Shin'ichirō Tomonaga
Shin'ichirō Tomonaga



Born  (19060331)March 31, 1906 
Died  July 8, 1979(19790708) (aged 73)
Tokyo,
Japan

Alma mater  Kyoto Imperial University 
Known for  Quantum electrodynamics Schwinger–Tomonaga equation 
Awards  Asahi Prize (1946) Lomonosov Gold Medal (1964) Nobel Prize in Physics (1965) 
Scientific career  
Fields  Theoretical physics 
Institutions  Leipzig University Institute for Advanced Study Tokyo University of Education RIKEN University of Tokyo 
Shinichiro Tomonaga^{[1]} (朝永 振一郎 Tomonaga Shin'ichirō, March 31, 1906 – July 8, 1979), usually cited as SinItiro Tomonaga in English,^{[2]} was a Japanese physicist, influential in the development of quantum electrodynamics, work for which he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965^{[3]} along with Richard Feynman and Julian Schwinger.
Biography
Tomonaga was born in Tokyo in 1906. He was the second child and eldest son of a Japanese philosopher, Tomonaga Sanjūrō. He entered the Kyoto Imperial University in 1926. Hideki Yukawa, also a Nobel Prize winner, was one of his classmates during undergraduate school. During graduate school at the same university, he worked as an assistant in the university for three years. In 1931, after graduate school, he joined Nishina's group in RIKEN. In 1937, while working at Leipzig University (Leipzig), he collaborated with the research group of Werner Heisenberg. Two years later, he returned to Japan due to the outbreak of the Second World War, but finished his doctoral degree (Dissertation PhD from University of Tokyo) on the study of nuclear materials with his thesis on work he had done while in Leipzig.^{[4]}
In Japan, he was appointed to a professorship in the Tokyo University of Education (a forerunner of Tsukuba University). During the war he studied the magnetron, meson theory, and his supermanytime theory. In 1948, he and his students reexamined a 1939 paper by Sidney Dancoff that attempted, but failed, to show that the infinite quantities that arise in QED can be canceled with each other. Tomonaga applied his supermanytime theory and a relativistic method based on the nonrelativistic method of Wolfgang Pauli and Fierz to greatly speed up and clarify the calculations. Then he and his students found that Dancoff had overlooked one term in the perturbation series. With this term, the theory gave finite results; thus Tomonaga discovered the renormalization method independently of Julian Schwinger and calculated physical quantities such as the Lamb shift at the same time.
In the next year, he was invited by Robert Oppenheimer to work at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. He studied a manybody problem on the collective oscillations of a quantummechanical system. In the following year, he returned to Japan and proposed the Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid. In 1955, he took the leadership in establishing the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo.^{[4]} In 1965, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, with Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman, for the study of QED, specifically for the discovery of the renormalization method. He died of throat cancer in Tokyo in 1979.
Tomonaga was married in 1940 to Ryōko Sekiguchi. They had two sons and one daughter. He was awarded the Order of Culture in 1952, and the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun in 1976.
In recognition of three Nobel laureates' contributions, the bronze statues of Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, Leo Esaki, and Makoto Kobayashi was set up in the Central Park of Azuma 2 in Tsukuba City in 2015.^{[5]}
Recognition
 1946 – Asahi Prize
 1948 – Japan Academy Prize
 1951 – Member of the Japan Academy
 1952 – Order of Culture
 1964 – Lomonosov Gold Medal
 1965 – Nobel Prize in Physics
 1967 – Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun
Selected publications
Books
 Tomonaga, SinItiro (1997). The Story of Spin. Oka, Takeshi (trans.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226807940.
Articles
 Tomonaga, S. "On a Relativistically Invariant Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Wave Fields." Prog. Theor. Phys. 1, 27–42 (1946).
 Koba, Z., Tati, T. and Tomonaga, S. "On a Relativistically Invariant Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Wave Fields. II." Prog. Theor. Phys. 2, 101–116 (1947).
 Koba, Z., Tati, T. and Tomonaga, S. "On a Relativistically Invariant Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Wave Fields. III." Prog. Theor. Phys. 2, 198–208 (1947).
 Kanesawa, S. and Tomonaga, S. "On a Relativistically Invariant Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Wave Fields. IV." Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 1–13 (1948).
 Kanesawa, S. and Tomonaga, S. "On a Relativistically Invariant Formulation of the Quantum Theory of Wave Fields. V." Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 101–113 (1948).
 Koba, Z. and Tomonaga, S. "On Radiation Reactions in Collision Processes. I." Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 290–303 (1948).
 Tomonaga, S. and Oppenheimer, J. R. "On Infinite Field Reactions in Quantum Field Theory." Phys. Rev. 74, 224–225 (1948).
See also
 List of Japanese Nobel laureates
 List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Kyoto University
 List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Tokyo
References
 ^ For this spelling see: Shigeru Nakayama, Kunio Gotō, Hitoshi Yoshioka (eds.), A Social History of Science and Technology in Contemporary Japan: Road to selfreliance 19521959, Trans Pacific Press, 2005, p. 723.
 ^ Schweber, S. S. (1994). QED and the Men Who Made It: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. Princeton University Press. p. 252. ISBN 9780691033273. .
 ^ Hayakawa, Satio (December 1979). "Obituary: Sinitiro Tomonaga". Physics Today. 32 (12): 66–68. Bibcode:1979PhT....32l..66H. doi:10.1063/1.2995326.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} "SinItiro Tomonaga  Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 20180103.
 ^ ノーベル賞:江崎、小林、朝永氏の銅像やレリーフ設置 完成記念式でお披露目 「子どもが夢を」−−つくば・中央公園 ／茨城  毎日新聞 Archived 20150424 at the Wayback Machine
Further reading
 Lundqvist, Stig, ed. (1998). Nobel Lectures in Physics (19631970). World Scientific. pp. 126–39. ISBN 981023404X.
 Schweber, Silvan S. (1994). QED and the Men Who Made It: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691033277.
 Tomonaga's Nobel Prize Lecture.
External links
Other Languages
 العربية
 تۆرکجه
 বাংলা
 Беларуская
 Български
 Català
 Čeština
 Deutsch
 Eesti
 Ελληνικά
 Español
 Euskara
 فارسی
 Français
 Gaeilge
 Galego
 한국어
 Հայերեն
 हिन्दी
 Hrvatski
 Ido
 Bahasa Indonesia
 Italiano
 עברית
 ქართული
 Kiswahili
 Kreyòl ayisyen
 Kurdî
 Magyar
 Македонски
 മലയാളം
 मराठी
 Nederlands
 नेपाल भाषा
 日本語
 Norsk
 Norsk nynorsk
 Occitan
 Oʻzbekcha/ўзбекча
 پنجابی
 Polski
 Português
 Română
 Русский
 संस्कृतम्
 Scots
 Slovenčina
 Slovenščina
 Српски / srpski
 Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски
 Suomi
 Svenska
 Татарча/tatarça
 Türkçe
 Українська
 اردو
 Tiếng Việt
 Yorùbá
 中文