Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster
Simon and Schuster.svg
Parent company ViacomCBS
Status Active
Founded January 2, 1924; 96 years ago (January 2, 1924)
Founders
Country of origin United States
Headquarters location Simon & Schuster Building
New York City
Distribution Worldwide
Key people
  • Jonathan Karp (CEO)[1]
  • Dennis Eulau (CFO, Executive Vice President of Operations)
  • Ian Chapman (Chief Executive, UK)
  • Kevin Hanson (President, Canada)[2]
Publication types Books
Imprints Many
Revenue Decrease US$814 million (2019)[3]
Official website www.simonandschuster.com

Simon & Schuster (/ˈʃstər/), a subsidiary of ViacomCBS, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln Schuster. As of 2016, Simon & Schuster was the third largest publisher in the United States,[4] publishing 2,000 titles annually under 35 different imprints.[5][6]

History

Middle 20th century HQ, Broadway

Early years

In 1924, Richard Simon's aunt, a crossword puzzle enthusiast, asked whether there was a book of New York World crossword puzzles, which were very popular at the time. After discovering that none had been published, Simon and Max Schuster decided to launch a company to exploit the opportunity.[7] At the time, Simon was a piano salesman and Schuster was editor of an automotive trade magazine.[8] They pooled US$8,000, equivalent to $119 thousand today,[9] to start a company that published crossword puzzles.[10][7]

The new publishing house used "fad" publishing to publish books that exploited current fads and trends. Simon called this "planned publishing".[8] Instead of signing authors with a planned manuscript, they came up with their own ideas, and then hired writers to carry them out.[8]

In the 1930s, the publisher moved to what has been referred to as "Publisher's Row" on Park Avenue in Manhattan, New York.[8]

Expansion

In 1939, Simon & Schuster financially backed Robert Fair de Graff to found Pocket Books, America's first paperback publisher.[11] In 1942, Simon & Schuster and Western Printing launched the Little Golden Books series in cooperation with the Artists and Writers Guild.[12][13]

In 1944, Marshall Field III, owner of the Chicago Sun, purchased Simon & Schuster and Pocket Books.[14] The company was sold back to Simon and Schuster following his death for $1 million.[15]

In the 1950s and 1960s, many publishers including Simon & Schuster turned toward educational publishing due to the baby boom market.[16] Pocket Books focused on paperbacks for the educational market instead of textbooks and started the Washington Square Press imprint in 1959.[16] By 1964 it had published over 200 titles and was expected to put out another 400 by the end of that year.[16] Books published under the imprint included classic reprints such as Lorna Doone, Ivanhoe, Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, and Robinson Crusoe.[17]

In 1960, Richard Simon died of a heart attack; six years later, Max Schuster retired and sold his half of Simon & Schuster to Leon Shimkin.[10][18] Shimkin then merged Simon & Schuster with Pocket Books under the name of Simon & Schuster.[10][18] In 1968, editor-in-chief Robert Gottlieb, who worked at Simon & Schuster since 1955 and edited several bestsellers including Joseph Heller's Catch-22,[19] left abruptly to work at competitor Knopf, taking other influential S&S employees, Nina Bourne, and Tony Schulte.[20][10] In 1979, Richard Snyder was named CEO of the company. Over the next several years he would help grow the company substantially.[21]

Simon & Schuster headquarters at 1230 Avenue of the Americas, Rockefeller Center, New York City

1980s

After the 1983 death of Charles Bluhdorn, head of Gulf+Western who acquired Simon & Schuster in 1976,[10] the company made the decision to diversify. Bluhdorn's successor Martin Davis told The New York Times, "Society was undergoing dramatic changes so that there was a greater need for textbooks, maps, and educational information. We saw the opportunity to diversify into those areas, which are more stable and more profitable than trade publishing."[22]

In 1984, Simon & Schuster with CEO Richard E. Snyder acquired educational publisher Esquire Corporation, owner of companies including Allyn & Bacon (and former owner of the magazine), for $180 million.[22] Prentice Hall was brought into the company fold in 1985 for over $700 million and was viewed by some executives to be a catalyst for change for the company as a whole.[10][22] This acquisition was followed by Silver Burdett in 1986,[23] mapmaker Gousha in 1987 and Charles E. Simon in 1988.[23] Part of the acquisition included educational publisher Allyn & Bacon which, according to then editor and chief Michael Korda, became the "nucleus of S&S's educational and informational business."[10] Three California educational companies were also purchased between 1988 and 1990—Quercus, Fearon Education and Janus Book Publishers.[22] In all, Simon & Schuster spent more than $1 billion in acquisitions between 1983 and 1991.[23]

In the 1980s, Snyder also made an unsuccessful bid toward video publishing which was believed to have led to the company's success in the audiobook business. Snyder was dismayed to realize that Simon & Schuster did not own the video rights to Jane Fonda's Workout Book, a huge bestseller at the time and that the video company producing the VHS was making more money on the video. This prompted Snyder to ask editors to obtain video rights for every new book. Agents were often reluctant to give these up—which meant the S&S Video division never took off. According to Korda, the audio rights expanded into the audio division which by the 1990s would be a major business for Simon & Schuster.[10]

In 1989, Gulf and Western Inc., owner of Simon & Schuster, changed its name to Paramount Communications Inc.[24]

1990s

In 1990, The New York Times described Simon & Schuster as the largest book publisher in the United States with sales of $1.3 billion the previous year.[22] That same year, Simon & Schuster acquired the children's publisher Green Tiger Press.[25]

In 1993, Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan, and changed its name to Paramount. Viacom then bought Paramount in 1994 and changed the name back to Simon & Schuster.[26][27] Macmillan was acquired for US $552.8 million.[28] Later that year, Snyder, was suddenly fired from S&S and was replaced by the company's president and chief operating officer Jonathan Newcomb.[21] Simon & Schuster then sold several peripheral assets, such as selling Charles E. Simon Co. to CDB Infotek.[29] Gousha was sold to Rand McNally in 1996.[30]

In 1998, Viacom sold Simon & Schuster's educational operations, including Prentice Hall and Macmillan, to Pearson PLC, the global publisher and then owner of Penguin and the Financial Times; Pearson then merged the operations with Addison-Wesley Longman to form Pearson Education. The professional and reference operations were sold to Hicks Muse Tate & Furst.[31]

2000s

In 2002, Simon & Schuster acquired its Canadian distributor Distican.[32] Simon & Schuster began publishing in Canada in 2013.[33]

At the end of 2005, Viacom split into two companies: CBS Corporation (which inherited S&S), and the other retaining the Viacom name.[34] Also in 2005, Simon & Schuster acquired Strebor Books International, which was founded in 1999 by author Kristina Laferne Roberts, who has written under the pseudonym "Zane."[35][36] A year later, in 2006, Simon & Schuster launched the conservative imprint Threshold Editions.[37]

In 2009, Simon & Schuster signed a multi-book and co-publishing deal with Glenn Beck which fell over many of their imprints and included adult non-fiction, fiction, children and YA literature as well as e-book and audiobook originals.[38] As part of CBS, Simon & Schuster has been the primary publisher for books related to various media franchises owned by and/or aired on CBS such as CSI.[39] The company has also held a license to publish books in the Star Trek franchise under Pocket Books.[40]

2010s

In 2011, Simon & Schuster signed a number of co-publishing deals. Glenn Beck signed a new co-publishing deal with Simon & Schuster for his own imprint, Mercury Ink.[41] Under Atria, Simon & Schuster also launched a publishing venture with Cash Money Records called Cash Money Content.[42]

In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc., naming Apple, Simon & Schuster, and four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law.[43] Simon & Schuster reorganized all of their imprints under four main groups in 2012.[44] The four groups included the Atria Publishing Group, the Scribner Publishing Group, the Simon & Schuster Publishing Group and the Gallery Publishing Group.[44] According to CEO Carolyn Reidy, the divisions were created to align imprints that complement one another and that the structure would "lead to a sharper editorial focus for our imprints even as it takes consideration of the natural affinities among them."[44] In 2012, Simon & Schuster launched a self-publishing arm of the company, Archway Publishing.[45]

In November 2013, Simon & Schuster signed a co-publishing agreement with former New York Yankees shortstop, Derek Jeter, to launch Jeter Publishing.[46] In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which Simon & Schuster and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing.[47]

In 2014, Simon & Schuster signed a partnership deal with Amazon over ebooks and also launched a new speculative fiction imprint. In October 2014, Simon & Schuster signed a multi-year partnership deal with Amazon.com in negotiations concerning the price of e-books.[48] Simon & Schuster also launched a new science fiction imprint called Simon451 that would publish titles across science fiction and fantasy with an emphasis on ebooks and online communities.[49] The name of the imprint was inspired by Ray Bradbury's book Fahrenheit 451 (the temperature at which books burn).[49] Bradbury's classic is also published by Simon & Schuster.[49]

Simon & Schuster expanded beyond book publishing in 2015 by offering a new business model and additional services for authors. In 2015, Simon & Schuster announced the creation of a new publishing unit and imprint called North Star Way.[50] The imprint would publish non-fiction titles such as self-improvement, inspirational and mind-body-spirit titles. In addition, the group would also serve as a platform and set of services for authors that go beyond what a traditional book publisher offers to find their audience.[50] The services include helping authors expand their reach through online courses, seminars, workshops, mobile applications, video and audiobooks, sponsorships and business partnerships, and podcasts. North Star Way sits within the Gallery Publishing Group division.[50] According to Michele Martin, publisher and founder, the name North Star reflects their mission, "to publish books that will help readers find the path to a better life, and to be a guide for our authors, not only through publication of their books but also in the many other activities that can help their message find the widest possible audience."[51] In an interview with Kirkus Reviews, Michele Martin expanded that North Star Way, "aims to meet consumers where they are, in whatever form of media they consume. We expand the ideas in the books into a variety of platforms."[52] The name prompted Marvel Comics to attempt to register the name of their superhero Northstar in February 2015. The application was denied as Simon & Schuster had already made a trademark application for North Star Way in January.[53]

Simon & Schuster launched SimonSays.com a portal for online video courses in 2016, along with Scout Press, a new literary fiction imprint under Gallery Books Group. They also launched North Star Way, a platform-based program to provide authors with services beyond publishing including brand management, online courses, sponsorship, and business partnerships.[54] Also as of 2016, Simon & Schuster had more than 18k e-books available for sale and signed a deal to distribute Start Publishing LLC, a catalog of 7,000 e-book titles.[54]

In 2019, CBS and Viacom reunited to form ViacomCBS. As a result, Simon & Schuster became part of the newly formed ViacomCBS.[55]

2020s

In March 2020, ViacomCBS CEO Bob Bakish announced the company's intention to sell the Simon & Schuster division, as it "does not have significant connection for our broader business."[56] Bakish expected a sale to close in 2020, though the COVID-19 pandemic may delay that process.[57][58]

In September 2020, German media group Bertelsmann announced that they were interested in acquiring Simon & Schuster. According to Bertelsmann chief executive and chairman, "We've been the most active player on the consolidation of the book publishing market in the last 10 years. We combined Penguin and Random House very successfully to create by far the largest book publisher in the world, actually the only global book publisher. Given this position we would, of course, be interested in Simon & Schuster."[59]

Notable people

Notable editors and publishers

Notable authors

Simon & Schuster has published thousands of books from thousands of authors. This list represents some of the more notable authors (those who are culturally significant or have had several bestsellers, meaning they have sold at least 3000 books). For a more extensive list see List of Simon & Schuster authors.

Logo

"The Sower", Simon & Schuster logo, c. 1961

According to one source, The Sower, the logo of Simon & Schuster, was inspired by the 1850 Jean-François Millet painting of the same name.[60] According to Michael Korda, the colophon is a small reproduction of The Sower by Sir John Everett Millais.[61]

Imprints

Adult publishing

Children's publishing

  • Aladdin, publisher of picture and chapter books for middle grade readers
  • Atheneum, publisher of literary middle grade, teen and picture books
  • Beach Lane Books,[5] publisher of picture books
  • Little Simon,[5] publisher of children's books
  • Margaret K. McElderry Books,[5] boutique imprint publisher of literary fiction and nonfiction for children and teens
  • Paula Wiseman Books,[5] publisher of picture books, novelty books and novels for children
  • Salaam Reads, imprint for Muslim children's literature by Simon & Schuster's Children's Division[70]
  • Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers,[5] flagship imprint of Simon & Schuster's Children's Division
  • Simon Pulse, publisher of teen books
  • Simon Spotlight,[5] publisher focused on licensed properties for children

Other publishing

Audio

Former imprints

  • Bookthrift (Inexpensive reprints, discontinued)
  • Earthlight (UK science fiction imprint, discontinued)
  • Downtown Press (women's fiction, discontinued)
  • Fireside Books
  • Free Press[5]
  • Green Tiger Press
  • Half Moon Books
  • Inner Sanctum Mysteries
  • Linden Press
  • Long Shadow Books
  • Minstrel Books (children's imprint)
  • Poseidon Press (operated 1982–1993)
  • Richard Gallen Books
  • Sonnet Books
  • Summit Books, run by James H. Silberman (operated 1976–1991)[71]
  • Wallaby Books

See also

References

  1. ^ Harris, Elizabeth A. (May 28, 2020). "Simon & Schuster Names Jonathan Karp C.E.O." The New York Times.
  2. ^ "Company Overview of Simon & Schuster, Inc". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
  3. ^ ViacomCBS. "4th Quarter '19 Earnings Press Release". ViacomCBS.
  4. ^ "Ranking America's Largest Publishers". Publishers Weekly. PWxyz, LLC. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Global Publishing Leaders 2016: Simon & Schuster". Publishers Weekly. United States: PWxyz LLC. August 26, 2016. ISSN 0000-0019. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  6. ^ "Carolyn K. Reidy Named President, Chief Executive Officer of Simon &... – re> NEW YORK, Sept. 6 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/". PR Newswire. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Frederick Lewis Allen, Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s, p. 165. ISBN 0-06-095665-8.
  8. ^ a b c d Miller, Donald L. (2014). Supreme City: How Jazz Age Manhattan Gave Birth to Modern America. Simon & Scuster. ISBN 9781416550198.
  9. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved January 1, 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Korda, Michael (1999). Another life: a memoir of other people (1st ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 0679456597.
  11. ^ Ennis, Thomas W. "ROBERT F. DE GRAFF DIES AT 86; WAS POCKET BOOKS FOUNDER". Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  12. ^ "Announcing Little Golden Books". Publishers Weekly. September 19, 1942, pp. 991–94.
  13. ^ "Commemorating 75 Years Of Little Golden Books". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  14. ^ Darby, Edwin (November 6, 2011). The Fortune Builders: Chicago's Famous Families. Garrett County Press. ISBN 9781891053177.
  15. ^ "History of Simon & Schuster Inc". Funding Universe. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  16. ^ a b c Gilroy, Harry (January 6, 1964). "Publishers Hope Wider Market Will Mean Better Profit Margins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 14, 2017. There is no doubt that expansion is coming. Publishers talk of census projections that indicate there will be almost 70 million persons in the 5-to-24-year-old age bracket by the end of the year. Battle maps will have to replace bookshelves in the executive offices, one publisher comments.
  17. ^ "Searching Out the Paperbacks; Searching Out the Paperbacks". Retrieved January 14, 2017. Some searching, though disclosed that in Washington Square Press Books, for instance, there's an astounding assortment, many of them books I'd recently paid several times the price for in hardcover: "Lorna Doone," "Huckleberry Finn," "Robinson Crusoe," etc. etc.
  18. ^ a b Freeman, William M. (December 21, 1970). "Max Lincoln Schuster, Editor and publisher, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved September 3, 2016.
  19. ^ Dean, Michelle (September 27, 2016). "Robert Gottlieb: the editor who changed American literature". The Guardian. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  20. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (August 13, 2001). "The Man Who Will Edit Clinton; Legendary Figure Will Try to Elicit Meaningful Memoir". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
  21. ^ a b "SIMON SCHUSTER BOSS FIRED". The Washington Post. June 15, 1994. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d e Mcdowell, Edwin (October 29, 1990). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Is Simon & Schuster Mellowing?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
  23. ^ a b c Cohen, Roger (June 30, 1991). "Profits – Dick Snyder's Ugly Word". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
  24. ^ "Gulf and Western Switch". Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  25. ^ "Simon & Schuster Buys San Diego Firm". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  26. ^ "Simon & Schuster | Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  27. ^ "Viacom captures Paramount". tribunedigital-baltimoresun. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  28. ^ "Paramount completes acquisition of Macmillan". UPI. February 28, 1994. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  29. ^ "S&S sells two peripheral assets". Publishers Weekly. November 28, 1994. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  30. ^ Michele Kay (April 21, 1996). "Map Maker Folds – Company's demise disturbs Comfort". Austin American-Statesman. pp. –1. ISSN 0199-8560.
  31. ^ Myerson, Geraldine Fabrikant With Allen R. (May 18, 1998). "SIMON & SCHUSTER IN SALE TO BRITISH". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 22, 2016.
  32. ^ "Simon & Schuster To Acquire Distican". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  33. ^ "Opportunity Knocks: Focus on Canada 2013". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  34. ^ News, Bloomberg. "Viacom Completes Split into 2 Companies". Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  35. ^ "Strebor Books International LLC: Private Company Information". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  36. ^ https://www.facebook.com/deneen.l.brown. "Md. author of steamy novels in some hot water herself". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  37. ^ "Threshold Editions | Home". simonandschusterpublishing.com. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  38. ^ "Glenn Beck Signs Multi-Book Deal with Simon & Schuster". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  39. ^ Maeda, Martha (2014). Book Publishing 101: Inside Information to Getting Your First Book Or Novel Published. Atlantic Publishing Company. ISBN 9781601385642.
  40. ^ "For Star Trek Books, the Voyage Shows No Sign of Stopping". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  41. ^ "Glenn Beck Re-Ups with S&S; Launches New Imprint". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
  42. ^ "Baby And Slim Celebrate Their New Publishing Venture, Cash Money Content [Photos]". Hip-Hop Wired. May 25, 2011. Retrieved January 8, 2017.
  43. ^ Mui, Ylan Q. and Hayley Tsukayama (April 11, 2012). "Justice Department sues Apple, publishers over e-book prices". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  44. ^ a b c "S&S Reorganizes Adult Group; Levin to Leave Free Press". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  45. ^ "Archway Publishing, Self Publishing Company from Simon & Schuster". Archway Publishing. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  46. ^ Bosman, Julie (November 14, 2013). "Jeter Prepares to Turn a Page and Publish Many Others". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  47. ^ Molina, Brett (March 25, 2014). "E-book price fixing settlements rolling out". USA Today. Retrieved June 1, 2014.
  48. ^ Amazon signs multi-year deal with Simon & Schuster. Reuters, October 21, 2014
  49. ^ a b c "S&S Launching New SF Imprint, Simon451". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  50. ^ a b c "Introducing North Star Way: A New Platform-Based, Client-Centric Approach to Publishing from Simon & Schuster". Book Business. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  51. ^ "S&S launches audience-building unit for authors in US | The Bookseller". www.thebookseller.com. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  52. ^ "Q&A: MICHELE MARTIN OF NORTH STAR WAY/SIMON & SCHUSTER". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  53. ^ "Trademark Office Suspends Marvel's Registration Of 'Northstar'". Bleeding Cool Comic Book, Movie, TV News. August 5, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2017.
  54. ^ a b "Global Publishing Leaders 2016: Simon & Schuster". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  55. ^ Lee, Edmund (August 13, 2019). "CBS and Viacom to Reunite in Victory for Shari Redstone". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  56. ^ Baysinger, Tim (March 4, 2020). "ViacomCBS to Sell Publisher Simon and Schuster".
  57. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2020/03/04/business/bc-us-viacomcbs-simon-schuster-possible-sale.html
  58. ^ Goldsmith, Jill; Goldsmith, Jill (March 26, 2020). "ViacomCBS Has Received 25 Inquires About Buying Simon & Schuster Since It Flagged Intention To Sell Publisher".
  59. ^ Barker, Alex; Solomon, Erika (September 1, 2020). "Bertelsmann joins race to acquire Simon & Schuster". Financial Times. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  60. ^ Larson, Kay (April 16, 1984). "Poet of Peasants". New York.
  61. ^ Business Timeline Archived September 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ Maher, John (November 15, 2016). "S&S to Acquire Adams Media". Publishers Weekly. United States: PWxyz LLC. ISSN 0000-0019. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  63. ^ "Adams Media". Manta. Columbus, Ohio: Manta Media, Inc. Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  64. ^ "New Davis Imprint Named 37 Ink". Publishers Weekly. United States: PWxyz LLC. June 29, 2013. ISSN 0000-0019. Retrieved January 16, 2014.
  65. ^ Barnes, Brooks (May 21, 2014). "Media Companies Join to Extend the Brands of YouTube Stars". The New York Times. New York City. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Retrieved April 10, 2015.
  66. ^ "Our Imprints | Atria Books". atria-books.com. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  67. ^ "Introducing Avid Reader Press, A New Imprint from Simon & Schuster". Simon & Schuster. October 29, 2018. Retrieved October 5, 2019.
  68. ^ "About Twelve". August 30, 2017.
  69. ^ "Gallery Books Unveils New Graphic Books Line". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
  70. ^ Alter, Alexandra (February 24, 2016). "Simon & Schuster Creates Imprint for Muslim-Themed Children's Books" – via NYTimes.com.
  71. ^ Fein, Esther B. (December 4, 1991). "Book Notes; Summit May Fold as Dismissed Founder Moves to Little, Brown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 29, 2018.
  72. ^ "Who Are 'The Big Six'?". Fiction Matters. March 5, 2010. Retrieved January 16, 2014.

Further reading

  • Korda, Michael (1999). Another Life: A Memoir of Other People. United States: Random House. ISBN 0-679-45659-7.
  • "Simon & Schuster Inc." International Directory of Company Histories. 4:671–672.
  • "Simon & Schuster Inc." International Directory of Company Histories. 19:403–405.

External links

Copyright