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|Alternative names||Tahina, tahine, etc.|
|Type||Spread or dip, ingredient or filling in other dishes|
|Region or state||Eastern Mediterranean, West Asia, South Caucasus, parts of North Africa|
|Main ingredients||Sesame seeds|
Tahini is used in the cuisines of the Levant and Eastern Mediterranean, the South Caucasus, as well as parts of North Africa. Sesame paste (though not called tahini) is also used in some East Asian cuisines.
Tahini is a loanword from modern Greek tachíni (ταχίνι), which is from the colloquial Levantine pronunciation of Arabic ṭaḥīna (طحينة), or more accurately ṭaḥīniyya (طحينية), whence also English tahina. It is derived from the root ط ح ن Ṭ-Ḥ-N, which as a verb طحن ṭaḥana means "to grind", and also produces the word طحين ṭaḥīn, "flour" in some dialects. The word tahini appeared in English by the late 1930s.
The oldest mention of sesame is in a cuneiform document written 4000 years ago that describes the custom of serving the gods sesame wine. The historian Herodotus writes about the cultivation of sesame 3500 years ago in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia. It was mainly used as a source of oil.
Tahini is mentioned as an ingredient of hummus kasa, a recipe transcribed in an anonymous 13th-century Arabic cookbook, Kitab Wasf al-Atima al-Mutada.
Preparation and storage
Tahini is made from sesame seeds that are soaked in water and then crushed to separate the bran from the kernels. The crushed seeds are soaked in salt water, causing the bran to sink. The floating kernels are skimmed off the surface, toasted, and ground to produce an oily paste. It can also be prepared with untoasted seeds and called "raw tahini", which is sometimes sold as an organic food product.[self-published source?]
Because of tahini's high oil content, some manufacturers recommend refrigeration to prevent spoilage. Others do not recommend refrigeration, as it makes the product more viscous and more difficult to serve.
Tahini-based sauces are common in Middle Eastern restaurants as a side dish or as a garnish, usually including lemon juice, salt, and garlic, and thinned with water. Hummus is made of cooked, mashed chickpeas typically blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, salt, and garlic. Tahini sauce is also a popular topping for meat and vegetables in Middle Eastern cuisine. A sweet spread, halawa taḥīniyya (حلاوة طحينية "sweet tahini") is a type of halva sweet. It sometimes has mashed or sliced pistachio pieces sprinkled inside or on top. It is usually spread on bread and eaten as a quick snack.
In Armenia, tahini can be used as a sauce to put on lahmajoun. In Greece, tahini (Greek: ταχίνι) is used as a spread on bread either alone or topped with honey or jam. Jars of tahini ready-mixed with honey or cocoa are available in the breakfast food aisles of Greek supermarkets. In Cyprus, tahini, locally known as tashi, is used as a dip for bread and in pitta souvlaki rather than tzatziki, which is customary in Greece.
Tahini is called ardeh (ارده) in Persian. In Iran it is used to make halvardeh (حلواارده), a kind of halva made of tahini, sugar, egg whites, and other ingredients. It is also eaten during breakfast, usually with an accompanying sweet substance, usually grape syrup, date syrup, honey, jams, etc. Ardeh and halvardeh are among the souvenirs of the Iranian cities of Yazd and Ardakan.
In Turkey, tahini (Turkish: tahin) is mixed with pekmez to make tahin-pekmez which is often served as a breakfast item or after meals as a sweet dip for breads. In Iraq, tahini is known as rashi, and is mixed with date syrup (rub) to make a sweet dessert usually eaten with bread.
In Israel, tahini (Hebrew: טחינה t'hina) is a staple foodstuff. It is served as a dip with flat bread or pita, a topping for many foods such as falafel, sabich, Jerusalem mixed grill and shawarma, and as an ingredient in various spreads. It is also used as a sauce for meat and fish, and in sweet desserts like halva halva ice cream and tahini cookies. It is also served baked in the oven with kufta made of lamb or beef with spices and herbs, or with a whole fish in the coastal areas and the Sea of Galilee.
In the Levant, tahini (Levantine Arabic: t'hine) is a staple foodstuff prepared with salt, lemon juice, and optionally mashed garlic. It is served as a dip with pita, or a topping for falafel and shawarma, and as an ingredient in various spreads. It is also used as a sauce for meat and fish. It is a main ingredient in a seafood dish called siyadiyeh. Tahini is used in sweet desserts like halva and halva with pistachios.
In the Gaza Strip, a rust-colored variety known as "red tahina" is served in addition to ordinary tahina. It is achieved by a different and lengthier process of roasting the sesame seeds, and has a more intense taste. Red tahina is used in sumagiyya (lamb with chard and sumac) and salads native to the falaheen from the surrounding villages, as well as southern Gaza. In the West Bank city of Nablus, tahina is mixed with qizha paste to make "black tahina", used in baking.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||2,477 kJ (592 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||4.7 g|
|Vitamin A||67 IU|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.|
- "tahini". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
- "tahina". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 1989.
- "tahini". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
- Ghillie Basan, Jonathan Basan (2006), The Middle Eastern Kitchen: A Book of Essential Ingredients with Over 150 Authentic Recipes, p.146, Hippocrene Books
- Mariposa, Hollywood Glamour Cook Book, 1940, p. 101.
- Treasury decisions under customs and other laws, 1938, p. 1080 snippet
- Laniado, Limor (12 May 2011). "The glory of tahini". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- Alice Fordham (10 October 2008). "Middle Eats: What are Lebanon's chances of legally laying claim to hummus?". NOW Lebanon. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
- Sanjeev Kapoor, Khazana of Indian Vegetarian Recipes, p. 94
- Helou, Anissa (2014). Davidson, Alan (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. pp. 802–803. ISBN 9780191040726 – via Google Books.
- "Refrigerated or Not, How Long Does Tahini Last?". Ochef. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 18 January 2013. [self-published source?]
- Rogov, Daniel, Halvah Parfait
- Berger, Miriam. "Is the world ready for this Palestinian dish?". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- "Food Composition Databases Show Foods -- Seeds, sesame butter, tahini, type of kernels unspecified". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
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