

Kurz considered a healthy and continued dialogue between government and the religious communities to be a pivotal part for social integration. During the first months in his new capacity as state secretary of the Interior for integration, Kurz suggested several changes, such as a second mandatory kindergarten year for children with insufficient language skills.[32] In 2011, the Integration State Secretariat co-founded a campaign called Zusammen:Österreich ("Together:Austria") along with the Austrian Integration Fund and the Ministry of Education. The campaign sought to familiarise immigrants with the Austrian landscape and culture as well as to convey values such as religious freedom and democracy. The campaign sent so-called "integration ambassadors" to schools, so to discuss the identification of migrants with the Republic of Austria.[33]

As state secretary, Kurz received an annual budget of fifteen million euros as of 2011. The budget was raised to 100 million euros by 2017. The increase primarily occurred due to a large-scale buildup of German language courses.[34] In 2013, Kurz co-sponsored a proposed amendment to the Austrian citizenship law.[35][36]

Foreign Minister

Kurz with the president of Croatia Ivo Josipović at his first foreign visit as minister, 20 December 2013

Following the 2013 legislative election, Kurz took over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from Michael Spindelegger. In March 2014, his ministry's jurisdiction was expanded and was additionally vested with matters of integration. Kurz denoted Western Balkans relations to be one of his top priorities, which is why his first foreign visit as minister was to Croatia.[37] Good relations with Israel is very important to him "for historical reasons" and for a positive cooperation with the Jewish community in the field of integration.[38]

During a visit to Belgrade on 26 February 2014, he reaffirmed Austria's continued support for the accession of Serbia into the European Union (EU), also because of Austrian economic and political interests. Together with the Serbian prime minister Aleksandar Vučić, he talked about the future of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Austrian–Serbian relations in a historical context.[39]

In November 2014, he presented the #stolzdrauf campaign, with the stated goal of encouraging people to show pride for Austria on social media.[40][41] The campaign drew controversy when users promoted athlete David Alaba.[42] Supporters of the campaign included celebrities such as the former Miss Austria Amina Dagi, and musician Andreas Gabalier, according to Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Also involved were the Austrian president Heinz Fischer, the Austrian Airlines, the Jewish Community and the Islamic Religious Community. According to the FAZ report, the political left would consider Andreas Gabalier "provocative" for omitting women from the national anthem, while the political right would be "disturbed" that a hijabi woman, or a Tschusch, was considered a true Austrian. The alt-right identitarian movement disrupted the press conference on the presentation of the campaign. Also heavily criticized was the amount of money invested in the promotion of the campaign by the Foreign Ministry which amounted to €326,029 and €120,000 in five to six weeks, of which 55% flowed into newspaper advertisement of boulevard or free newspapers.[43][44]

On 25 February 2015, an amendment to the Islam law was passed in the National Council. The amendment adjusted the law of 1912 and banned foreign financing of Islamic associations and was especially criticised by the Muslim community.[45] It included the right of Muslims to have pastoral care in the Armed Forces, detention centers, hospitals and nursing homes.[46] A German translation of the Qur'an which had been demanded by Kurz was not contained in the amendment.[47]

Kurz with the United States Secretary of State John Kerry, 4 April 2016

In June 2015, Kurz proposed to adjust the family subsidy for EU citizens working in Austria whose children live in the country of origin to the price level of their country. In addition, immigrants from other EU states should first have paid into the Austrian welfare system for a few years before they would be eligible to request financial aid in Austria. The Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) opposed the plans, but stated that the abuse of family subsidy needed to be better controlled. The Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) welcomed the proposals. The Greens accused Kurz and his party of "taking over the hate policy of the FPÖ."[48][49]

At the end of June 2015, Kurz presented his plans to close Austrian embassies in Malta, Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia by autumn 2018. At the same time, new embassies should be opened in Belarus, Moldova, Georgia, Qatar, and Singapore. His plans also included another Consulate General in China. The Chancellor wanted to achieve financial savings through the sale of no longer needed real estate and by merging representative agencies.[50]

Following the City of Vienna's rejection to commission Ednan Aslan with a research project on Islamic kindergartens in 2014, the Ministry of Integration commissioned Aslan himself. The preliminary study, published at the end of 2015, came to the conclusion that Salafist tendencies were emerging and that the spread of Islamist ideologies was observable. Following this alarming study, the City of Vienna and the Ministry of Integration agreed to conduct a comprehensive scientific study on that matter. In addition, the city of Vienna increasingly started to review these kindergartens. In June 2017, Kurz demanded to having Islamic kindergartens closed in general, as they had isolated themselves linguistically and culturally from the main society. After Falter had accused the Integration department of the Ministry of having changed "content and not only formatting" of the preliminary study, a tangible controversy emerged. Aslan then pointed out that he supported the published study. A review of the study was initiated by the University of Vienna.[51][52][53][54]

Kurz with Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu, 2016

In January 2016, Kurz stated in an interview with the daily newspaper Die Welt regarding border security in Austria: "It is understandable that many politicians are afraid of ugly pictures relating to border security. However, we cannot just delegate this duty of ours to Turkey, because we don't want to get our hands dirty. It will not go without ugly pictures." The latter part of the quote was used by the Green MEP Michel Reimon as a caption to a photo of the deceased refugee boy Aylan Kurdi and spread on Facebook. Reimon also referred to Kurz as an inhuman cynic. An ÖVP spokesman described it as "despicable that the Greens exploit the death of this little boy for party politics", Aylan was killed at a time "where there was no border security, but a policy of false hopes."[55][56]

Kurz with Britain's foreign secretary Boris Johnson, 20 March 2017

In February 2016, Kurz attended the Western Balkans Conference in Vienna, as representative for Austria, along with Interior Minister Johanna Mikl-Leitner. The conference was heavily criticized by the EU, but the resulting blockade of the Balkan route was soon officially recognized by the EU.[57]

The recognition and assessment law presented by the Ministry of Integration was approved in July 2016. In order to facilitate the recognition of qualifications acquired abroad and the transfer of educational certificates.[58]

During commemorations and military parades to mark the end of World War II, Kurz visited Belarus on 5 May 2015, followed by a visit to Moscow where he met Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov. He described the annexation of the Crimea and the support of the Eastern Ukrainian separatists as "contrary to international law." A softening of EU sanctions would not be possible without prior local improvements of the situation and without the implementation of the Minsk II agreement and that peace could only be achieved "with and not against Russia." In June 2016, he stated to support the proposals previously made by then-German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier to gradually withdraw sanctions in return for steps completed by Russia regarding the Minsk agreement.[59][60]

Kurz with Netanyahu after signing a memorandum of agreement, 16 May 2016. Netanyahu's spokesman David Keyes looks on.

In May 2016, Kurz visited Israel and met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[61] The trip marked 60 years of diplomatic relations between Austria and Israel.[62] Netanyahu and Kurz signed a working holiday visa agreement as well as a memorandum of agreement on education and cultural issues.[63]

In November 2016, Kurz expressed his thanks as a representative of the European People's Party in a campaign appearance of the Macedonian sister-party VMRO-DPMNE for supporting the closure of the Western Balkans route, which was later criticized as an indirect campaigning aid.[64] With regard to the refugee crisis, the Ministry of Integration introduced values and orientation courses in all states.[65]

In March 2017, Kurz criticized rescue actions by aid organizations as "NGO insanity", as these would result in more refugees dying in the Mediterranean Sea rather than less. Kurz repeatedly demanded that refugees rescued in the Mediterranean Sea should no longer be taken to mainland Italy, but returned to refugee centers outside of Europe, in accordance with the Australian refugee model. His purposes were supported by the EU border agency Frontex but opposed by aid organizations.[66]

Kurz with Georgian foreign minister Mikheil Janelidze in Tbilisi in February 2017

In March 2017, the Integration Act was passed in the Council of Ministers and subsequently enacted by the National Council in May 2017. It contains the right to attend German-language courses, obliges participation in language and value courses and prohibits the distribution of expenditures of the Quran in public spaces by Salafists. A ban on full obfuscation in public spaces was regulated in the Anti-Face Veiling Act. The Integration Act was supplemented by an integration-year law in accordance with the cabinet's draft. The obligatory charitable work of beneficiaries of subsidiary protection, persons entitled to asylum and asylum seekers with good chances of recognition was regulated in the Integration Year Law and is referred to as "work training that is in the interest of the common good." The charitable work can take up to twelve months and is carried out by community service organizations. Participants of the integration year also receive an "integration card" that serves as a kind of certificate.[67][68][69]

In May 2017, the integration ambassador criticized Kurz's policy. According to a survey conducted by the immigrant magazine Bum Media, two thirds of the ambassadors for integration do not agree with the policy or individual aspects of the policy (especially the ban on full-face veils in the public). The same medium stated that of the 350 Integration ambassadors cited by the Foreign Ministry, only 68 were on the website.[70][71]

In Kurz's tenure as Foreign Minister, it was agreed to increase the funds for bilateral development cooperation from about 75 to about 150 million by 2021.[72]

At the end of 2016, it was announced that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs had cancelled funding for the Südwind Magazine, which had been published monthly since 1979, for the association Südwind Entwicklungspolitik. This move caused criticism from various parties, as it endangered the survival of the magazine. The publisher representative of the Südwind magazine considered the cessation of funding "politically stupid." An Internet petition against the rejection of the funding was then launched.[73][74][75]

Kurz held his annual speeches as Foreign Minister before the United Nations General Assembly, and the UN Security Council respectively, and participated in the review conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In addition, he also expressed his support for denuclearisation and the protection of persecuted Christians.[76][77][78][79]

Kurz with Sergey Lavrov at the OSCE summit in Mauerbach

As the Austrian foreign minister, Kurz assumed the chairmanship of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in January 2017 for one year. In the first days of his new role he visited the disputed eastern Ukraine. With regard to EU sanctions against Russia, he proposed an "act-on-act system." A gradual lifting of sanctions in exchange for progress in the Ukraine conflict could trigger a "positive momentum." While the OSCE considered it to be a success that the OSCE observation mission in eastern Ukraine could be extended, there was also criticism on the agenda-setting of his incumbency, which according to Christian Nünlist, was partly based on his personal domestic political interests for Austria. As OSCE Chairperson, Kurz invited to an OSCE Summit in Mauerbach on 11 July 2017.[80][81][82][83]

On 18 December 2017, Kurz handed over the Foreign Ministry to the FPÖ nominee Karin Kneissl.[84]

ÖVP chairmanship

Already during the chairmanship of Reinhold Mitterlehner, many rumours arose within the media and the party itself, speculating that it would be more and more likely for Kurz to takeover the party before the 2017 legislative election and to run as the top candidate of his party in that election.[85] In 2014, the daily newspaper Kurier already speculated on a possible top candidacy of Kurz for the next election.[86] On 10 May 2017, Mitterlehner announced his resignation as Minister, Vice-Chancellor and ultimately as party leader. Following Mitterlehner's withdrawal from politics, the party executive board nominated Kurz as the new chairman on 14 May that year. However, he declined to succeed Mitterlehner as Vice-Chancellor.[87] Before his official election to the chairmanship, Kurz presented seven requirements to the executive board[88] which were partially already agreed upon before his nomination, some were even enshrined by statute. Unofficially assented changes were a request of the chairmen to be granted veto powers against federal nominees of state organisations and to obtain the prerogative to appoint federal nominees at their discretion.[89][90] The newspaper Falter reported that Kurz had already "pre-felt" if corporate donors would financially support his election campaign before assuming the chairmanship as apparently several millions of euros have already been informally promised in donations.[91]

On 1 July 2017, Kurz was officially elected chairman of the ÖVP by the Bundesparteitag (federal party conference) with 98.7% of the delegates vote and thereby almost achieved as much as his predecessor Reinhold Mitterlehner, who received 99.1% of the vote.[92]

2017 legislative election

In the 2017 legislative election, the ÖVP competed under the alias Sebastian Kurz list – the new People's Party.[93] Besides Kurz, other nominees on the federal list (Bundesliste) were Elisabeth Köstinger, Josef Moser, Gaby Schwarz, Efgani Dönmez, Maria Großbauer, Rudolf Taschner, Tanja Graf, Karl Mahrer and Kira Grünberg.[94] The first part of the election program, titled "New Justice & Responsibility" (Neue Gerechtigkeit & Verantwortung), was presented on 4 September 2017 and it promised tax cuts, advocated against assets and inheritance taxes and for a reduction of the minimum income obtained by people without Austrian citizenship.[95] Already in June 2017, Kurz had announced that he would aim for a tax relief in the amount of 12 to 14 billion euros annually, counterbalanced by savings in the bureaucracy and "misguided social services", which would in particular affect child and family subsidy as well as the minimum income received by foreigners.[96][97]

The second part of the program, presented nine days later, comprised economics, education, research, culture and the environment. It also aimed to replace compulsory school attendance with "compulsory education". Children shall "be able to comprehensively read and know the basics of math", otherwise compulsory school attendance shall be extended up until the age of 18. In addition, there shall be a mandatory second kindergarten year for children with insufficient knowledge of the German language. And contributions to the social security system shall be reduced for people with lower incomes.[98]

On 27 September 2017, Kurz presented the third part of the election program; "Order and Security". Anyone arriving illegally shall be returned to their country of origin. If someones requires protection, they shall be harboured in a Protection Center within a third-party country. It also asked for an improved Punktesystem (scoring system) for legal immigrants. With regards to government reforms, it wished a more clearly defined separation of responsibilities between the federal government and the state and municipality governments. It also called for structural reforms within the EU, the implementation of the security compact and tougher punishments for violence against women and incitements.[99]

First chancellorship

Appointment

On 15 October 2017, Kurz and his party emerged as victorious from the 2017 legislative election, receiving 1,595,526 votes (31.5%) in the popular vote and thus gaining 15 additional seats, and thereby a plurality, in the National Council. As the leader of the party with the most seats after the election, Kurz was charged with the formation of a new cabinet by President Alexander Van der Bellen. Since he did not obtain an absolute majority in parliament, Kurz decided to look out for a coalition partner to ensure one. The search turned out rather quick and the ÖVP entered negotiations with the right-wing to far-right FPÖ on 25 October. Negotiations concluded successfully on 15 December and the incoming coalition presented its ministers list[a] to the President. Van der Bellen assented and the Kurz cabinet was sworn in on 18 December 2017.[100]

Cabinet composition

Actions and policies

The Family Bonus Plus table

On 4 July Chancellor Kurz and his cabinet enacted the Family Bonus Plus (Familienbonus Plus). Beginning on 1 January 2019, the bonus would allow for a specific amount to be annually deducted of parents income taxes; maximum €1,500 per child underage (which is €125 per month) and €500 per child over 18 years of age. The bonus only affects parents whose children derive child subsidy (Kinderbeihilfe) from government. The maximum relief amount can be claimed when at least one parent earns a minimum of €1,350 net per month. The minimum relief amount is €250 and can be claimed by every employed single parent, regardless of their monthly income; unemployed parents would receive no bonus.[111][112]

In addition, the bonus replaces several other child subsidies, such as the "child tax credit" (Kinderfreibetrag) which granted €440 to a single parent and €600 to a couple, and the "reduction of childcare costs" (Absetzbarkeit der Kinderbetreuungskosten) which granted parents €2,300 annually per child under 10 years of age.[113][114]

The SPÖ strongly criticised the bonus for "being solely of benefit for well-earning people and completely forgetting the less well-earners and unemployed."[115][116]

A statistic comparing the new with the old basic income

In November 2018, the Kurz cabinet completed drafting major changes to the basic income, unemployment insurance and the emergency aid. While the basic income was initially denoted "minimum grant" (Mindestsicherung), it would be renamed "social aid" (Sozialhilfe). The new statute resulting from the changes would supersede the "federation-states-agreement on minimum standards of social services", which expired in 2016, and federalize the basic income through a framework law, which would allow for states to keep their autonomy in making decisions on the basic income, but only within that by the law explicitly defined framework.[117][118]

The new law would grant recipients of the basic income that are singles a maximum of €863.04 monthly, couples would obtain a maximum of €1,208.26 monthly. Parents would receive €215 for their first child, €129 for their second one and €43 from the third one onward. Citizens of the EU, the European Economic Area, and foreign countries are only eligible to apply for the basic income after a legally registered stay of five years or when having served as an employer. Immigrants with insufficient German language skills would receive a reduced basic income of only €563; the Kurz cabinet argued that the difference of €300 would pay for their German language courses. The full amount of €863 would be acquirable by immigrants when having achieved German level B1 (being able to understand the basics when a standard vocabulary is applied and when it comes to trusted things like work, school or free time) or English level C1 (being able to comprehend a broad spectrum of long and challenging texts and implicit meanings). To retain the basic income an application must be re-submitted every year.[119][120]

The changes would merge the unemployment insurance (Arbeitslosengeld) with the emergency aid (Notstandshilfe); the merger's result would then be called "unemployment insurance NEW" (Arbeitslosengeld NEU). While the prior unemployment insurance was only claimable for one year by the newly unemployed, the new unemployment insurance expands this tenure up to two years; however, when people's eligibility for the old unemployment insurance expired they could claim the constantly-renewable but less awarding emergency aid. The new unemployment insurance eliminated the emergency aid and would cause people to fall directly into the basic income.[121][122]

The changes passed the Council of Ministers in March 2019 and were subsequently enacted by the National Council. The federal-level framework law is in effect since April 2019, states now have time to implement the law until June 2021.[123][124]

In July 2018, the Kurz cabinet passed an amendment to the working time law (Arbeitszeitgesetz) in the National Council, which has commonly been referred to as the "12 hour work day" (12-Stunden-Arbeitstag). Cabinet skipped the common assessment process (Begutachtungsprozess) for the amendment. The average work time in Austria was eight hours per day, the amendment extended the maximum work time of ten hours per day to twelve hours, and the fifty hours work time per week to sixty hours. Chancellor Kurz and his cabinet commented the changes with "legally allowing employees to work more a day on a voluntary basis. In theory, employees could legally decline an employer's request to work longer.[125][126][127]

Prior to the amendment it has only been possible to work longer than ten hours per day in certain circumstances and with the explicit assent of the works council. Supporters of these changes have been the Economic Chamber and the Federation of Industries. Opponents on the other side, have been the SPÖ, the Peter Pilz List, the Chamber for Workers and Employees, and the Trade Union Federation. Opponents have raised strong concerns regarding the amendment, doubting that an appliance of the "voluntary basis" is actually possible in practice, since they expect the employer to dismiss a denial of the employee to work longer and threaten them with suspension and discharge.[128][129][130][131][132]

On 16 May 2018, the Kurz cabinet enacted compulsory German language classes in the National Council.[133][134]

As of 1 January 2019, all primary (Volksschule) and secondary schools (Hauptschule, Gymnasium) are legally required to establish mandatory German language classes (which deviate from regular classes) for children with a lacking knowledge of the German language, denoted "extraordinary students"; however, such classes are only established when there is a minimum of eight such pupils per school. Extraordinary students are determined by a nationwide test (administered by the principal) when signing up for a school, or when having entered school during a school year and being new to Austria. When tests do conclude an "insufficient" knowledge of the German language, pupils are obliged to attend German language classes for fifteen hours per week in primary schools and twenty hours per week in secondary schools. Extraordinary students would remain in these classes until a maximum tenure of four semesters or when having at least improved their skills to an "inadequate" knowledge of the German language; their language level would be examined every semester through a ministerial test. Such students would attend view joint subjects, such as drawing, music, gymnastics and handicraft, with their original regular class.[135][136]

The new law replaced a previous act, which allowed pupils to voluntarily attend German language classes for eleven hours per week. Cabinet argued that the previous law was not effective enough and did not achieve the desired results. The new initiative faced great opposition by schools, their representatives and the opposition parties. Opponents argued that yet alone the Viennese schools would require 500 additional rooms. Furthermore, extraordinary students may face discrimination, many teachers do not have the necessary requirements, costs for the implementation are gigantic and all extraordinary students are in the same class regardless of their age, which prevents them from learning efficiently.[137][138][139]

In October 2018, the Kurz cabinet amended the family subsidy for European foreigners through legislation; the changes would be in effect as of 1 January 2019. The amendment affects foreign citizens of the EU which work within Austria but whose children reside outside of Austria. The changes adjust family subsidy obtained by these children to the local price level of their country of residence. The amendment especially pertains workers of the social and civil sector, such as nurses.[140][141]

The European Commission admonished the cabinet of amending family subsidy for European foreigners, since the EU law states that "equal contributions to the system, must be paid out with equal services." The commission considers to sue Austria at the European Court of Justice as soon as the amendment turns into effect.[142][143][144]

In April 2018, the coalition enacted the monitoring compact, officially titled security compact. The ÖVP already attempted to pass such a law in the previous legislative period, but failed since their bill presented before the National Council was rejected by all other parties, including their current and former coalition partner.[145][146]

The compact allows for authorities to monitor messenger services, such as WhatsApp and Skype, of a person that has committed a crime punishable with a maximum of ten years imprisonment, or five years when life and sexual integrity are endangered, or is suspected of being a potential terrorist. With the new compact, authorities would be empowered to order telecommunication companies to save a person's data up to one year if they are suspected of committing a specific crime. Should the initial suspicion not be substantiated throughout the investigation, then authorities' directive to store data would turn void and the surveillance target must be informed of their investigation. Furthermore, the optical and acoustic surveillance in the public are also planned to be expanded, and authorities would be able to access the video and audio surveillance of government-operated or funded organisations, such as public transportation services, airports, and railway stations, which are obliged to store recordings for a tenure of four weeks. The license plate recognition systems (Kennzeichenerkennungssysteme) are also intended to be advanced, with them being able to detect the driver, license plate, type and color of any car. IMSI-catchers used by the police would be able to localise phones without contacting the respective telecommunication company. Anonymous prepaid cards would no longer be available and only sim cards would remain, which require one to register their identity.[147][148]

The compact would stand for five years and be evaluated after three years. Jurists, attorneys, the Constitutional Service and many others, have expressed their strong concerns regarding the compact and have accused it of infringing the very basis of liberty. Both the SPÖ and NEOS have announced to file one-third petitions in parliament to trigger a lawsuit against the compact before the Constitutional Court; the SPÖ aims to introduce its petition in the Federal Council, where it already possesses one-thirds of the seats, while NEOS would introduce theirs in the National Council, hoping for the support of the SPÖ to derive the remaining votes necessary.[149][150]

The services of the Digital Office as of 2019

On 19 March 2019, the Kurz cabinet presented the mobile application Digital Office for Android and IOS as well as the website oesterreich.gv.at; both platforms combine and centralize existing online services of government that allow for citizens to interact with authorities through the internet. While both are generally the same, the mobile app was labeled "more comfortable" by cabinet. The concept for both platform was drafted by Margarete Schramböck, Minister of Digital Affairs, and subsequently developed by her ministry. Digitalizing government services and bureaucracy has been an election promise of Kurz. The services data.gv.at and help.gv.at were merged into the new platforms, although data.gv.at is intended to additional remain as an independent website. The new platforms currently allow users to:

  • register a new, and cancel the current, main residence (Hauptwohnsitz);
  • request certificates for newborn children;
  • store passport pictures;
  • receive an automatic notification when a passport's validity expires; and
  • request a voting card (Wahlkarte) for an upcoming election.

Additional services are intended to be added that would allow users to:

  • request a new passport (June);
  • register and cancel side residences (Nebenwohnsitze) (June);
  • file a loss report for certificates and other legal documents (June); and
  • use the digital driving license (December, at the latest beginning 2020).

The digital driving license would for the moment only be usable domestically, since there are no European-wide regulations for such licenses. Registering for those platforms requires a mobile signature. There currently are more than 1,1 million registered mobile signatures.[151][152][153]

When Austria held the rotating EU presidency from July to December 2018, Kurz advocated for a better protection of the schengen border and suggested that Frontex border guards should prevent migrant-boats from coming to Europe.[154][155][156][157][158][159]

On 13 December 2018, the Kurz cabinet enacted an amendment to the social insurance law. The amendment was intended to reform the organisation and structure of Austria's social insurance system, mainly through fusion and with discharging "redundant functionaries" as well as modernizing workplaces. The cabinet stated that "centralizing the social insurance system will improve services for the insured." The following insurance organizations would be merged:

  • the nine health insurances of Austria's nine states (Gebietskrankenkassen) into the federalized Austrian Health Insurance (ÖGK)ː
  • the Social Insurance for the Commercial Economy with the one of the farmers into the Social Insurance for Independents (SVS); and
  • the Insurance for Railways and Mining with the Insurance for Governmental Officials into the BVAEB.

The Pension Insurance (PVA) and the Insurance for Occupational Risks (AUVA) would remain untouched. In addition, the Association of Austrian Social Insurances (Hauptverband der österreichischen Sozialversicherungsträger), which comprises all social insurance organisations, would be reduced and disempowered when the amendment is in effect. The project would officially begin in April 2019 with the initiation of a parliamentary transitional committee overseeing the fusion. The committee would be abolished at the end of 2019, and starting 2020 the new organisation and structure would be in full effect. The opposition (consisting of SPÖ, NEOS, and NOW), the chairman of the Association of Austrian Social Insurances, and multiple health economists have condemned these changes, saying that "they would not centralize but decentralize and impair a perfectly functioning and effective system and thus be a general worsening for the insured." The fusion would cost government approximately 300 to 400 million euros.[160][161][162][163][164][165]

On 31 October 2018, Kurz stated that Austria would not sign the Global Compact for Migration, because it would reduce Austria's sovereignty and mix up the difference between illegal and legal immigration as well as that between humanitarian and economic immigration.[166][167][168][169][170][171]

Following the burqa ban, which was already supported by Kurz and introduced under the previous cabinet, the Ministers' Council also voted on 21 November 2018 for a headscarf ban in kindergartens.[172] It is further planned to expand this ban on elementary school pupils.[173]

In March 2019, cabinet announced that it aims to create a new institution, which should from 2020 monitor and document activities regarding political Islam in the country.[174] Citing studies which show that a significant amount of Austrian Muslims hold anti-western and antisemitic views,[175][176] Kurz said that it would be necessary to monitor mosques, clubs, ideology and social media contributions in context with fundamental Islam in order to protect the liberal, democratic and secular society. The organisation should get a similar role on Islamic extremism as the Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance (DÖW) has on right wing extremism, according to the cabinet. Leading figures form the DÖW have principally welcomed the government's plan and confirmed that there is a need to take a closer look at the dangers of political Islam.[177]

In March 2018, the Kurz cabinet overthrew the smoking ban enacted by its predecessor, the Kern cabinet.[178][179] The termination of the smoking ban was a strong and long-standing desire of the FPÖ and enshrined its wish in the coalition agreement (Koalitionsabkommen) and the cabinet program (Regierungsprogramm). Although the ÖVP ultimately agreed to the overturn due to it being a coalition compromise, the overturn of the smoking ban was an extraordinarily controversial act, not only was it opposed by all opposition parties and many experts but even by the senior coalition partner, the ÖVP.[180]

The smoking ban would have competently prohibited smoking in coffeehouses and restaurants, which has previously only been allowed within the respective smoking areas. Before its termination in February, it was scheduled to go into effect as of 1 May 2018.[181] The overturn however, did not only end the smoking ban, but also prohibited the selling of tobacco to people under 18 years of age and disallowed smoking in cars if minors are present. Following the overturn of the smoking ban, an anti-smoking initiative, trend and campaign titled "Don't smoke" emerged. Its associated popular petition reached more than 880,000 votes, which makes up 13.8% of Austria's population,[182] and was thereby one of the most successful popular petitions in the country's history, but it ultimately failed to trigger a new parliamentary debate on this topic, since it did not achieve the 900,000 votes necessary, as determined by Vice-Chancellor Heinz-Christian Strache, leader of the FPÖ. Strache was in particular heavily criticised for raising the votes necessary to 900,000, since he promised to take up every popular petition that would reach 150,000 votes, while still in opposition.[183][184] In addition, a lawsuit has been filed against the overturn before the Constitutional Court.[185][186]

End of term

On 17 May 2019, a political scandal known as the Ibiza affair was made public. The scandal involved Heinz-Christian Strache, Vice-Chancellor and FPÖ chairman, and Johann Gudenus, a FPÖ deputy chair, asking for highly controversial electoral support from the mysterious woman who claimed to be the niece of Russian oligarch Igor Makarov.[187][188][189] The scandal led to widespread political consequences, triggered the end of the ÖVP-FPÖ coalition and ultimately resulted in the dismissal of Chancellor Kurz.

A day after the scandal, Strache announced his withdrawal from all political posts but wished for the Kurz cabinet to remain in office.[190][191][192] However, the next day, Chancellor Kurz delivered an official statement about the scandal before a press conference and terminated the coalition with the words "enough is enough." He also stated that he had requested President Alexander Van der Bellen to summon a snap election.[193][194][195] The coalition agreement between the two parties was formally cancelled later that day.

The following day, speculations emerged that Kurz planned to propose the dismissal of Interior Minister Herbert Kickl, and all FPÖ ministers threatened that they would resign if Kurz actually did so. Kickl was already among the most controversial figures of the FPÖ before the Ibiza affair and would, as interior minister, have headed the investigation into the scandal and therefore have prosecuted the former head of his own party.[196] In addition, Kickl appointed his subordinate Peter Goldgruber the Director General for the Public Security shortly after the scandal was revealed.[197]

On Monday 20 May, Kurz asked President Van der Bellen to dismiss Kickl as Minister of the Interior. Following Kurz's request, all FPÖ ministers presented their resignations to the President, as they had announced.[198] Van der Bellen accepted all these requests and formally removed Kickl and the other ministers of his party on 23 May. The vacated ministerial posts were filled by experts.[199][200]

Following the end of the coalition and the dismissal of Kickl, Kurz and his party lost their absolute majority in Parliament.[201] On 27 May, the SPÖ presented a motion of no confidence against the whole cabinet in parliament.[202][203] With the support of the JETZT and FPÖ, now in opposition, the motion received a qualified majority, thus ousting Kurz and the cabinet.[204][205][206][207] It was the first motion of no confidence against a Chancellor and their cabinet to be successful in the history of the republic.[208] The next day, Kurz and his cabinet were formally removed from office by President Van der Bellen (as only the president himself has the constitutional power to dismiss the chancellor or the cabinet), while the remainder of cabinet members were immediately reinstated again to serve in an interim capacity.[209] Finance Minister Hartwig Löger was named as Kurz's acting successor; he was later replaced by Brigitte Bierlein and her caretaker cabinet.[210][211]

Second chancellorship

Appointment

In September 2019, the ÖVP won the 2019 legislative election in a landslide, receiving 1,789,417 votes and 37.5% of the total valid votes cast, enough for a wide plurality in the National Council.[212][213] Consequently, Kurz picked up an additional nine seats in parliament. It is the second consecutive election that the ÖVP emerged as the clear winner. As a result of the election, Kurz was again tasked with the formation of a new cabinet by President Alexander Van der Bellen on 7 October.[214] Throughout October, Kurz held several exploratory meetings with the SPÖ, the FPÖ, NEOS, and the Green Party, which had experienced a grand comeback in the 2019 legislative election, after having dropped out of the National Council following the 2017 election, and excluding the JETZT party, which failed to secure a minimum of 4 seats to obtain parliamentary representation. On 11 November, Kurz announced that the ÖVP would enter into coalition negotiations with the Green Party.[215]

At the end of December it was reported that coalition negotiations had concluded successfully. The program for the new cabinet was introduced to the general public on 2 January 2020.[216][217] The executive board of the ÖVP approved the coalition agreement the next day, the Green Party federal congress followed on 4 January.[218][219]

Kurz was sworn in as Chancellor by President Van der Bellen on 7 January 2020 at 10:00 UTC[b]. Under the ÖVP–Greens coalition plans, Austria would aim to become carbon neutral by 2040, a decade earlier than an EU-wide target, and a pledge for all electricity to come from renewable sources by 2030 as well as more spending on public transport. The coalition deal also includes banning the headscarf in schools for girls up to age 14, an extension of the garment ban that applies until age 10 approved by lawmakers earlier this year. The agreement also revives a plan for "precautionary detention" of potentially dangerous asylum seekers.[220]

Cabinet composition

Corruption inquiry

In May 2021, it was reported that Kurz and his chief of staff were the subject of an anti-corruption inquiry.[221][222][223] The inquiry concerns the 2019 appointment of Thomas Schmid [de], a "party loyalist",[221] as director of ÖBAG, Austria's sovereign wealth fund.[221] In 2020, Kurz denied under oath that he had any influence on Schmid's appointment, but text messages between Kurz and Schmid have surfaced that appear to contradict Kurz's testimony.[221][224] In October 2021, Kurz's offices and the ÖVP's party headquarters were raided, as part of the corruption inquiry.[225]

End of term

On 6 October 2021, agents of the Central Prosecutorial Agency for Corruption and Economic Affairs (WKStA) raided the Federal Chancellery and the headquarters of the ÖVP as part of a corruption probe targeting Kurz and his "inner circle".[226] Prosecutors allege that Kurz bribed news outlets in 2016 to make anti-Reinhold Mitterlehner propaganda. The bribery scheme aimed at ousting Mitterlehner who served as then-vice chancellor and chair of the ÖVP, so Kurz could take his place. In addition, the WKStA accused Kurz of misappropriating tax payer money, as bribes were allegedly diverted from Finance Ministry funds.[227]

Following the raid, opposition parties unanimously demanded Kurz' resignation and called a special session of the National Council to vote on a motion of no confidence. The Greens pondered supporting the motion if Kurz was unwilling to voluntarily step down but were also supportive of continuing the coalition cabinet if Kurz was replaced.[228] On 9 October 2021, Kurz resigned the chancellorship but announced his intentions to remain party chairman and assume direct leadership of the party in the National Council.[229][230][231][232] The Greens accepted Kurz' bargain, while opposition parties strongly condemned the move and said that Kurz would continue "pulling the strings". Since members of parliament enjoy legal immunity from prosecution, Kurz was also accused of obstruction of justice.[233]

On 11 October 2021, at 11:00 UTC[c], President Alexander Van der Bellen officially removed Kurz from office and appointed his nominee then-Foreign Minister Alexander Schallenberg chancellor of Austria.[234][235][236]

Shadow chancellorship

Background

Since Kurz' resignation as chancellor, news outlets, politicians, political analysts, and the general public have referred to him as "shadow chancellor",[237][238][239][240] who continues to be de facto head of government; although Kurz himself has disavowed that.[241][242] As leader of the senior party of the governing coalition cabinet, Kurz remains the driving force when it comes to legislation; he indirectly retains control over the most important government ministries, as they are headed by his partisan appointees, who have continuously voiced their unwavering fidelity[243][244]; as leader of the largest parliamentary group, Kurz can introduce a motion of no confidence targeting individual members of cabinet or the entire cabinet at any time.[245]

On 11 October 2021, Kurz was unanimously elected leader of the People's Party in the National Council.[246] Three days later, Kurz was officially sworn in as member of parliament.[247] On 15 October, the WKStA filed an extradition request with the National Council to lift his legal immunity; the People's Party "welcomed" the request, as it would "allow Kurz to disprove the allegations of corruption".[248][249]

In the first week of his chancellorship, Alexander Schallenberg reaffirmed on multiple occasions that he seeks a "very close cooperation" with Kurz[250][251] and that he would retain the shadow chancellor's policy directions.[252][253][254]

Political positions

Same-sex marriage

A decision of the Constitutional Court on 4 December 2017 abolished most of the Registered Partnership Law and legalized same-sex marriage in Austria, effective 1 January 2019.[255] Both Kurz's ÖVP and the FPÖ opposed same-sex marriage and rejected several bills proposed by the SPÖ, NEOS, and the Greens that would have legalized it before the court ruling.[256][257][258][259] Kurz opposed same-sex marriage and posited that discrimination has already been abolished with the legalisation of registered partnerships, stating: "There already is the opportunity for partnering, there is the possibility for homosexual couples to adopt children. Therefore, discrimination has already been eliminated."[260]

Foreign policy

As foreign minister, Kurz campaigned for dismantling and discarding all nuclear weapons on the globe, commenting: "Nuclear weapons are not only a permanent threat to all of humanity, but also a heritage of the Cold War, that must be resolutely overcome. A paradigm shift in the international nuclear disarmament efforts is overdue when considering the imminent proliferation of nuclear weapons."[261][262] In 2014, he organized an international conference regarding nuclear disarmament in Vienna.[263]

Economic policy

In his campaign pledges for the 2017 legislative election, Kurz spoke out against further raising the national debt and for reducing government spending and budget deficits; he intends to realize proposed policies through abolishing the fiscal drag (Kalte Progression) and by cutting the payroll and income taxes. Kurz opposes any sorts of inheritance, property, and wealth taxes. He wishes for cash to be retained as an ordinary payment method.[264]

In December 2018, Kurz announced a nationwide digital tax to partly fund a major upcoming tax reform. The digital tax topic has previously been discussed on European level but no agreement came about.[265]

Social policy

Kurz opposes reducing average and below-average pensions, and supports abolishing the pension privileges. He has advocated for a federalized minimum income of 1,500 euros and special regulations for minimum income recipients without citizenship.[264]

Media policy

As chancellor, Kurz instated a strict regulation to manage and oversee the communication of government and the ministries. The concept is intended to exhibit a uniform and almost synchronous appearance of government, of which no cabinet member could stand out through their individual views and stances.[266] Journalists have accused the Kurz cabinet, through rejecting questions[267] and by applying other methods of message control, of efforts to control and otherwise influence the media coverage.[268][269] Kurz himself reduced his communication to short and often repeated sentences and keywords.[270]

Public profile

Following Kurz's first official visit to Berlin, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung found him "highly eloquent", "succinct", and "everything but sheepish", and even quoted those calling him the "young Metternich".[271] In December 2014, the German Press Agency praised Kurz as one of "seven winners on the political world stage 2014."[272]

Anna von Bayern of Focus wrote that "one truly notices the new self-confidence of the Foreign Ministry, Kurz endowed it with new relevance." Vienna had become a "place of dialogue", first with the Ukraine summit in 2014 and later with the negotiations on the nuclear deal with Iran. In autumn 2015, the Syria discussions began in Vienna.[273] In March 2016, Franz Schandl described Kurz in an article of Der Freitag as someone who draws a "friendly face"; however, his substantive differences with his right-wing populist competitors were said to be only "marginal".[274] In 2017, Time listed Kurz as one of ten "Next Generation Leaders". The "statesman of the new kind" has found a way to deal with the refugee crisis. The "pragmatic way" worked out and was adopted by other European politicians.[275] Die Welt described Kurz as a "conservative-liberal, European-minded politician", whose rise to power in many ways resembled that of French president Emmanuel Macron. The closure of the Balkan route had been a diplomatic feat.[276] The Neue Zürcher Zeitung said Kurz embodied "uprising, confidence, dynamism, elegance and determination", while German chancellor Angela Merkel stood for "stagnation"; he was "sovereign, also sympathetic towards critics, and a master of the German language. If Kurz was German, he would be Chancellor, or right before becoming Chancellor."[277]

Cicero regarded Kurz as a "charismatic figure" in contrast to the "often naïve, all multi-cultural basically positive-looking German elites who enjoy the grace of late birth."[278] Eric Frey of Der Standard wrote, with regards to the 2017 Austrian legislative election, that the "distrust" of the newspaper's editorial staff towards Kurz would weigh heavy. This was because Kurz led a "foreigner election campaign", reducing problems to the topic of immigration, and would play the "strict law guardian"; however, Frey also saw some grounds for tendencies supporting Kurz, saying that he was an "effective answer" to right-wing populists like "Haider, Strache and Co". Kurz would elaborate the majority opinion that immigration would have to be more strictly regulated, "without hounding and polemics." Kurz was a "natural talent in decision-making" with "high social and analytical capabilities." According to Frey, the crucial question was whether Kurz was liberal and democracy-minded or was a "wannabe Orbán"; this question would be "unanswerable", as a hypothetical Chancellor Kurz would "split the country like no other head of government before."[279] In addition, parallels were drawn with Haider, until then the most successful federal leader of the right-wing populist FPÖ. The Rheinische Post wrote: "If we look directly at his supporters, Kurz strongly resembles Jörg Haider, the legendary right-wing populist, who about 30 years ago set out to destroy the eternal red-black proportional system – and ultimately failed. What changes Kurz strives for, was not clarified during his election campaign. The only thing truly clear, is that he wants to become Austria's youngest Chancellor. Therefore even calling for the installation of a Richtlinienkompetenz after the German example, in which ministers would be subordinated to the Chancellor."[280]

Kurz has cultivated a public image around traditional Austrian culture and values.[277][271] He had Alma Deutscher play classical music for Russian president Vladimir Putin during a state visit.[281]

In June 2018, a commentary of Edward Lucas published by the Financial Times drew parallels with the 2010s political development of Europe and the United States with the situation in the 1930s. Kurz was said to be easily comparable with the United States president Donald Trump of the Republican Party and the right-wing Italian interior minister Matteo Salvini of Lega Nord, and Lucas referred to him as the "right-wing Chancellor".[282] Following the commentary's publication, the Embassy of Austria in Washington contacted the author and demanded alteration, since they did not consider the article appropriate; the author changed the paragraphs in question.[283] In December 2018, Schweigekanzler ("silent Chancellor") became Austria's word of the year for the second time. The jury chose the word because "Kurz avoids reacting to topics which are unpleasant for him, he also avoids commenting on actions and statements by members of the FPÖ, where the general public expects a clarification from the Chancellor."[284]

Spiegel Online ranked Kurz first in its ranking "Who will be important abroad in 2019?" (Wer wird 2019 im Ausland wichtig?). Seen internationally, it said Kurz had attracted considerable attention since he was "only 32 years old and rules with right-wing populists." As Kurz's right-wing populist coalition partner, the FPÖ "has pushed the boundaries of the word. In future, the tone against foreigners, refugees and migrants is likely to intensify further, because Kurz lets his coalition partner say bad things, but remains silent himself. Meanwhile, his popularity remains high."[285] The announcement at the end of December 2018 of a digital tax as part of tax reforms caused a furore in the international media.[286] In March 2019, Kurz was elected Sprachwahrer ("wordkeeper") of 2018 by readers of the Deutsche Sprachwelt, and Schweigekanzler became the Austrian word of the year.[287][288]

Other activities

Honours

Award or decoration Country Date Place
Orden Republike Srbije 2.gif Order of the Republic of Serbia[292]  Serbia 4 September 2021 Belgrade

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