Tiger Rag

"Tiger Rag"
Tigerag.jpg
Sheet music for "Tiger Rag" as recorded by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band (1918)
Instrumental by The Original Dixieland Jazz Band
Released 1917 (1917)
Recorded 1917
Genre Jazz
Label Aeolian-Vocalion
Composer(s) Eddie Edwards, Nick LaRocca, Henry Ragas, Tony Sbarbaro
Lyricist(s) Harry DeCosta
Recording
Performed by the Dixie Players of the United States Air Force Heritage of America Band

"Tiger Rag" is a jazz standard that was recorded and copyrighted by the Original Dixieland Jass Band in 1917. It is one of the most recorded jazz compositions. In 2003, the 1918 recording of "Tiger Rag" was entered into the U.S. Library of Congress National Recording Registry.[1][2]

Background

The song was first recorded on August 17, 1917 by the Original Dixieland Jass Band for Aeolian-Vocalion Records. The band did not use the "Jazz" spelling in its name until 1917.[3] The Aeolian-Vocalion sides did not sell well because they were recorded in a vertical format which could not be played successfully on most contemporary phonographs.

The first release of "Tiger Rag" on Aeolian Vocalion in 1917

But the second recording on March 25, 1918 for Victor was a hit and established it as a jazz standard.[4] The song was copyrighted, published, and credited to band members Eddie Edwards, Nick LaRocca, Henry Ragas, Tony Sbarbaro, and Larry Shields in 1917.[5]

Authorship

"Tiger Rag" was first copyrighted in 1917 with music composed by Nick LaRocca. In subsequent releases, the ODJB members received authorship credit. This authorship has never been challenged legally.

"But even before the first recording, several musicians had achieved prominence as leading jazz performers, and several numbers of what was to become the standard repertoire had already been developed. "Tiger Rag" and "Oh Didn't He Ramble" were played long before the first jazz recording, and the names of Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, Bunk Johnson, Papa Celestin, Sidney Bechet, King Oliver, Freddie Keppard, Kid Ory, and Papa Laine were already well known to the jazz community."[6]

Other New Orleans musicians claimed that the song, or at least portions of it, had been a standard in the city before it was recorded. Others copyrighted the melody or close variations of it, including Ray Lopez under the title "Weary Weasel" and Johnny De Droit under the title "Number Two Blues". Members of Papa Jack Laine's band said song was known in New Orleans as "Number Two" before the Dixieland Jass Band copyrighted it. In one interview, Laine said that the composer was Achille Baquet.

In his book Jazz: A History, Frank Tirro states, "Morton claims credit for transforming a French quadrille that was performed in different meters into "Tiger Rag".[7]

According to writer Samuel Charters, "Tiger Rag" was worked out by the Jack Carey Band, the group which developed many of the standard tunes that were recorded by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band.[8][9]

The Italian musicologist Vincenzo Caporaletti has shown,[10] how the authorial self-attributions of Jelly Roll Morton are not reliable, by means of an analysis conducted on the first complete transcription in musical notation of Morton's Library of Congress performances (1938) with conclusions defined by Bruce Boyd Raeburn “justifiably compelling”[11] on a scientific level. Furthermore, Caporaletti has accurately identified [12] the ‘floating folk strains’ that Nick La Rocca assembled to create ‘Tiger Rag’.

The song was known as "Jack Carey" by the black musicians of the city. It was compiled when Jack's brother Thomas, 'Papa Mutt', pulled the first strain from a book of quadrilles. The band evolved the second and third strains in order to show off the clarinetist, George Boyd, and the final strain ('Hold that tiger' section) was worked out by Jack, a trombonist, and the cornet player, Punch Miller."[6]: 170 

Other recordings

Nick LaRocca's house in Uptown New Orleans has the opening notes of "Tiger Rag" in the door screen.

After the success of the Original Dixieland Jass Band recordings, the song gained national popularity. Dance band and march orchestrations were published. Hundreds of recordings appeared in the late 1910s and through the 1920s. These include the New Orleans Rhythm Kings version with a clarinet solo by Leon Roppolo. Archaeologist Sylvanus Morley played it repeatedly on his wind up phonograph while exploring the ruins of Chichen Itza in the 1920s. With the arrival of sound films, it appeared on soundtracks to movies and cartoons when energetic music was needed.

"Tiger Rag" had over 136 versions by 1942.[13] Musicians who played it included Art Tatum, Benny Goodman, Frank Sinatra (in a version with lyrics), Duke Ellington, Bix Beiderbecke, and Louis Armstrong, who released the song at least three times as a 78 single, twice for Okeh in 1930 [14] and 1932,[14] and for the French arm of Brunswick in 1934.[15] A Japanese version was recorded in 1935 by Nakano Tadaharu and the Columbia Rhythm Boys.

The Mills Brothers became a national sensation with their million-selling version in 1931.[16] In the same year the Washboard Rhythm Kings released a version that was cited as an influence on rock and roll. During the early 1930s "Tiger Rag" became a standard show-off piece for big band arrangers and soloists in the UK, where Bert Ambrose, Jack Hylton, Lew Stone, Billy Cotton, Jack Payne, and Ray Noble recorded it. But the song declined in popularity during the swing era, as it had become something of a cliché. Les Paul and Mary Ford had a hit version in 1952. Charlie Parker recorded a bebop version in 1954, the same year it appeared in the MGM cartoon Dixieland Droopy. In 2002, it was entered into the National Recording Registry at the U.S. Library of Congress.

It is the 32nd most recorded song from 1890 to 1954 based on Joel Whitburn's research for Billboard.[17]

A fight song in sports

"Tiger Rag" is often used as a fight song by American high school and college teams which have a tiger for a mascot. "Tiger Rag" is LSU's pregame song, which was first introduced in 1926. The Louisiana State University Tiger Marching Band performs it on the field before every home game and after the Tigers score a touchdown.

The Auburn University Marching Band also plays "Tiger Rag" as part of its pre-game performance before all home football games. The smaller pep band that plays for basketball games plays it just before the start of each half, timed so that the final note of the song is played as the horn sounds when the "game clock" counts down to triple-zeroes before each half.

The University of Texas at Dallas adopted "Tiger Rag" as its first official fight song in 2008.[18]

The Massillon Tiger Swing Band of Massillon, Ohio began playing "Tiger Rag" at Massillon Washington High School Tigers football games in 1938 when the team was coached by Paul Brown. It has been a Tiger tradition in Massillon ever since.[19]

"Tiger Rag – The Song That Shakes the Southland" is Clemson University's familiar fight song since 1942 and is performed at Tiger sporting events, pep rallies, and parades. A version has been arranged for the carillon on Clemson's campus.

It also has been played by Dixieland bands at Detroit Tigers home games and was popular during the 1934 and 1935 World Series.

Cover versions

In popular culture

A version of Tiger Rag can be heard in the Betty Boop cartoon Betty Boop and Grampy (1935). This particular version was later used in a brief scene in the Ren & Stimpy Adult Party Cartoon episode Fire Dogs 2 (2003).[23]

References

  1. ^ "Tiger rag". Loc.gov. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  2. ^ ""Tiger Rag" - The Original Dixieland Jazz Band (1918)" (PDF). Loc.gov. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  3. ^ Brunn, H. O. (1977). The Story of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-70892-2.
  4. ^ Jack, Stewart (2005). The Original Dixieland Jazz Band's Place in the Development of Jazz. New Orleans International Music Colloquium. New Orleans.
  5. ^ "Original Dixieland Jass Band". Red Hot Jazz Archive.
  6. ^ a b Tirro, Frank (1977). Jazz: A History. New York City: W. W. Norton. p. 157. ISBN 0-393-09078-7.
  7. ^ Blesh, Rudi (1958). Shining Trumpets: A History of Jazz (2 ed.). New York City: Knopf. p. 191.
  8. ^ Charters, Samuel B. (1963). Jazz: New Orleans, 1885–1963 (Revised ed.). New York: Oak Publications. p. 24.
  9. ^ "Jack Carey (1889-1934)". Red Hot Jazz Archive.
  10. ^ Caporaletti, Vincenzo (2011). Jelly Roll Morton, the Old Quadrille and Tiger Rag. A Historiographic Revision. Lucca: Libreria Musicale Italiana. ISBN 9788870966275.
  11. ^ Caporaletti, Vincenzo (2011). Jelly Roll Morton, the Old Quadrille and Tiger Rag. A Historiographic Revision. Lucca: Libreria Musicale Italiana. p. 49.
  12. ^ Caporaletti, Vincenzo (2018). ""Tiger Rag" and its Sources: New Interpretative Perspectives". Revue d'Études du Jazz et des Musiques Audiotactiles (1): 1–34. ISSN 2609-1690. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  13. ^ "Jazz Standards Songs and Instrumentals (Tiger Rag)". Jazzstandards.com.
  14. ^ a b "Stardom: Louis Armstrong On His Own (1929 - 1932)". Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  15. ^ "Swinging In the Thirties (1932 - 1942)". Archived from the original on 2013-11-07. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Gioia, Ted (2012). The Jazz Standards: A Guide to the Repertoire. New York City: Oxford University Press. pp. 434–436. ISBN 978-0-19-993739-4.
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ "Worth Singing About: Comets Get a Fight Song". UT Dallas News Center. 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2021-09-21.
  19. ^ Wenzel, Robert (10 June 2004). "History of the Tiger Swing Band". Archived from the original on 2004-06-10. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  20. ^ "Original versions of Tiger Rag written by Nick LaRocca, Eddie Edwards, Henry Ragas, Tony Sbarbaro, Larry Shields". Secondhand Songs.
  21. ^ "Get Back/Let It Be sessions: complete song list". beatlesbible.com. 5 February 2011.
  22. ^ "Asleep at the Wheel - Tiger Rag (with Old Crow Medicine Show)". Retrieved 6 January 2022 – via YouTube.
  23. ^ "Max Fleischer". Lambiek.net. Retrieved 6 January 2022.

External links

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