State of Brazil

State of Brazil

Estado do Brasil
1621–1815
Flag of the Principality of Brazil
Flag
Coat of arms of Colonial Brazil
Coat of arms
The State of Brazil in 1815
The State of Brazil in 1815
Status State of the Portuguese Empire
Capital Salvador (1645–1763)
Rio de Janeiro (1763–1815)
Common languages Portuguese
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Government Absolute Monarchy
Monarch  
• 1621–1640
Philip IV of Spain
(Philip III of Portugal)
• 1750–1777
Joseph I of Portugal
Governor General/Viceroy  
• 1621
Luís de Sousa
• 1806–1808
Marcos de Noronha e Brito
History  
• End of hereditary captaincies
1549
• Transference of the capital to Rio de Janeiro
1763
1792
22 January 1808
• Elevation of Brazil to Kingdom
16 December 1815
Currency Portuguese Real
ISO 3166 code BR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Governorate General of Brazil
State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro
State of Maranhão and Piauí
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves

The State of Brazil (Portuguese: Estado do Brasil) was one of the states of the Portuguese Empire, in the Americas during the period of Colonial Brazil.

History

In 1621, the Governorate General of Brazil was split into two states, the State of Brazil and the State of Maranhão. The state was created on June 13, 1621 by Philip II of Portugal.[1]

This action divided Portuguese America into two administrative units, with the capital of the State of Brazil located in São Salvador and the capital of the State of Maranhão located in São Luís.

The State of Brazil became a Viceroyalty in January 1763, when the capital of the State of Brazil was transferred from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro.

Composition

The State of Brazil originally included 12 of the original 15 captaincies, all except Ceará (which became subordinate to Pernambuco later) and Maranhão, two parts, which included the subcaptaincy of Para west of the Tordesillas Line at that time (north to south):

  • Captaincy of Rio Grande de Norte
  • Captaincy of Paraíba (southern Rio Grande & Itamaraca)
  • Captaincy of Pernambuco
  • Captaincy of Bahia
  • Captaincy of Ilhéus (became a comarca of Bahia in 1761)
  • Captaincy of Porto Seguro
  • Captaincy of Espírito Santo
  • Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro (São Tomé and São Vicente first section)
  • Captaincy of Santo Amaro
  • Captaincy of São Vicente (second section, later renamed Captaincy of São Paulo e Minas de Ouro)
  • Captaincy of Santana

Captaincies created by the state

  • Captaincy of Alagoas 1817 from Pernambuco
  • Captaincy of Ceará 1799 re-split from Pernambuco (previously existed as one of 15 original donatary captaincies)
  • Captaincy of Goiás
  • Captaincy of Mato Grosso
  • Captaincy of Minas Gerais
  • Captaincy of São Paulo
  • Captaincy of Sergipe 1820 from Bahia
  • Captaincy of Rio Grande do Sul (from region of Rio Grande de Sao Pedro)
  • Captaincy of Santa Catarina

Governors

1 Jan 1617 - 12 Oct 1621 Luís de Sousa, conde do Prado (b. c.1580 - d. 1643) 11 Oct 1621 - 10 May 1624 Diogo de Mendonça Furtado (b. c.1590 - d. 16..)

10 May 1624 – 15 May 1624 Antão de Mesquita 1637)

15 May 1624 – 16 Jul 1624 Marcos Teixeira de Mendonça 1624)

16 Jul 1624 – 24 Sep 1624 Matias de AlbuquerqueCoelho,

24 Sep 1624 – 3 Dec 1624 Francisco Nunes Marinho de Sa

3 Dec 1624 - 28 Dec 1626 Francisco de Moura Rolim (b. 1580 - d. 1657)

28 Dec 1626 – 11 Dec 1635 Diogo Luís de Oliveira, conde de Miranda

11 Dec 1635 - 20 Jan 1639 Pedro da Silva, conde de São 1649)

20 Jan 1639 - 21 Oct 1639 Fernando Jose de Mascarenhas, (b. c.1610 - d. 1651)

21 Oct 1639 - 26 May 1640 Vasco de Mascarenhas, conde de Óbidos (1st time) (b. c.1605 - 1678)1678)

26 May 1640 - 16 Apr 1641 Jorge de Mascarenhas, (b. 1597 - d. 1652)

16 Apr 1641 - 26 Aug 1642 Provisional Government Junta

                          - Pedro da Silva e Sampaio         (b. 1572 - d. 1649)
                          - Luís Barbalho Bezerra            (b. c.1584 - d. 1644)
                          - Lourenço de Brito Correia

26 Aug 1642 - 22 Dec 1647 António Teles da Silva (b. c.1590 - d. 1650) 22 Dec 1647 - 10 Mar 1650 António Teles de Menezes, conde (b. c.1600 - d. 1657)

                            de Vila Pouca de Aguiar

10 Mar 1650 - 6 Jan 1654 João Rodrigues de Vasconcelos e (b. 1593 - d. 1658)

                            Sousa, conde de Castelo Melhor 
6 Jan 1654 - 20 Jun 1657  Jerónimo de Ataíde, conde de       (b. c.1610 - d. 1665)
                            Atouguia 

20 Jun 1657 - 24 Jun 1663 Francisco Barreto de Meneses (b. 1618 - d. 1668) 24 Jun 1663 - 13 Jun 1667 Vasco de Mascarenhas, conde (s.a.)

                            de Óbidos -Viceroy (2nd time)

13 Jun 1667 - 8 May 1671 Alexandre de Sousa Freire (b. c.1615 - d. 16..)

8 May 1671 - 26 Nov 1675  Afonso Furtado de Castro do Rio    (b. c.1610 - d. 1675)
                            de Mendonça, visconde de Barbacena 

26 Nov 1675 - 15 Mar 1678 Provisional Government Junta

                          - Agostinho de Azevedo Monteiro    (d. 1677)
                             (to 1677)
                          - Álvaro de Azevedo Cordeiro       (d. 1690)
                          - António Guedes de Brito          (b. 1627 - d. 1694)
                          - Cristóvão de Burgos e Contreiras (b. 1615/18 - d. ....)
                             (from 1677)

15 Mar 1678 - 3 May 1682 Roque da Costa Barreto (b. c.1610 - d. 1699)

3 May 1682 -  4 Jun 1684  António de Sousa de Meneses        (b. c.1650 - d. 1684)
4 Jun 1684 -  4 Jun 1687  António Luís de Sousa Tello de     (b. 1644 - d. 1721)
                            Meneses, marquês das Minas 
4 Jun 1687 - 24 Oct 1688  Matias da Cunha                    (d. 1688)

24 Oct 1688 - 11 Oct 1690 Manuel da Ressurreição (b. 164. - d. 1691)

                           (president of the provisional junta)

11 Oct 1690 - 22 May 1694 António Luís Gonçalves da Câmara (b. 1638 - d. 1702)

                            Coutinho 

22 May 1694 - 3 Jul 1702 João de Lencastre, duque de Aveiro (b. 1646 - d. 1707)

3 Jul 1702 -  8 Sep 1708  Rodrigo da Costa                   (b. 1657 - d. 1722)
8 Sep 1708 -  3 May 1710  Luís César de Meneses              (b. 1653 - d. 1720)
3 May 1710 - 14 Oct 1711  Lourenço de Almada                 (b. 1645 - d. 1729)

14 Oct 1711 - 13 Jul 1714 Pedro de Vasconcellos e Sousa, (b. 1664 - d. 1732)

                            conde de Castelo Melhor

Viceroys 13 Jul 1714 - 21 Aug 1718 Pedro Antonio de Noronha (b. 1661 - d. 1731)

                            Albuquerque e Sousa, conde de 
                            Villa Verde, marquês de Angeja 

21 Aug 1718 - 13 Oct 1719 Sancho de Faro e Sousa, conde (b. 1659 - d. 1719)

                            de Vimieiro -Governor-general  

14 Oct 1719 - 23 Nov 1720 Provisional Government Junta

                          - Sebastião Monteiro da Vide       (b. 1673 - d. 1722)
                          - Caetano de Brito e Figueiredo    (b. 1671 - d. 1732)
                          - João de Araújo e Azevedo

23 Nov 1720 - 11 May 1735 Vasco Fernandes César de Meneses, (b. 1673 - d. 1743)

                            conde de Sabugosa 

11 May 1735 - 17 Dec 1749 André de Melo e Castro, conde (b. 1668 - d. 1753)

                            das Galveias 

17 Dec 1749 - 17 Aug 1754 Luís Pedro Peregrino de Carvalho (b. 1700 - d. 1758)

                            de Meneses e Ataíde, conde de
                            Atouguia 

17 Aug 1754 - 23 Dec 1755 Provisional Government Junta

                          - José Botelho de Matos            (b. 1678 - d. 1761)
                          - Manuel António da Cunha Souto
                              Maior
                          - Lourenço Monteiro                (b. c.1670 – d. 1755)
                              (to 29 Apr 1755)

23 Dec 1755 - 9 Jan 1760 Marcos José de Noronha e Brito, (b. 1712 - d. 1768)

                            conde dos Arcos 
9 Jan 1760 -  8 Jul 1760  António de Almeida Soares e        (b. 1699 - d. 1760)
                            Portugal de Alarcão Eça e Melo,
                            marquês de Lavradio 
8 Jul 1760 – 21 Jun 1761  Tomás Rubi de Barros Barreto do    (b. 1712 - d. ....)
                            Rego (acting) 

21 Jun 1761 - 27 Jun 1763 Provisional Government Junta

                          - Manoel de Santa Ignez            (b. 1704 - d. 1771)
                          - José Carvalho de Andrada
                          - Gonçalo Xavier de Barros e Alvim

27 Jun 1763 - 31 Aug 1767 António Álvares da Cunha, conde (b. c.1700 - d. 1791)

                            da Cunha 

17 Nov 1767 - 4 Nov 1769 António Rolim de Moura Tavares, (b. 1709 - d. 1782)

                            conde de Azambuja 
4 Nov 1769 - 30 Apr 1778  Luís de Almeida Portugal Soares,   (b. 1729 - d. 1790)
                            conde e marquês de Lavradio 

30 Apr 1778 - 9 May 1790 Luís de Vasconcellos e Sousa, (b. 1742 - d. 1809)

                            conde de Figueiró
9 May 1790 - 14 Oct 1801  José Luís de Castro, conde de      (b. 1744 - d. 1819) 
                            Resende 

14 Oct 1801 - 21 Aug 1806 José Fernandes de Portugal e (b. 1752 - d. 1817)

                            Castro, conde e marquês de Aguiar 

14 Oct 1806 - 22 Jan 1808 Marcos de Noronha e Brito, conde (b. 1769 - d. 1828)

References

External links

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