Tlahtoāni of the Aztec Empire
Grabado de la Fundación de México.svg
Sacred War emblem
Style Huēyi tlahtoāni
First monarch Acamapichtli
Last monarch Cuauhtémoc
Formation c. 1376
Abolition 1521
Residence Tenochtitlan
Appointer Council of Elders

Tlatoani (Classical Nahuatl: tlahtoāni pronounced [t͡ɬaʔtoˈaːni] (About this soundlisten), "one who speaks, ruler"; plural tlahtohqueh [t͡ɬaʔˈtoʔkeʔ] or tlatoque) is the Classical Nahuatl term for the ruler of an āltepētl, a pre-Hispanic state. It may be translated into English as "king".[1] A cihuātlahtoāni (Nahuatl pronunciation: [siwaːt͡ɬaʔtoˈaːni] (About this soundlisten)) is a female ruler, or queen regnant.[2]

The term cuauhtlatoani refers to "vice-leader".[3] The leaders of the Mexica prior to their settlement are sometimes referred to as cuauhtlatoque, as are those colonial rulers who were not descended from the ruling dynasty.

The ruler's lands were called tlahtohcātlālli [t͡ɬaʔtoʔkaːˈt͡ɬaːlːi] (About this soundlisten)[4] and the ruler's house was called tlahtohcācalli [t͡ɬaʔtoʔkaːˈkalːi] (About this soundlisten)[4]

The city-states of the Aztec Empire each had their own Tlatoani or leader. He would be the high priest and military leader for his city-state. He would be considered their commander-in-chief. As the Tlatoani he would make every decision for his city-state from taxes to warfare. He would often be a descendant of the royal family; however in some cases he would be elected.[5] Since the Tlatoani was allowed to have several wives his legacy would be easily maintained. After being established as the Tlatoani, he would be the Tlatoani of his region for life. The Tlatoani was chosen by a council of elders, nobles, and priests. He would be selected from a pool of four candidates.

Tlatoani during times of war

During times of war, the tlatoani would be in charge of creating battle plans, and making strategies for his army. He would draft these plans after receiving information from various scouts, messengers, and spies who were sent out to an enemy altepetl (city-state). Detailed information was presented to him from those reports to be able to construct a layout of the enemy.

These layouts would be heavily detailed from city structures to surrounding area. The tlatoani would be the most informed about any conflict and would be the primary decision maker during war.

He would also be in charge of gaining support from allied rulers by sending gifts and emissaries from his city-state. During warfare the tlatoani would be informed immediately of deaths and captures of his warriors. He would also be in charge of informing his citizens about fallen or captive warriors, and would present gifts to the successful ones.

Tlatoque of the Aztec Empire

There were eleven tlatoque during the 145-year Aztec Empire.

  1. Acamapichtli 1376-1395
  2. Huitzilihuitl 1395-1417
  3. Chimalpopoca 1417-1427
  4. Itzcoatl 1427-1440
  5. Moctezuma I 1440-1469
  6. Axayacatl 1469-1481
  7. Tizoc 1481-1486
  8. Ahuitzotl 1486-1502
  9. Moctezuma II 1502-1520
  10. Cuitláhuac 1520-1520
  11. Cuauhtémoc 1520-1521

See also