Tiflis Governorate

Tiflis Governorate
Тифлисская губернія
Coat of arms of Tiflis Governorate
Administrative map of the Tiflis Governorate
Administrative map of the Tiflis Governorate
Country Russian Empire
Viceroyalty Caucasus
Established 1846
Abolished 1917
Capital Tiflis (Tbilisi)
Area
 • Total 44,609 km2 (17,224 sq mi)
Highest elevation 5,034 m (16,516 ft)
Population
 (1916)
 • Total 1,473,308
 • Density 33/km2 (86/sq mi)
 • Urban
29.03%
 • Rural
70.97%

The Tiflis Governorate (pre-reform Russian: Тифлисская губернія; Georgian: ტფილისის გუბერნია) was one of the guberniyas of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire with its centre in Tiflis (present-day Tbilisi, capital of Georgia). In 1897 it constituted 44,607 sq. kilometres in area and had a population of 1,051,032 inhabitants.[1] The Tiflis Governorate bordered the Elisabethpol Governorate to the southeast, the Erivan Governorate to the south, the Kars Oblast to the southwest, the Batum Oblast to the west, the Kutais Governorate to the northwest, the Terek Oblast to the north, the Dagestan Oblast to the northeast, and the Zakatal Okrug to the east. The governorate covered areas of contemporary southeastern Georgia, most of the Lori Province of Armenia, small sections of northwestern Azerbaijan, and a minuscule southern part of the Republic of Ingushetia within the Russian Federation.

History

Tiflis Governorate was established in 1846 along with the Kutais Governorate, after the dissolution of the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate. It was initially formed from uezds of Tiflis, Gori, Telavi, Signakh, Elisabethpol, Erivan, Nakhichevan and Alexandropol and okrugs of Zakatal, Ossetian and Tushino-Pshavo-Khevsurian. In 1849, uyezds of Erivan, Nakhichevan and Alexandropol were attached to Erivan Governorate. In 1859 Ossetian okrug became part of Gori district and Tushino-Pshavo-Khevsurian okrug was renamed to Tianeti okrug. In 1867, the northern part of Tiflis uyezd was separated as Dusheti one, while Akhaltsikhe uyezd which was created after ceding from Ottoman Empire to Russian Empire in 1829, was detached from Kutaisi Governorate and part of Tiflis one. In 1868 Elisabethpol uyezd (in the same decree, Kazakh uyezd was formed from northwestern part of Elisabethpol one and was attached to Elisabethpol Governorate) was part of Elisabethpol Governorate. In 1874, the southern part of Akhaltsikhe uyezd was to become Akhalkalaki one and Tianeti okrug was elevated as uyezd. Finally southern part of Tiflis Uyezd was to become Borchaly Uyezd.

The Tiflis Governorate lasted within these boundaries for some 50 years until the Russian Revolution and subsequent founding of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1918.[2] The governorate and its counties were soon abolished after its incorporation into the Soviet Union and reorganised into the raions (counties) of the Georgian SSR by 1930.

Administrative divisions

By 1917, the Tiflis Governorate consisted of eleven uezds (counties), thirty-four uchastoks (sub-counties), and two raions (urban sub-counties):[3]

  • Akhalkalaki (Ахалкалакский уезд)
    • Baralet
    • Bogdanov
  • Akhaltsikhe (Ахалцихский уезд)
    • Koblian
    • Uravel
    • Atskhur
  • Borchaly (Борчалинский уезд)
    • Borchaly
    • Ekaterinenfeld
    • Lori
    • Trialet
  • Gori (Горийский уезд)
    • Akhalkalaki
    • Borjomi
    • Gomi
    • Gorno-Ossetian
    • Kareli
    • Kvemo-Chal
    • Medzhviskhevi
    • Surami
    • Tskhinvali
  • Dusheti (Душетский уезд)
    • Bazalet
    • Kvishet
    • Ksan
    • Mtskhet
  • Signakh (Сигнахский уезд)
    • Bakurtsikh
    • Kodal
    • Lower-Machkhaan
    • Shirak
    • Zaalazan raion
  • Telavi (Телавский уезд)
    • Kvarel
    • Tsinondal
  • Tiflis (Тифлисский уезд)
    • Karayaz
    • Sartachal
    • Tiflis
    • Prigorodny raion
  • Tianeti (Тионетский уезд)
    • Pshavi-Khevsureti
    • Tushin-Kakheti
    • Ertsoi
  • Zakatal (Закатальский округ) (1893-1905)[4]
    • Aliabad
    • Qakh
    • Balakan
    • Jaro-Mukhakh
  • Elisabethpol (Елизаветпольский уезд) (1846-1867)[5]
    • 1st
    • 2nd
    • 3rd
    • 4th
    • 5th
    • 6th

Demographics

Russian Imperial Census of 1897

As of 1897, 1,051,032 lived in the governorate, with around 20% of them being urban.[6] Ethnic Georgians constituted 44.3% of the population, followed by Armenians (18.7%), Azeris (10.2%), Russians (including Ukrainians and Old Believers, 9.7%), Ossetians (6.4%), Avars (3.2%), Greeks (2.6%), Turks (2.4%), etc. More than half of the population adhered to Eastern Orthodox Christianity with significant Muslim, Catholic and Jewish minorities.[1]

Uyezd Georgians Armenians Azerbaijanis[7] Russians Ossetians Avars Greeks Turks Ukrainians Poles Germans Jews Kurds Chechens Dargins Lezgins
TOTAL 44.3% 18.7% 10.2% 7.5% 6.4% 3.2% 2.6% 2.4% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Akhalkalaki 8.9% 72.3% 9.0% 7.1% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.1% ... ... ...
Akhaltsikhe 17.7% 22.0% 18.0% 2.5% ... ... ... 35.1% ... ... ... ... 2.0% ... ... ...
Borchaly 6.1% 36.9% 29.4% 6.3% ... ... 16.6% ... ... ... 1.9% ... ... ... ... ...
Gori 65.0% 4.0% ... 2.8% 26.2% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Dusheti 73.4% 2.5% ... 1.4% 21.4% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Zakatal 14.7% 2.5% 34.4% ... ... 37.6% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8.8% 1.2%
Signakh 82.9% 6.2% 5.2% 4.3% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Telavi 85.9% 7.1% 2.8% 1.0% ... 2.6% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Tianeti 88.7% 1.6% ... 1.9% ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6.2% ... ...
Tiflis 34.2% 24.7% 5.9% 22.1% ... ... 1.9% ... 1.5% 2.1% 2.3% 1.4% ... ... ... ...

Caucasian Calendar of 1917

The 1917 Caucasian Calendar which produced statistics of 1916 indicates 1,473,308 residents in the Tiflis Governorate, including 780,010 men and 693,298 women, 1,255,176 of whom were the permanent population, and 218,132 were temporary residents.[8]

Ethno-religious groups in the Tiflis Governorate according to the 1917 Caucasian Calendar[8]
Uyezd (district) Russians Other Europeans Georgians Armenians North Caucasians Kurds Other Asian Nationalities Gypsies Jews TOTAL
Orthodox Sectarian Muslim Yezidi Christian[a] Shia Muslim Sunni Muslim[b]
Akhalkalaki 436 7,106 13 10,304 82,775 0 904 0 0 0 5,431 0 204 107,173
0.4% 6.6% 0.0% 9.6% 77.2% 0.0% 0.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 5.1% 0.0% 0.2% 100.0%
Akhaltsikhe 804 0 81 45,492 28,225 19 1,801 0 89 4 16,710 471 3,251 96,947
0.8% 0.0% 0.1% 46.9% 29.1% 0.0% 1.9% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 17.2% 0.5% 3.4% 100.0%
Borchaly 5,045 3,727 3,601 10,419 63,702 366 0 0 30,762 17,910 33,320 255 244 169,351
3.0% 2.2% 2.1% 6.2% 37.6% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 18.2% 10.6% 19.7% 0.2% 0.1% 100.0%
Gori 2,401 6 68 162,426 32,822 37,567 0 0 1,450 138 36 0 4,102 241,016
1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 67.4% 13.6% 15.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 1.7% 100.0%
Dusheti 270 0 125 57,595 3,671 4,619 0 0 0 61 29 0 60 66,430
0.4% 0.0% 0.2% 86.7% 5.5% 7.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 100.0%
Signakh 9,805 1,874 15 118,283 15,008 210 0 0 3,201 3,275 1,862 0 331 153,864
6.4% 1.2% 0.0% 76.9% 9.8% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 2.1% 2.1% 1.2% 0.0% 0.2% 100.0%
Telavi 225 15 40 56,978 8,480 1,308 0 0 873 0 14 0 22 67,955
0.3% 0.0% 0.1% 83.8% 12.5% 1.9% 0.0% 0.0% 1.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%
Tiflis 113,148 7,891 20,958 133,624 175,338 3,623 3,227 4,697 19,595 17,594 10,115 394 11,018 521,222
21.7% 1.5% 4.0% 25.6% 33.6% 0.7% 0.6% 0.9% 3.8% 3.4% 1.9% 0.1% 2.1% 100.0%
Tianeti 56 0 2 47,515 1,726 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 49,350
0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 96.3% 3.5% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 100.0%
TOTAL 132,190 20,619 24,903 642,636 411,747 47,751 5,932 4,697 55,970 38,982 67,517 1,120 19,244 1,473,308
9.0% 1.4% 1.7% 43.6% 27.9% 3.2% 0.4% 0.3% 3.8% 2.6% 4.6% 0.1% 1.3% 100.0%

Governors

The administration tasks in the governorate were executed by a governor. Sometimes, a military governor was appointed as well. The governors of Tiflis Governorate were[9]

  • 1847–1849 Sergei Nikolayevich Yermolov, governor;
  • 1849–1855 Ivan Malkhazovich Andronnikov (Andronikashvili), military governor;
  • 1855–1857 Nikolay Yevgenyevich Lukash, military governor;
  • 1858–1860 Alexander Khristianovich Kapger, military governor;
  • 1860–1876 Konstantin Ivanovich Orlovsky, governor;
  • 1876–1878 Maximilian von der Osten-Sacken, governor;
  • 1878–1883 Konstantin Dmitriyevich Gagarin, governor;
  • 1883–1887 Alexander Ignatyevich Grosman, governor;
  • 1887–1889 Karl Leo Sissermann, governor;
  • 1889–1897 Georgy Dmitriyevich Shervashidze (Giorgi Shervashidze), governor;
  • 1897–1899 Fyodor Alexandrovich Bykov, governor;
  • 1899–1905 Ivan Nikolayevich Svechin, governor;
  • 1905–1907 Paul Bernhard Demetrius Rausch von Traubenberg, governor;
  • 1907–1911 Mikhail Alexandrovich Lyubich-Yarmolovich-Lozina-Lozinsky, governor;
  • 1911–1914 Andrei Gavrilovich Chernyavsky, governor;
  • 1914–1916 Ivan Mikhaylovich Strakhovsky, governor;
  • 1916–1917 Alexander Nikolayevich Mandrika, acting governor.

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