The image is from Wikipedia Commons
Benn in 2006
|President of the Stop the War Coalition|
21 September 2001 – 14 March 2014
|Vice President||Lindsey German|
|Preceded by||Office established|
|Secretary of State for Energy|
10 June 1975 – 4 May 1979
|Prime Minister||Harold Wilson
|Preceded by||Eric Varley|
|Succeeded by||David Howell|
|Secretary of State for Industry|
5 March 1974 – 10 June 1975
|Prime Minister||Harold Wilson|
|Preceded by||Peter Walker (Trade and Industry)|
|Succeeded by||Eric Varley|
|Chairman of the National Executive Committee|
20 September 1971 – 25 September 1972
|Preceded by||Ian Mikardo|
|Succeeded by||William Simpson|
|Minister of Technology|
4 July 1966 – 19 June 1970
|Prime Minister||Harold Wilson|
|Preceded by||Frank Cousins|
|Succeeded by||Geoffrey Rippon|
15 October 1964 – 4 July 1966
|Prime Minister||Harold Wilson|
|Preceded by||Reginald Bevins|
|Succeeded by||Edward Short|
|Member of Parliament
2 March 1984 – 14 May 2001
|Preceded by||Eric Varley|
|Succeeded by||Paul Holmes|
|Member of Parliament
for Bristol South East
20 August 1963 – 13 May 1983
|Preceded by||Malcolm St Clair|
|Succeeded by||Constituency abolished|
30 November 1950 – 17 November 1960
|Preceded by||Stafford Cripps|
|Succeeded by||Malcolm St Clair|
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn
(1925-04-03)3 April 1925
Marylebone, London, England
|Died||14 March 2014(2014-03-14) (aged 88)
( m. 1949; died 2000)
|Parents||William Wedgwood Benn
|Alma mater||New College, Oxford|
|Branch/service||Royal Air Force|
|Battles/wars||Second World War|
Anthony Neil Wedgwood Benn (3 April 1925 – 14 March 2014) was a British politician, writer and diarist who served as a Cabinet minister in the 1960s and 1970s. A member of the Labour Party, he was Member of Parliament for Bristol South East and Chesterfield respectively between 1950 and 2001. He later served as President of the Stop the War Coalition from 2001 to 2014.
The son of a Liberal and later Labour Party politician, Benn was born in Westminster and privately educated at Westminster School. He was elected for Bristol South East at the 1950 general election but inherited his father's peerage on his death, which prevented him from continuing to serve as an MP. He fought to remain in the House of Commons and campaigned for the ability to renounce the title, a campaign which succeeded with the Peerage Act 1963. He was an active member of the Fabian Society and served as Chairman from 1964 to 1965. In the Labour government of Harold Wilson from 1964 to 1970, he served first as Postmaster General, where he oversaw the opening of the Post Office Tower and later as Minister of Technology.
Benn served as Chairman of the National Executive Committee from 1971 to 1972 while in opposition. In the Labour government of 1974–1979, he returned to the Cabinet as Secretary of State for Industry and subsequently Secretary of State for Energy. He retained that post when James Callaghan succeeded Wilson as Prime Minister. When the Labour Party was in opposition through the 1980s, he emerged as a prominent figure on the left wing of the party and unsuccessfully challenged Neil Kinnock for the Labour leadership in 1988. After leaving Parliament at the 2001 general election, Benn was President of the Stop the War Coalition until his death in 2014.
Benn was widely seen as a key proponent of democratic socialism and Christian socialism. Originally considered a moderate within the party, he was identified as belonging to its left wing after leaving ministerial office. The term "Bennite" came into usage as someone associated with left-wing politics. He was an influence on the politics of Jeremy Corbyn, who was elected Leader of the Labour Party a year after Benn's death, and John McDonnell, who was Corbyn's Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Early life and family
Benn was born in Westminster, London, on 3 April 1925. He had two brothers, Michael (1921–1944), who was killed in the Second World War, and David (1928–2017), a specialist in Russia and Eastern Europe. After the Thames flood in January 1928 their house was uninhabitable so the Benn family moved to Scotland for over 12 months. Their father, William Wedgwood Benn, was a Liberal Member of Parliament from 1906 who crossed the floor to the Labour Party in 1928 and was appointed Secretary of State for India by Ramsay MacDonald in 1929, a position he held until the Labour Party's landslide electoral defeat in 1931. William Benn was elevated to the House of Lords and Tony Benn was subsequently titled with the honorific prefix, The Honourable. William Benn was given the title of Viscount Stansgate in 1942: the new wartime coalition government was short of working Labour peers in the upper house. In 1945–46, William Benn was the Secretary of State for Air in the first majority Labour Government.
Benn's mother, Margaret Wedgwood Benn (née Holmes, 1897–1991), was a theologian, feminist and the founder President of the Congregational Federation. She was a member of the League of the Church Militant, which was the predecessor of the Movement for the Ordination of Women; in 1925, she was rebuked by Randall Davidson, the Archbishop of Canterbury, for advocating the ordination of women. His mother's theology had a profound influence on Benn, as she taught him that the stories in the Bible were based around the struggle between the prophets and the kings and that he ought in his life to support the prophets over the kings, who had power, as the prophets taught righteousness.
Benn was for over 30 years a committed Christian. He asserted that the teachings of Jesus Christ had a "radical political importance" on his life, and made a distinction between the historical Jesus as "a carpenter of Nazareth" who advocated social justice and egalitarianism and "the way in which he's presented by some religious authorities; by popes, archbishops and bishops who present Jesus as justification for their power", believing this to be a gross misunderstanding of the role of Jesus. He believed that it was a "great mistake" to assume that the teachings of Christianity are outdated in modern Britain, and Higgins wrote in The Benn Inheritance that Benn was "a socialist whose political commitment owes much more to the teaching of Jesus than the writing of Marx". (Indeed, he did not read The Communist Manifesto until he was in his 50s.) "The driving force of his life was Christian socialism," according to Peter Wilby, linking Benn to the "high-minded" founding roots of Labour.
Later in his life, Benn emphasised issues regarding morality and righteousness, as well as various ethical principles of Nonconformism. On Desert Island Discs he said that he had been powerfully influenced by "what I would call the Dissenting tradition" (that is, the English Dissenters who left or were ejected from the established church, one of whom was his ancestor Rev. William Benn). "I've never thought we can understand the world we lived in unless we understood the history of the church", Benn said to the Catholic Herald. "All political freedoms were won, first of all, through religious freedom. Some of the arguments about the control of the media today, which are very big arguments, are the arguments that would have been fought in the religious wars. You have the satellites coming in now—well, it is the multinational church all over again. That's why Mrs Thatcher pulled Britain out of UNESCO: she was not prepared, any more than Ronald Reagan was, to be part of an organisation that talked about a New World Information Order, people speaking to each other without the help of Murdoch or Maxwell."
According to Wilby in the New Statesman, Benn "decided to do without the paraphernalia and doctrine of organised religion but not without the teachings of Jesus". Although Benn became more agnostic as he became older, he was intrigued by the interconnections between Christianity, radicalism and socialism. Wilby also wrote in The Guardian that although former Chancellor Stafford Cripps described Benn as "as keen a Christian as I am myself", Benn wrote in 2005 that he was "a Christian agnostic" who believed "in Jesus the prophet, not Christ the king", specifically rejecting the label of "humanist".
Both of Benn's grandfathers were Liberal Party MPs; his paternal grandfather was John Benn, a successful politician, MP for Tower Hamlets and later Devonport, who was created a baronet in 1914 (and who founded a publishing company, Benn Brothers), and his maternal grandfather was Daniel Holmes, MP for Glasgow Govan. Benn's contact with leading politicians of the day, dates back to his earliest years. He met Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald when he was five years old, whom he described as: "A kindly old gentleman [who] leaned over me and offered me a chocolate biscuit. I've looked at Labour leaders in a funny way ever since." Benn also met former Liberal Prime Minister David Lloyd George when he was 12, and later recalled that, while still a boy, he once shook hands with Mahatma Gandhi, in 1931, while his father was Secretary of State for India.
During the Second World War, Benn joined and trained with the Home Guard from the age of 16, later recalling in a speech made in 2009: "I could use a bayonet, a rifle, a revolver, and if I'd seen a German officer having a meal I'd have tossed a grenade through the window. Would I have been a freedom fighter or a terrorist?"
In July 1943, Benn enlisted in the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman 2nd Class. His father and elder brother Michael (who was later killed in an accident) were already serving in the RAF. He was granted an emergency commission as a pilot officer (on probation) on 10 March 1945. As a pilot officer, Benn served as a pilot in South Africa and Rhodesia.
In June 1944, he made his first solo flight, at RAF Guinea Fowl, an RAF Elementary Flying Training School, in Rhodesia. The aircraft was a Canadian-built Fairchild Cornell. In a 1993 article recounting the experience, he said, "I always thought that I would feel a sense of panic when I saw the ground coming up at me on my first solo, but strangely enough I didn't feel anything but exhilaration . . ."
He relinquished his commission with effect from 10 August 1945, three months after the Second World War ended in Europe on 8 May, and just days before the war with Japan ended on 2 September.
After attending Mr Gladstone's day school near Sloane Square, Benn attended Westminster School, and studied at New College, Oxford, where he read Philosophy, Politics and Economics and was elected President of the Oxford Union in 1947. In later life, Benn removed public references to his private education from Who's Who; in 1970 all references to Westminster School were removed; in the 1975 edition his entry stated "Education—still in progress". In the 1976 edition, almost all details were omitted save for his name, jobs as a member of parliament and as a Government Minister, and address; the publishers confirmed that Benn had sent back the draft entry with everything else struck through. In the 1977 edition, Benn's entry disappeared entirely, and when he returned to Who's Who in 1983, he was listed as "Tony Benn" and all references to his education or service record were removed.
In 1972, Benn said in his diaries that "Today I had the idea that I would resign my Privy Councillorship, my MA and all my honorary doctorates in order to strip myself of what the world had to offer". While he acknowledged that he "might be ridiculed" for doing so, Benn said that "'Wedgie Benn' and 'the Rt Honourable Anthony Wedgwood Benn' and all that stuff is impossible. I have been Tony Benn in Bristol for a long time." In October 1973, he announced on BBC Radio that he wished to be known as Mr. Tony Benn rather than Anthony Wedgwood Benn, and his book Speeches from 1974 is credited to "Tony Benn". Despite this name change, social historian Alwyn W. Turner writes that "Just as those with an agenda to pursue still call Muhammed Ali by his original name ... so most newspapers continued to refer to Tony Benn as Wedgwood Benn, or Wedgie in the case of the tabloids, for years to come".
Benn met Caroline Middleton DeCamp (born 13 October 1926, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States) over tea at Worcester College, Oxford, in 1949; just nine days after meeting her, he proposed to her on a park bench in the city. Later, he bought the bench from Oxford City Council and installed it in the garden of their home in Holland Park. Tony and Caroline had four children—Stephen, Hilary, Melissa, a feminist writer, and Joshua—and 10 grandchildren. Caroline Benn died of cancer on 22 November 2000, aged 74, after a career as an educationalist.
Two of Benn's children have been active in Labour Party politics. His eldest son Stephen was an elected Member of the Inner London Education Authority from 1986 to 1990. His second son Hilary was a councillor in London, stood for Parliament in 1983 and 1987, and becoming Labour MP for Leeds Central in 1999. He was Secretary of State for International Development from 2003 to 2007, and then Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs until 2010, later serving as Shadow Foreign Secretary (2015–16). This makes him the third generation of his family to have been a member of the Cabinet, a rare distinction for a modern political family in Britain. Benn's granddaughter Emily Benn was the Labour Party's youngest-ever candidate when she failed to win East Worthing and Shoreham in 2010. Benn was a first cousin once removed of the actress Margaret Rutherford.
Benn and his wife Caroline became vegetarian in 1970, for ethical reasons, and remained so for the rest of their lives. Benn cited the decision of his son Hilary to become vegetarian as an important factor in his own decision to adopt a vegetarian diet.
Early parliamentary career
Member of Parliament, 1950–1960
Following the Second World War, Benn worked briefly as a BBC Radio producer. On 1 November 1950, he was selected to succeed Stafford Cripps as the Labour candidate for Bristol South East, after Cripps stood down because of ill-health. He won the seat in a by-election on 30 November 1950. Anthony Crosland helped him get the seat as he was the MP for nearby South Gloucestershire at the time. Upon taking the oath on 4 December 1950 Benn became "Baby of the House", the youngest MP, for one day, being succeeded by Thomas Teevan, who was two years younger but took his oath a day later. He became the "Baby" again in 1951, when Teevan was not re-elected. In the 1950s, Benn held middle-of-the-road or soft left views, and was not associated with the young left wing group around Aneurin Bevan.
As MP for Bristol South East, Benn helped organise the 1963 Bristol Bus Boycott against the colour bar of the Bristol Omnibus Company against employing Black British and British Asian drivers. Benn said that he would "stay off the buses, even if I have to find a bike", and Labour leader Harold Wilson also told an anti-apartheid rally in London he was "glad that so many Bristolians are supporting the [boycott] campaign", adding that he "wish[ed] them every success".
Benn's father was created Viscount Stansgate in 1942 when Winston Churchill increased the number of Labour peers to aid political work in the House of Lords; at this time, Benn's elder brother Michael, then serving in the RAF, was intending to enter the priesthood and had no objections to inheriting a peerage. However, Michael was later killed in an accident while on active service in the Second World War, and this left Benn as the heir-apparent to the peerage. He made several unsuccessful attempts to renounce the succession.
In November 1960, Lord Stansgate died. Benn automatically became a peer, preventing him from sitting in the House of Commons. The Speaker of the Commons, Sir Harry Hylton-Foster, did not allow him to deliver a speech from the bar of the House of Commons in April 1961 when the by-election was being called. Continuing to maintain his right to abandon his peerage, Benn fought to retain his seat in a by-election caused by his succession on 4 May 1961. Although he was disqualified from taking his seat, he was re-elected. An election court found that the voters were fully aware that Benn was disqualified, and declared the seat won by the Conservative runner-up, Malcolm St Clair, who was at the time also the heir presumptive to a peerage.
Benn continued his campaign outside Parliament. Within two years, though, the Conservative Government of the time, which had members in the same or similar situation to Benn's (i.e., who were going to receive title, or who had already applied for writs of summons), changed the law. The Peerage Act 1963, allowing lifetime disclaimer of peerages, became law shortly after 6 pm on 31 July 1963. Benn was the first peer to renounce his title, doing so at 6.22 pm that day. St Clair, fulfilling a promise he had made at the time of his election, then accepted the office of Steward of the Manor of Northstead, disqualifying himself from the House (outright resignation not being possible). Benn returned to the Commons after winning a by-election on 20 August 1963.
In government, 1964–1970
In the 1964 Government led by Harold Wilson, Benn was Postmaster General, where he oversaw the opening of the Post Office Tower, then the UK's tallest building, and the creations of the Post Bus service and Girobank. He proposed issuing stamps without the Sovereign's head, but this met with private opposition from the Queen. Instead, the portrait was reduced to a small profile in silhouette, a format that is still used on commemorative stamps.
Benn also led the government's opposition to the "pirate" radio stations broadcasting from international waters, which he was aware would be an unpopular measure. Some of these stations were causing problems, such as interference to emergency radio used by shipping, although he was not responsible for introducing the Marine Broadcasting Offences Bill when it came before Parliament at the end of July 1966 for its first reading.
Earlier in the month, Benn was promoted to Minister of Technology, which included responsibility for the development of Concorde and the formation of International Computers Ltd. (ICL). The period also saw government involvement in industrial rationalisation, and the merger of several car companies to form British Leyland. Following Conservative MP Enoch Powell's 1968 "Rivers of Blood" speech to a Conservative Association meeting, in opposition to Harold Wilson's insistence on not "stirring up the Powell issue", Benn said during the 1970 general election campaign:
The flag of racialism which has been hoisted in Wolverhampton is beginning to look like the one that fluttered 25 years ago over Dachau and Belsen. If we do not speak up now against the filthy and obscene racialist propaganda ... the forces of hatred will mark up their first success and mobilise their first offensive...Enoch Powell has emerged as the real leader of the Conservative Party. He is a far stronger character than Mr. Heath. He speaks his mind; Heath does not. The final proof of Powell's power is that Heath dare not attack him publicly, even when he says things that disgust decent Conservatives.
The mainstream press attacked Benn for using language deemed as intemperate as Powell's language in his "Rivers of Blood" speech (which was widely regarded as racist), and Benn noted in his diary that "letters began pouring in on the Powell speech: 2:1 against me but some very sympathetic ones saying that my speech was overdue". Harold Wilson later reprimanded Benn for this speech, accusing him of losing Labour seats in the 1970 general election.
During the 1970s Benn publicly defended Marxism, saying:
The Communist Manifesto, and many other works of Marxist philosophy, have always profoundly influenced the British labour movement and the British Labour Party, and have strengthened our understanding and enriched our thinking. It would be as unthinkable to try to construct the Labour Party without Marx as it would be to establish university faculties of astronomy, anthropology or psychology without permitting the study of Copernicus, Darwin or Freud, and still expect such faculties to be taken seriously.
Labour lost the 1970 election to Edward Heath's Conservatives and upon Heath's application to join the European Economic Community, a surge in left-wing Euroscepticism emerged. Benn "was stridently against membership", and campaigned in favour of a referendum on the UK's membership. The Shadow Cabinet voted to support a referendum on 29 March 1972, and as a result Roy Jenkins resigned as Deputy Leader of the Labour Party.
In government, 1974–1979
In the Labour Government of 1974, Benn was Secretary of State for Industry and as such increased nationalised industry pay, provided better terms and conditions for workers such as the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and was involved in setting up worker cooperatives in firms which were struggling, the best known being at Meriden, outside Coventry, producing Triumph Motorcycles. In 1975, he was appointed Secretary of State for Energy, immediately following his unsuccessful campaign for a "No" vote in the referendum on the UK's continued membership of the European Community (Common Market). Later in his diary, (25 October 1977) Benn wrote that he "loathed" the EEC; he claimed it was "bureaucratic and centralised" and "of course it is really dominated by Germany. All the Common Market countries except the UK have been occupied by Germany, and they have this mixed feeling of hatred and subservience towards the Germans".
Upon the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, Benn described Mao as "one of the greatest—if not the greatest—figures of the twentieth century: a schoolteacher who transformed China, released it from civil war and foreign attack and constructed a new society there" in his diaries, adding that "he certainly towers above any twentieth-century figure I can think of in his philosophical contribution and military genius". On his trip to the Chinese embassy after Mao's death, Benn recorded in an earlier volume of his diaries that he was "a great admirer of Mao", while also admitting that "he made mistakes, because everybody does".
Harold Wilson resigned as Leader of the Labour Party and Prime Minister in March 1976. Benn later attributed the collapse of the Wilson government to cuts enforced on the UK by global capital, in particular the International Monetary Fund. In the resulting leadership contest Benn finished in fourth place out of the six cabinet ministers who stood—he withdrew as 11.8 per cent of colleagues voted for him in the first ballot. Benn withdrew from the second ballot and endorsed Michael Foot; James Callaghan eventually won. Despite not receiving his support in the second and third rounds of the vote, Callaghan kept Benn on as Energy Secretary. In 1976, there was a sterling crisis, and Chancellor of the Exchequer Denis Healey sought a loan from the International Monetary Fund. Underlining a wish to counter international market forces which seemed to penalise a larger welfare state, Benn publicly circulated the divided Cabinet minutes in which a narrow majority of the Labour Cabinet under Ramsay MacDonald supported a cut in unemployment benefits in order to obtain a loan from American bankers. As he highlighted, these minutes resulted in the 1931 split of the Labour Party in which MacDonald and his allies formed a National Government with Conservatives and Liberals. Callaghan allowed Benn to put forward the Alternative Economic Strategy, which consisted of a self-sufficient economy less dependent on low-rate fresh borrowing, but the AES, which according to opponents would have led to a "siege economy", was rejected by the Cabinet. In response, Benn later recalled that: "I retorted that their policy was a siege economy, only they had the bankers inside the castle with all our supporters left outside, whereas my policy would have our supporters in the castle with the bankers outside." Benn blamed the Winter of Discontent on these cuts to socialist policies.
During Benn's time as energy minister from 1975–1979 he supported the United Kingdom's use of nuclear power. However, later in his life he became an opponent of nuclear power, attributing his time as running it as a minister to persuading him it was not cheap, safe or peaceful. When asked in an interview in January 2009 on what he had changed his mind on over the course of his life he expanded on this issue by saying:
"Nuclear power, for example. In 1955 when Eisenhower said he was going for ‘Atoms for Peace’ I became a passionate supporter of it. Having been brought up on the Bible I liked the idea of swords into ploughshares. I advocated nuclear power as Minister of Technology. I was told, and believed, that nuclear power was cheap, safe and peaceful. Having been in charge of nuclear power I discovered it wasn’t cheap, wasn’t safe and when I left office I was told that during my period as Secretary of State for Energy, plutonium from our nuclear power stations went to the Pentagon to make nuclear weapons. So every nuclear power station in Britain is a bomb factory for America. I was utterly shaken by that. Nothing in the world would now induce me to support nuclear power. It was a mistake."
Move to the left
By the end of the 1970s, Benn's views had shifted to the left-wing of the Labour Party. He attributed this political shift to his experience as a Cabinet Minister in the 1964–1970 Labour Government. Benn ascribed his move to the left to four lessons:
- How "the Civil Service can frustrate the policies and decisions of popularly elected governments"
- The centralised nature of the Labour Party which allowed the Leader to run "the Party almost as if it were his personal kingdom"
- "The power of industrialists and bankers to get their way by use of the crudest form of economic pressure, even blackmail, against a Labour Government"
- The power of the media, which "like the power of the medieval Church, ensures that events of the day are always presented from the point of the view of those who enjoy economic privilege"
As regards the power of industrialists and bankers, Benn remarked:
Compared to this, the pressure brought to bear in industrial disputes by the unions is minuscule. This power was revealed even more clearly in 1976 when the International Monetary Fund secured cuts in our public expenditure. ... These [four] lessons led me to the conclusion that the UK is only superficially governed by MPs and the voters who elect them. Parliamentary democracy is, in truth, little more than a means of securing a periodical change in the management team, which is then allowed to preside over a system that remains in essence intact. If the British people were ever to ask themselves what power they truly enjoyed under our political system they would be amazed to discover how little it is, and some new Chartist agitation might be born and might quickly gather momentum.
Benn's philosophy consisted of a form of syndicalism, state planning where necessary to ensure national competitiveness, greater democracy in the structures of the Labour Party and observance of Party Conference decisions. Alongside an alleged 12 Labour MPs, he spent 12 years affiliated with the Institute for Workers' Control, beginning in 1971 when he visited the Upper Clyde Shipyards, arguing in 1975 for the "labour movement to intensify its discussion about industrial democracy".
He was vilified by most of the press while his opponents implied and stated that a Benn-led Labour Government would implement a type of Eastern European state socialism, with Edward Heath referring to Benn as "Commissar Benn" and others referring to Benn as a "Bollinger Bolshevik". Despite this, Benn was overwhelmingly popular with Labour activists in the constituencies: a survey of delegates at the Labour Party Conference in 1978 found that by large margins they supported Benn for the leadership, as well as many Bennite policies.
He publicly supported Sinn Féin and the unification of Ireland, although in 2005 he suggested to Sinn Féin leaders that it abandon its long-standing policy of not taking seats at Westminster (abstentionism). Sinn Féin in turn argued that to do so would recognise Britain's claim over Northern Ireland, and the Sinn Féin constitution prevented its elected members from taking their seats in any British-created institution. A supporter of the Scottish Parliament and political devolution, Benn however opposed the Scottish National Party and Scottish independence, saying: "I think nationalism is a mistake. And I am half Scots and feel it would divide me in half with a knife. The thought that my mother would suddenly be a foreigner would upset me very much."
In British politics during this period, the term "Bennism" came into use to describe the conviction politics, economic, social and political ideology of Tony Benn; and an exponent or advocate of Bennism was regarded as a "Bennite".
In opposition, 1979–1997
In a keynote speech to the Labour Party Conference of 1980, shortly before the resignation of party leader James Callaghan and election of Michael Foot as successor, Benn outlined what he envisaged the next Labour Government would do. "Within days", a Labour Government would gain powers to nationalise industries, control capital and implement industrial democracy; "within weeks", all powers from Brussels would be returned to Westminster, and the House of Lords would be abolished by creating one thousand new peers and then abolishing the peerage. Benn received tumultuous applause. On 25 January 1981, Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Shirley Williams and Bill Rodgers (known collectively as the "Gang of Four") launched the Council for Social Democracy, which became the Social Democratic Party in March. The "Gang of Four" left the Labour Party because of what they perceived to be the influence of the Militant tendency and the Bennite "hard left" within the party. Benn was highly critical of the SDP, saying that "Britain has had SDP governments for the past 25 years."
Benn stood against Denis Healey, the party's incumbent deputy leader, triggering the 1981 deputy leadership election, disregarding an appeal from Michael Foot to either stand for the leadership or abstain from inflaming the party's divisions. Benn defended his decision insisting that it was "not about personalities, but about policies". The result was announced on 27 September 1981; Healey retained his position by a margin of barely one per cent. The decision of several soft left MPs, including Neil Kinnock, to abstain triggered the split of the Socialist Campaign Group from the left of the Tribune Group. After Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands in April 1982, Benn argued that the dispute should be settled by the United Nations and that the British Government should not send a task force to recapture the islands. The task force was sent, and following the Falklands War, they were back in British control by mid-June. In a debate in the Commons just after the Falklands were recaptured, Benn's demand for "a full analysis of the costs in life, equipment and money in this tragic and unnecessary war" was rejected by Margaret Thatcher, who stated that "he would not enjoy the freedom of speech that he put to such excellent use unless people had been prepared to fight for it".
For the 1983 election Benn's Bristol South East constituency was abolished by boundary changes, and he lost to Michael Cocks in the selection of a candidate to stand in the new winnable seat of Bristol South. Rejecting offers from the new seat of Livingston in Scotland, Benn contested Bristol East, losing to the Conservative's Jonathan Sayeed in June 1983. Foot resigned as leader following the defeat which reduced Labour to only 209 MPs, while Healey also decided to step down as deputy leader. However Benn's absence from parliament meant that he was unable to stand in the resulting leadership contest as only MPs were eligible to be candidates. Benn's absence from the contest was reported by The Glasgow Herald to leave Neil Kinnock as"the favourite Left-wing candidate." Ultimately Kinnock won the contest, formally replacing Foot as party leader in October of that year.
In a by-election, Benn was elected as the MP for Chesterfield, the next Labour seat to fall vacant, after Eric Varley had left the Commons to head Coalite. On the day of the by-election, 1 March 1984, The Sun newspaper ran a hostile feature article, "Benn on the Couch", which purported to be the opinions of an American psychiatrist.
Newly elected to a mining seat, Benn was a supporter of the 1984–85 UK miners' strike, which was beginning when he returned to the Commons, and of his long-standing friend, the National Union of Mineworkers leader Arthur Scargill. However, some miners considered Benn's 1977 industry reforms to have caused problems during the strike; firstly, that they led to huge wage differences and distrust between miners of different regions; and secondly that the controversy over balloting miners for these reforms made it unclear as to whether a ballot was needed for a strike or whether it could be deemed as a "regional matter" in the same way that the 1977 reforms had been. Benn also spoke at a Militant tendency rally held in 1984, saying: "The labour movement is not engaged in a personalised battle against individual cabinet ministers, nor do we seek to win public support by arguing that the crisis could be ended by the election of a new and more humane team of ministers who are better qualified to administer capitalism. We are working for a majority labour government, elected on a socialist programme, as decided by conference."
In June 1985, three months after the miners admitted defeat and ended their strike, Benn introduced the Miners' Amnesty (General Pardon) Bill into the Commons, which would have extended an amnesty to all miners imprisoned during the strike. This would have included two men convicted of murder (later reduced to manslaughter) for the killing of David Wilkie, a taxi driver driving a non-striking miner to work in South Wales during the strike.
Benn stood for election as party leader in 1988, against Neil Kinnock, following Labour's third successive defeat in the 1987 general election, losing by a substantial margin, and received only about 11 per cent of the vote. In May 1989 he made an extended appearance on Channel 4's late-night discussion programme After Dark, alongside among others Lord Dacre and Miles Copeland. During the Gulf War, Benn visited Baghdad in order to try and persuade Saddam Hussein to release the hostages who had been captured.
Benn supported various LGBT social movements, which were then known as gay liberation; Benn had voted in favour of decriminalisation in 1967. Talking about Section 28 of the 1988 Local Government Act, a piece of anti-gay legislation preventing the "promotion of homosexuality", Benn said:
if the sense of the word "promote" can be read across from "describe", every murder play promotes murder, every war play promotes war, every drama involving the eternal triangle promotes adultery; and Mr. Richard Branson's condom campaign promotes fornication. The House had better be very careful before it gives to judges, who come from a narrow section of society, the power to interpret "promote".
In 1990 he proposed a "Margaret Thatcher (Global Repeal) Bill", which he said "could go through both Houses in 24 hours. It would be easy to reverse the policies and replace the personalities—the process has begun—but the rotten values that have been propagated from the platform of political power in Britain during the past 10 years will be an infection—a virulent strain of right-wing capitalist thinking which it will take time to overcome." In 1991, with Labour still in opposition and a general election due by June 1992, he proposed the Commonwealth of Britain Bill, abolishing the monarchy in favour of the United Kingdom becoming a "democratic, federal and secular commonwealth", a republic with a written constitution. It was read in Parliament a number of times until his retirement at the 2001 election, but never achieved a second reading. He presented an account of his proposal in Common Sense: A New Constitution for Britain. In 1992, Tony Benn also received a Pipe Smoker of the Year award, claiming in his acceptance speech that "pipe smoking stopped you going to war".
In 1991, Benn reiterated his opposition to the European Commission and highlighted an alleged democratic deficit in the institution, saying: "Some people genuinely believe that we shall never get social justice from the British Government, but we shall get it from Jacques Delors. They believe that a good king is better than a bad Parliament. I have never taken that view." This argument has also been used by many on the right-wing Eurosceptic wing of the Conservative Party, such as Daniel Hannan MEP. Jonathan Freedland writes in The Guardian that "For [Tony Benn], even benign rule by a monarch was worthless because the king's whim could change and there'd be nothing you could do about it."
Prior to retirement, 1997–2001
In 1997, the Labour Party under the leadership of Tony Blair won the general election in a landslide, after 18 years of Conservative Party rule. Despite later calling Labour under Blair "the idea of a Conservative group who had taken over Labour" and saying "[Blair] set up a new political party, New Labour", his political diaries Free at Last show that Benn was initially somewhat sympathetic to Blair, welcoming a change of government. Benn supported the introduction of the national minimum wage, and welcomed the progress towards peace and security in Northern Ireland (particularly under Mo Mowlam). He was supportive of the extra money given to public services in the New Labour years but believed it to be under the guise of privatisation. Overall, his concluding judgement on New Labour is highly critical; he describes its evolution as a way of retaining office by abandoning socialism and distancing the party from the trade union movement, adopting a presidentialist style of politics, overriding the concept of the collective ministerial responsibility by reducing the power of the Cabinet, eliminated any effective influence from the annual conference of the Labour Party and "hinged its foreign policy on support for one of the worst presidents in US history".
Benn strongly objected to the bombing of Iraq in December 1998, calling it immoral and saying: "Aren't Arabs terrified? Aren't Iraqis terrified? Don't Arab and Iraqi women weep when their children die? Does bombing strengthen their determination? ... Every Member of Parliament tonight who votes for the government motion will be consciously and deliberately accepting the responsibility for the deaths of innocent people if the war begins, as I fear it will."
Several months prior to his retirement, Benn was a signatory to a letter, alongside Niki Adams (Legal Action for Women), Ian Macdonald QC, Gareth Peirce, and other legal professionals, that was published in The Guardian newspaper on 22 February 2001 condemning raids of more than 50 brothels in the central London area of Soho. At the time, a police spokesman said: "As far as we know, this is the biggest simultaneous crackdown on brothels and prostitution in this country in recent times", the arrest of 28 people in an operation that involved around 110 police officers. The letter read:
In the name of "protecting" women from trafficking, about 40 women, including a woman from Iraq, were arrested, detained and in some cases summarily removed from Britain. If any of these women have been trafficked ... they deserve protection and resources, not punishment by expulsion. ... Having forced women into destitution, the government first criminalised those who begged. Now it is trying to use prostitution as a way to make deportation of the vulnerable more acceptable. We will not allow such injustice to go unchallenged.
Retirement and final years, 2001–2014
Benn chose not to seek re-election at the 2001 general election, saying he was "leaving parliament in order to spend more time on politics." Along with former Prime Minister Edward Heath, Benn was permitted by the Speaker to continue using the House of Commons Library and Members' refreshment facilities. Shortly after his retirement, he became the President of the Stop the War Coalition. He became a leading figure of the British opposition to the War in Afghanistan from 2001 and the Iraq War, and in February 2003 he travelled to Baghdad to meet Saddam Hussein. The interview was broadcast on British television.
He spoke against the war at the February 2003 protest in London organised by the Stop the War Coalition, with police saying it was the biggest ever demonstration in the UK with about 750,000 marchers, and the organisers estimating nearly a million people participating. In February 2004 and 2008, he was re-elected President of the Stop the War Coalition.
He toured with a one-man stage show and appeared a few times each year in a two-man show with folk singer Roy Bailey. In 2003, his show with Bailey was voted 'Best Live Act' at the BBC Radio 2 Folk Awards. In 2002, he opened the "Left Field" stage at the Glastonbury Festival. He continued to speak at each subsequent festival; attending one of his speeches was described as a "Glastonbury rite of passage". In October 2003, he was a guest of British Airways on the last scheduled Concorde flight from New York to London. In June 2005, he was a panellist on a special edition of BBC One's Question Time edited entirely by a school-age film crew selected by a BBC competition.
On 21 June 2005, Benn presented a programme on democracy as part of the Channel 5 series Big Ideas That Changed The World. He presented a left-wing view of democracy as the means to pass power from the "wallet to the ballot". He argued that traditional social democratic values were under threat in an increasingly globalised world in which powerful institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the European Commission are unelected and unaccountable to those whose lives they affect daily.
On 27 September 2005, Benn became ill while attending the annual Labour Party Conference in Brighton and was taken by ambulance to the Royal Sussex County Hospital after being treated by paramedics on-the-scene at the Brighton Centre. Benn reportedly fell and struck his head. He was kept in hospital for observation and was described as being in a "comfortable condition". He was subsequently fitted with an artificial pacemaker to help regulate his heartbeat.
In a list compiled by the magazine New Statesman in 2006, he was voted twelfth in the list of "Heroes of our Time". In September 2006, Benn joined the "Time to Go" demonstration in Manchester the day before the final Labour Party Conference with Tony Blair as Leader of the Labour Party, with the aim of persuading the Government to withdraw troops from Iraq, to refrain from attacking Iran and to reject replacing the Trident missile and submarines with a new system. He spoke to the demonstrators in the rally afterwards. In 2007, he appeared in an extended segment in the Michael Moore film Sicko giving comments about democracy, social responsibility and healthcare, notably, "If we can find the money to kill people, we can find the money to help people." A poll by the BBC2 The Daily Politics programme in January 2007 selected Benn as the UK's "Political Hero" with 38% of the vote, narrowly defeating Margaret Thatcher, who had 35%.
For the 2007 Labour Party leadership election, Benn backed the left-wing MP John McDonnell in his unsuccessful bid. In September 2007, Benn called for the government to hold a referendum on the EU Reform Treaty. In October 2007, aged 82, and when it appeared that a general election was about to be held, Benn reportedly announced that he wanted to stand, having written to his local Constituency Labour Party offering himself as a prospective candidate for the newly drawn Kensington seat. His main opponent would have been the incumbent Conservative MP for the predecessor seat of Kensington and Chelsea, Malcolm Rifkind. However, there was no election held in 2007, and so the boundary changes did not take effect until the eventual election in 2010, when Benn was not a candidate and the new seat was won by Rifkind.
In early 2008, Benn appeared on Scottish singer-songwriter Colin MacIntyre's album The Water, reading a poem he had written himself. In September 2008, he appeared on the DVD release for the Doctor Who story The War Machines with a vignette discussing the Post Office Tower; he became the second Labour politician, after Roy Hattersley to appear on a Doctor Who DVD.
Conservatives Daniel Hannan, Douglas Carswell and David Cameron praised Benn in 2008. In their book The Plan, Carswell and Hannan write that "Historically, it was the left that sought to disperse power among the people. ... It was the cause of the Levellers and the Chartists and the Suffragettes, the cause of religious toleration and meritocracy, of the secret ballot and universal education", adding:
These days, though, the radical cause should have different targets. The elites have altered in character and composition. The citizen is far less likely to be impacted by the decisions of dukes or bishops than by those of Nice or his local education authority. The employees of these and similar agencies are, today, the unaccountable crown office-holders against whom earlier generations of radicals would have railed. Yet, with some exceptions—among whom, in a special place of honour, stands Tony Benn—few contemporary British leftists show any interest in dispersing power when doing so would mean challenging public sector monopolies.
Cameron also said in 2008 that, alongside George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four, Benn's Arguments for Democracy was "a very powerful book which makes the important point that we vest power in people who are elected, and that we can get rid of, rather than those we can't".
At the Stop the War Conference 2009, he described the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as "Imperialist war(s)" and discussed the killing of American and allied troops by Iraqi or foreign insurgents, questioning whether they were in fact freedom fighters, and comparing the insurgents to a British Dad's Army, saying: "If you are invaded you have a right to self-defence, and this idea that people in Iraq and Afghanistan who are resisting the invasion are militant Muslim extremists is a complete bloody lie. I joined Dad's Army when I was sixteen, and if the Germans had arrived, I tell you, I could use a bayonet, a rifle, a revolver, and if I'd seen a German officer having a meal I'd have tossed a grenade through the window. Would I have been a freedom fighter or a terrorist?"
In an interview published in Dartford Living in September 2009, Benn was critical of the Government's decision to delay the findings of the Iraq War Inquiry until after the general election, stating that "people can take into account what the inquiry has reported on but they’ve deliberately pushed it beyond the election. Government is responsible for explaining what it has done and I don't think we were told the truth." He also stated that local government was strangled by Margaret Thatcher and had not been liberated by New Labour.
In 2009, Benn was admitted to hospital and An Evening with Tony Benn, scheduled to take place at London's Cadogan Hall, was cancelled. He performed his show, The Writing on the Wall, with Roy Bailey at St Mary's Church, Ashford, Kent, in September 2011, as part of the arts venue's first Revelation St. Mary's Season. In July 2011 Benn was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Glamorgan, Wales.
Tony Benn headed the "coalition of resistance", a group which was opposed to the UK austerity programme. In interviews in 2010 with Amy Goodman on Democracy Now! and 2013 with Afshin Rattansi on RT UK, Benn claimed that the actions of New Labour in the leadup to and aftermath of the Iraq War were such that the former Prime Minister Tony Blair should be tried for war crimes. Benn also claimed in 2010 that Blair had lost the "trust of the nation" regarding the war in Iraq.
In 2012, Benn was awarded an honorary degree from Goldsmiths, University of London. He was also the honorary president of the Goldsmiths Students' Union, who successfully campaigned for him to retract comments dismissing the Julian Assange rape allegations. In February 2013, Benn was among those who gave their support to the People's Assembly in a letter published by The Guardian newspaper. He gave a speech at the People's Assembly Conference held at Westminster Central Hall on 22 June 2013.
I took the view that having fought [Europeans in the Second World War] that we should now work with them, and co-operate, and that was my first thought about it. Then how I saw how the European Union was developing, it was very obvious that what they had in mind was not democratic. ... And the way that Europe has developed is that the bankers and the multinational corporations have got very powerful positions, and if you come in on their terms, they will tell you what you can and cannot do. And that is unacceptable. My view about the European Union has always been not that I am hostile to foreigners, but that I am in favour of democracy ... I think they're building an empire there, they want us to be a part of their empire and I don't want that.
Illness and death
In 1990, Benn was diagnosed with chronic lymphatic leukaemia and given three or four years to live; at this time, he kept the news of his leukaemia from everyone except his immediate family. Benn said: "When you're in parliament, you can't describe your medical condition. People immediately start wondering what your majority is and when there will be a by-election. They're very brutal." This was revealed in 2002 with the release of his 1990–2001 diaries.
Benn suffered a stroke in 2012, and spent much of the following year in hospital. He was reported to be "seriously ill" in hospital in February 2014. Benn died at home on 14 March 2014, surrounded by his family, less than a month shy of his 89th birthday.
Benn's funeral took place on 27 March 2014 at St Margaret's Church, Westminster. His body had lain in rest at St Mary Undercroft in the Palace of Westminster the night before the funeral service. The service ended with the singing of "The Red Flag". His body was then cremated; the ashes were expected to be buried alongside those of his wife at the family home near Steeple, Essex.
Figures from across the political spectrum praised Benn following his death, and the leaders of all three major political parties (the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats) in the United Kingdom paid tributes to Benn on his death.
Conservative leader and Prime Minister David Cameron said:
... he was an extraordinary man: a great writer, a brilliant speaker, extraordinary in Parliament, and a great life of public and political and parliamentary service. I mean, I disagreed with most of what he said. But he was always engaging and interesting, and you were never bored when reading or listening to him, and the country a great campaigner, a great writer, and someone who I'm sure whose words will be followed keenly for many, many years to come.
Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg called Benn an "astonishing, iconic figure" and a "veteran parliamentarian, he was a great writer, he had great warmth and he had great conviction ... his political life will be looked back on with affection and admiration".
I think Tony Benn will be remembered as a champion of the powerless, as a conviction politician, as somebody of deep principle and integrity. The thing about Tony Benn is that you always knew what he stood for, and who he stood up for. And I think that's why he was admired right across the political spectrum. There are people who agreed with him and disagreed with him, including in my own party, but I think people admired that sense of conviction and integrity that shone through from Tony Benn.
Diaries and biographies
Benn was a prolific diarist. Nine volumes of his diaries have been published. The final volume was published in 2013. Collections of his speeches and writings were published as Arguments for Socialism (1979), Arguments for Democracy (1981), (both edited by Chris Mullin), Fighting Back (1988) and (with Andrew Hood) Common Sense (1993), as well as Free Radical: New Century Essays (2004). In August 2003, London DJ Charles Bailey created an album of Benn's speeches (ISBN 1-904734-03-0) set to ambient groove.
He made public several episodes of audio diaries he made during his time in Parliament and after retirement, entitled The Benn Tapes, broadcast originally on BBC Radio 4. Short series have been played periodically on BBC Radio 4 Extra. A major biography was written by Jad Adams and published by Macmillan in 1992; it was updated to cover the intervening 20 years and reissued by Biteback Publishing in 2011: Tony Benn: A Biography ( ISBN 0-333-52558-2). A more recent "semi-authorised" biography with a foreword by Benn was published in 2001: David Powell, Tony Benn: A Political Life, Continuum Books ( ISBN 978-0826464156). An autobiography, Dare to be a Daniel: Then and Now, Hutchinson ( ISBN 978-0099471530), a reference to the Old Testament prophet in the lions' den , was published in 2004.
There are substantial essays on Benn in the Dictionary of Labour Biography by Phillip Whitehead, Greg Rosen (eds), Politicos Publishing, 2001 ( ISBN 978-1902301181) and in Labour Forces: From Ernie Bevin to Gordon Brown, Kevin Jefferys (ed.), I.B. Tauris Publishing, 2002 ( ISBN 978-1860647437). American Michael Moore dedicates his book Mike's Election Guide 2008 ( ISBN 978-0141039817) to Benn, with the words: "For Tony Benn, keep teaching us".
On 5 March 2019, it was announced that a large political archive of Benn's speeches, diaries, letters, pamphlets, recordings and ephemera had been accepted in lieu of £210,000 inheritance tax and allocated to the British Library. The audio recordings total to thousands of hours of content.
During his final years in Parliament, Benn placed three plaques within the Houses of Parliament. Two are in a room between the Central Lobby and Strangers' Gallery that holds a permanent display about the suffragettes. The first was placed in 1995. The second was placed in 1996 and is dedicated to all who work within the Houses of Parliament.
The third is dedicated to Emily Wilding Davison, who died for the cause of "Votes for women", and was placed in the broom cupboard next to the Undercroft Chapel, where Davison is said to have hidden during the night of the 1911 census in order to establish her address as the House of Commons.
In Bristol, where Benn first served as a member of parliament, a number of tributes exist in his honour. A bust of him was unveiled in Bristol's City Hall in 2005. In 2012 Transport House on Victoria Street, headquarters of Unite the Union's regional office, was officially renamed Tony Benn House and opened by Benn himself. As of 2015 he appears, alongside other famous people associated with the city, on the reverse of the Bristol Pound's £B5 banknote.
Benn told the Socialist Review in 2007 that:
I'd like to have on my gravestone: "He encouraged us." I'm proud to have been in the parliament that introduced the health service, the welfare state and voted against means testing. I did my maiden speech on nationalising the steel industry, put down the first motion for the boycott of South African goods, and resigned from the shadow cabinet in 1958 because of their support for nuclear weapons.
I think you do plant a few acorns, and I have lived to see one or two trees growing: gay rights, freedom of information, CND. I'm not claiming them for myself but you feel you have encouraged other people and see the arguments developing.
I'm not ashamed of making mistakes. I've made a million mistakes and they're all in the diary. When we edit the diary—which is cut to around 10 per cent—every mistake has to be printed because people look to see if you do. I would be ashamed if I thought I'd ever said anything I didn't believe to get on, but making mistakes is part of life, isn't it?
Benn was widely seen as a key proponent of democratic socialism. e was described as "one of the few UK politicians to have become more left-wing after holding ministerial office". He has been cited as being a key mentor to future leader of the Labour Party Jeremy Corbyn, with his Shadow Chancellor John McDonnell commenting that "they would discuss everything under the sun. Jeremy was very close to Tony right up until the end." Corbyn was elected as leader of the Labour Party a little over a year after Benn's death, an act which Hilary Benn said would have made his father feel "thrilled".
- Anthony Wedgwood Benn, Esq. (1925 – 12 January 1942)
- The Hon. Anthony Wedgwood Benn (12 January 1942 – 30 November 1950)
- The Hon. Anthony Wedgwood Benn, MP (30 November 1950 – 17 November 1960)
- The Rt Hon. the Viscount Stansgate (17 November 1960 – 31 July 1963)
- Anthony Wedgwood Benn, Esq. (31 July – 20 August 1963)
- Anthony Wedgwood Benn, Esq., MP (20 August 1963 – 1964)
- The Rt Hon. Anthony Wedgwood Benn, MP (1964 – October 1973)
- The Rt Hon. Tony Benn, MP (October 1973 – 9 June 1983)
- The Rt Hon. Tony Benn (9 June 1983 – 1 March 1984)
- The Rt Hon. Tony Benn, MP (1 March 1984 – 14 May 2001)
- The Rt Hon. Tony Benn (14 May 2001 – 14 March 2014)
- Marr, Andrew (2007). A History of Modern Britain. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-330-51147-6.
- Speeches, Spokesman Books (1974); ISBN 0851240917
- Levellers and the English Democratic Tradition, Spokesman Books (1976); ISBN 978-0-85124-633-8
- Why America Needs Democratic Socialism, Spokesman Books (1978); ISBN 978-0-85124-266-8
- Prospects, Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers, Technical, Administrative and Supervisory Section (1979)
- Case for Constitutional Civil Service, Institute for Workers' Control (1980); ISBN 978-0-901740-67-0
- Case for Party Democracy, Institute for Workers' Control (1980); ISBN 978-0-901740-70-0
- Arguments for Socialism, Penguin Books (1980); ISBN 978-0-14-005489-7
- & Chris Mullin, Arguments for Democracy, Jonathan Cape (1981); ISBN 978-0-224-01878-4
- European Unity: A New Perspective, Spokesman Books (1981) ISBN 978-0-85124-326-9
- Parliament and Power: Agenda for a Free Society, Verso Books (1982); ISBN 978-0-86091-057-2
- & Andrew Hood, Common Sense: New Constitution for Britain, Hutchinson (1993)
- Free Radical: New Century Essays, Continuum International Publishing (2004); ISBN 978-0-8264-7400-1
- Dare to Be a Daniel: Then and Now, Hutchinson (2004); ISBN 978-0-09-179999-1
- Letters to my Grandchildren: Thoughts on the Future, Arrow Books (2010); ISBN 978-0-09-953909-4
- Out of the Wilderness: Diaries 1963–67, Hutchinson (1987); ISBN 978-0-09-170660-9
- Office Without Power: Diaries 1968–72, Hutchinson (1988); ISBN 978-0-09-173647-7
- Against the Tide: Diaries 1973–76, Hutchinson (1989); ISBN 978-0-09-173775-7
- Conflicts of Interest: Diaries 1977–80, Hutchinson (1990); ISBN 978-0-09-174321-5
- The End of an Era: Diaries 1980–90, Hutchinson (1992); ISBN 978-0-09-174857-9
- Years of Hope: Diaries 1940–62, Hutchinson (1994); ISBN 978-0-09-178534-5
- The Benn Diaries: Single Volume Edition 1940–90, Hutchinson (1995); ISBN 978-0-09-179223-7
- Free at Last!: Diaries 1991–2001, Hutchinson (2002); ISBN 978-0-09-179352-4
- More Time for Politics: Diaries 2001–2007, Hutchinson (2007); ISBN 978-0-09-951705-4
- A Blaze of Autumn Sunshine: The Last Diaries, Hutchinson (2013); ISBN 978-0-09-194387-5
- Oxford National Biography.
- "Tony Benn – Official Website". tonybenn.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2003. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Webb, Alban (1 March 2017). "David Wedgwood Benn obituary". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017. The youngest of his brothers, Jeremy, was still-born.
- Tony Benn - A biography - Jad Adams (p. 8).
- "William Wedgwood Benn, MP and war hero". Great War London. 14 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Hale, Leslie; Potter, Mark (January 2008). "Benn, William Wedgwood". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30705. Retrieved 2 May 2010. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Watts, Robert (12 May 2007). "The Benn dynasty". ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Benn, Tony (2003). Free Radical. Continuum. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-8264-6596-2.
- Tony Benn on Jesus (YouTube video). YouTube. Channel 4. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Sydney Higgins (1984). The Benn Inheritance: The Story of a Radical Family. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-78524-8. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2016. Quoted in Brown, Rob (27 September 1984). "Vital key to the real Tony Benn". The Glasgow Herald. p. 8. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- Kenny, Mary (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn 1925–2014: a politician shaped by Christianity". The Catholic Herald. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Wilby, Peter (27 March 2014). "Tony Benn's banana diet, lapsed Christians and ignoring no smoking signs". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- Tony Benn (2 July 2015). The Best of Benn. Cornerstone. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-78475-032-9. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- Wilby, Peter (22 March 2014). "Tony Benn: Peter Wilby reads the diaries". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- Brodie, Marc (January 2008). "Benn, Sir John Williams". Oxford National Dictionary of Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Stearn, Roger T. (2004). "Benn, Margaret Eadie Wedgwood". Oxford National Dictionary of Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Engel, Matthew (14 March 2014). "The paradox of Tony Benn". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 3 July 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- McSmith, Andy; Dalyell, Tam (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn obituary: Politician who embodied the soul of the Labour Party and came to be admired – even by his rivals". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Jesse Oldershaw (camera); Andy Cousins (editor) (25 April 2009). Tony Benn – Stop the War Conference 2009. Stop the War Coalition. Event occurs at 3:06. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- A fuller transcript of that speech, in which he called the Home Guard "Dad's Army", is given in the section "Retirement and final years".
- "Tony Benn". The Biography Channel. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 2 April 2007.
- "No. 37124". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 June 1945. p. 3077.
- Raymond Clark (1 October 2013). To the End, They Remain: Thoughts on War, Peace and Reconciliation. History Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7509-5308-5.
- Approximate latitude/longitude from Google Maps and Earth: 19°31'21.8"S 29°55'58.7"E;
- Tony Benn, "First Solo," in High Flyers:30 Reminiscences to Celebrate the 75th Anniversary of the Royal Air Force, Michael Fopp (ed.), Greenhill Books in Association with the Royal Air Force Museum, London 1993 p. 39
- "No. 37327". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 October 1945. p. 5276.
- Benn, Tony (2004). Dare to Be a Daniel. United Kingdom: Hutchinson. p. 95. ISBN 9780091799991.
- Brivati, Brian (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn obituary". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Alwyn W. Turner (19 March 2009). Crisis? What Crisis?: Britain in the 1970s. Aurum Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-84513-851-6.
- "Mr Benn wipes away his past". The Times Diary. Times Newspapers. 18 March 1976.
- "Not Out". The Times. Diary. 4 April 1977.
- Dominic Sandbrook (19 April 2012). Seasons in the Sun: The Battle for Britain, 1974–1979. Penguin Books Limited. p. 323. ISBN 978-1-84614-627-5.
- Tabassum, Nazir. "Opening Speach [sic] of Prof. Nazir Tabassum". Progressive Writers Conference. South Asian Peoples Forum UK. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- Benn, Tony (2012). Speeches ([New] ed.). Nottingham: Spokesman Books. ISBN 9780851248103. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Caroline Benn". Daily Telegraph. London, UK: Telegraph Media Group. 24 November 2000. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Brexit: Hilary Benn sacked as Corbyn faces 'no confidence' pressure". London, UK. 26 June 2016. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
- Skinitis, Alexia (10 January 2009). "Emily Benn the younger". Times Online. London, UK: Times Newspapers. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Benn's granddaughter runs for MP". BBC News. 25 September 2007. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- French, Philip (26 July 2009). "Philip French's screenlegends: Margaret Rutherford". The Observer. London, UK. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Tony Benn: making mistakes is part of life" Archived 18 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Telegraph, 12 August 2009.
- "Tony Benn: You Ask The Questions" Archived 14 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Independent, 5 June 2006.
- Warry, Richard (5 September 2017). "Jeremy Corbyn and other famous vegetarian politicians". Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- "The Benn dynasty". BBC News. 11 June 1999. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "New Members Sworn". Hansard. House of Commons. 4 December 1950. Archived from the original on 16 July 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "New Members Sworn". Hansard. House of Commons. 5 December 1950. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Profile: Tony Benn". BBC Bristol. 4 April 2008. Archived from the original on 9 August 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "How we organised to break racism on Bristol buses". Socialist Worker (2374). Socialist Workers Party. 8 October 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- Kelly, Jon (27 August 2013). "What was behind the Bristol bus boycott?". BBC News Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- Tony Benn and Peter Kellner "Tony Benn's Finest Speech" Archived 14 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Huffington Post, 14 March 2014.
- Re Parliamentary Election for Bristol South East  2 Q.B. 257,  3 W.L.R. 577.
- "Peerage Act 1963". Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- Jad Adams, Tony Benn: A Biography (MacMillan 1992) ISBN 978-1849540964 pp. 203–204, e.g., Viscount Hinchingbrooke, and Lords Hogg and Douglas-Home.
- "No. 43072". The London Gazette. 2 August 1963. p. 6534.
- "Tony Benn dies: his most memorable quotes". The Telegraph. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "Five lesser-spotted things Tony Benn gave the UK". BBC News. Magazine Monitor: A collection of cultural artefacts. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- Asa Briggs, The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: Volume V: Competition Archived 4 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995, pp. 515–19, 540.
- "Wireless and Television (Pirate Stations)" Archived 4 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Hansard, HC Deb, vol. 730 cc858-70, 22 June 1966.
- "Marine, & C., Broadcasting (Offences)" Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, HC Deb 27 July 1966, Hansard, vol. 732 c1720.
- "UK Confidential Transcripts: Tony Benn – The Labour Minister". BBC News. 1 January 2002. Archived from the original on 18 December 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- David Butler; Michael Pinto-Duschinsky (2 July 1971). British General Election of 1970. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 159–160. ISBN 978-1-349-01095-0.
- Benn, Tony (31 January 2013). The Benn Diaries: 1940–1990. Random House. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-4464-9373-1.
- "Racist Laws 1971" Black History Walks (YouTube).
- "Marxism in the Labour Party". 2017. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- Tony Benn (2015). Ruth Winstone (ed.). The Best of Benn. p. 127. ISBN 978-1784750329.
- Duncan Watts; Colin Pilkington (29 November 2005). Britain in the European Union Today: Third Edition. Manchester University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-7190-7179-9.
- Alistair Jones (2007). Britain and the European Union. Edinburgh University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7486-2428-7.
- Butler, David; Kavanagh, Dennis (1974). The British General Election of February 1974. Macmillan. p. 20. ISBN 978-0333172971.
- Hird, Christopher (December 1981). "The Crippled Giants". New Internationalist. Archived from the original on 25 November 2009. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- Benn, Tony (1995). The Benn Diaries. Arrow. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-09-963411-9.
- Benn, Tony (31 January 2013). The Benn Diaries: 1940–1990. Random House. p. 367. ISBN 978-1-4464-9373-1.
- Hoggart, Simon (18 October 2013). "Simon Hoggart's week: the honour of being loathed". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- Bagley, Richard (1 May 2014). "Into The Archives: Tony Benn On The True Power Of Democracy". The Morning Star. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
- Powell, David (2003). Tony Benn: a political life (2nd ed.). London & New York: Continuum. pp. 82, 84. ISBN 978-0-8264-7074-4.
- Emily Mann (29 October 2009). "Tony Benn (1925-2014): "I would be ashamed if I ever said anything I didn't believe in"". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- Michael Crick (14 March 2014). "Ten things you may not have known about Tony Benn". Channel 4 News. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- Iain Dale (21 January 2009). "In conversation... Tony Benn". Total Politics. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- Benn, Tony (1988). Out of the Wilderness: Diaries 1963–67. Arrow. pp. xi–xiii. ISBN 978-0-09-958670-8.
- Benn, Tony (1988). Out of the Wilderness: Diaries 1963–67. p. xiii.
- Kavanagh, Dennis (1990). "Tony Benn: Nuisance or Conscience?". In Kavanagh, Dennis (ed.). Politics and Personalities. p. 184.
- "Tony Benn | Aristotle | guardian.co.uk Politics". www.theguardian.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Matthews, Nick (14 April 2014). "Benn, co-ops and workplace democracy". The Morning Star. p. 20. Archived from the original on 19 April 2016. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Kavanagh, Dennis (1990). "Tony Benn: Nuisance or Conscience?". In Kavanagh, Dennis (ed.). Politics and Personalities. Macmillan. p. 78.
- Warden, John (13 June 1974). "Heath broadside for 'Commissar Benn'". The Glasgow Herald.
- Whiteley, Paul; Gordon, Ian (11 January 1980). "The Labour Party: Middle Class, Militant and Male". New Statesman: 41–42.
- "Benn's call for SF to take seats". BBC News Online. 12 May 2005. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Peterkin, Tom (18 August 2012). "Scottish independence: Tony Benn: 'UK split would divide me with a knife'". The Scotsman. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- Dave, Kellaway. "Benn and Bennism". LeftUnity. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Marr, pp. 392–395 (The Left at War With Itself).
- Renton, Dave (February 1997). "Does Labour's Left Have an Alternative?". Socialist Review. Archived from the original on 11 September 2003. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Emery, Fred (30 September 1980). "Mr Benn proposes timetable of one month to abolish Lords and leave EEC". The Times, archived by Gale Group. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Peter Childs; Michael Storry (13 May 2013). Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture. Routledge. p. 485. ISBN 978-1-134-75555-4. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Donald Sassoon (30 July 2010). One Hundred Years of Socialism: The West European Left in the Twentieth Century. I.B.Tauris. p. 698. ISBN 978-0-85771-530-2.
- Gerald M. Pomper (1988). Voters, Elections, and Parties: The Practice of Democratic Theory. Transaction Publishers. p. 375. ISBN 978-1-4128-4112-2.
- Seyd, Patrick (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Labour Left. Macmillan Education. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-333-44748-2.
- "House of Commons Statement: Falkland Islands". Margaret Thatcher Foundation. 15 June 1982. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- Russell, William (13 June 1983). "Race is on for Labour Leader". The Glasgow Herald. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
- "Labour's new line-up". The Times. archived by Gale Group. 3 November 1983. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Benn on the couch". The Sun. News international. 1 March 1984.
- "Chapter 06; ...1974 strike...a conversation with miners...Labour government... Benn helps divide miners..." libcom.org. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Robertson, Jack (23 April 2010). "25 years after the Great Miners' Strike". International Socialism. London, UK: Socialist Workers Party (126). Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Militant Video: Wembley Conference Centre 1984 (YouTube video). YouTube. Militant. 20 October 1984. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Miners' Amnesty (General Pardon)". Hansard. House of Commons. 28 June 1985. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Stadlen, Nick (8 December 2006). "Brief Encounter: Tony Benn". The Guardian. London, UK: Guardian News and Media. Archived from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Hearse, Phil (15 March 2014). "Tony Benn: A Vision to Inspire and Mobilise". Socialist Resistance. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
He readily took up the banner of LGBT struggles, what was then known as lesbian and gay liberation.
- Roberts, Scott (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn: "Long before it was accepted I did support gay rights"". Pink News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
- Hansard, HC Deb (22 November 1990) vol 181, cols 439–518, at 486 Archived 18 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Commonwealth of Britain Bill". Hansard. House of Commons. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Benn, Tony; Hood, Andrew (17 June 1993). Hood, Andrew (ed.). Common Sense: New Constitution for Britain. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-177308-3.
- Alan Taylor (2009). Those who Marched Away: An Anthology of the World's Greatest War Diaries. Canongate. p. 601. ISBN 978-1-84767-415-9. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Column 333". Hansard, House of Commons. 20 November 1991. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Brian MacArthur (3 May 2012). The Penguin Book of Modern Speeches. Penguin Books Limited. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-14-190916-5.
- Daniel Hannan (24 March 2016). Why Vote Leave. Head of Zeus. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-78497-709-2.
- Freedland, Jonathan (9 October 2015). "EU referendum: the next big populist wave could sweep Britain out of Europe". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Delaney, Sam (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn interview: "Labour suffered greatly through Tony Blair"". Big Issue. Archived from the original on 20 November 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Benn, Tony (4 September 2010). "Tony Benn: 'What is really significant about Tony Blair was that he set up a new political party, New Labour'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Mortimer, Jim (20 November 2002). "Tony Benn: An inspiring symbol of political steadfastness and advocacy" (PDF). Morning Star. p. 9. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Mortimer, Jim (6 May 2003). "Telling it straight" (PDF). Morning Star. p. 8. Archived from the original on 18 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- "Tony Benn dies: watch archive clip of Labour stalwart in Parliament". The Daily Telegraph. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Allegretti, Aubrey (3 December 2015). "If Tony Benn Were Here Today, He Might Use This Iraq Speech To Defend Not Bombing Syria". The Huffington Post UK. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2016.
- "50 Soho brothels targeted in raids". Herald Scotland. 16 February 2001. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Niki Adams; Tony Benn; et al. (22 February 2001). "Law violates sex workers". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Younge, Gary (20 July 2002). "The stirrer". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Full text of Benn interview with Saddam". BBC News. 4 February 2003. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "'Million' march against Iraq war". BBC News. 16 February 2003. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Elected positions". Stop the War Coalition. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Irwin, Colin (31 January 2013). "BBC Radio 2 Folk awards 2013 names Nic Jones singer of the year". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- "Radio 2 Folk Awards 2003". Press Office. BBC. 11 February 2003. Archived from the original on 4 November 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- Jonze, Tim (24 June 2007). "Glastonbury festival: Tony Benn on 'a self-generating community'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- "Question Time: A question of citizenship". BBC News. 1 July 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Joseph, Joe (22 June 2005). "Benn's stall sells democracy short". The Times. p. 27. Archived from the original on 6 May 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- Staff (28 September 2005). "Tony Benn 'comfortable' in hospital after fall". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Benn gets pacemaker after fall". BBC News. 1 October 2005. Archived from the original on 9 November 2005. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Thousands at city's anti-war demo". BBC News. 23 September 2006. Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- James Walsh (15 March 2014). "10 of the best Tony Benn quotes – as picked by our readers". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
- "The Magnificent Seven political heroes..." BBC News. 12 December 2006. Archived from the original on 10 February 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- "Give us EU referendum, says Benn". BBC News. 24 September 2007. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "I want to be an MP again – Benn". BBC News. 4 October 2007. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- Attewill, Fred (4 October 2007). "Benn: I want to return to parliament". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 October 2007.
- "Tony Benn, pop star". The Daily Telegraph. 7 February 2008. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "House music: Tony Benn's debut solo album". The Independent. 25 March 2008. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- Wilkins, Jonathan (21 August 2008). "Doctor Who: The War Machines Review". Total SciFi Online. Archived from the original on 26 February 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Sparrow, Andrew (18 September 2009). "Cameron joins Daniel Hannan in Tony Benn fan club". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- "Big Benn Chimes in to Dartford" (PDF). Dartford Living. September 2009. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Clive Conway Celebrity Productions – An Audience with an Evening With Tony Benn". celebrityproductions.info. 2011. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2016 – via the Wayback Machine.
- "University of Glamorgan honours contributions to public life, communities, science, literature, and sport". news.glam.ac.uk. 2011. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2011.
- Hundal, Sunny (9 August 2010). "Tony Benn's 'coalition of resistance' needs a strategy | Sunny Hundal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- Benn, Tony (4 August 2010). "The time to organise resistance is now | Tony Benn and 73 others". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- Goodman, Amy; Benn, Tony (21 September 2010). "Tony Benn on Tony Blair: "He Will Have to Live 'Til the Day He Dies with the Knowledge that He Is Guilty of a War Crime"". Democracy Now!. Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- Rattansi, Afshin; Benn, Tony (16 December 2013). "Big Benn: Blair committed war crimes in Iraq". RT International. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- "Labour drückt sich vor Irak-Debatte" [Labour shirks Iraq debate]. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). 11 May 2010. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
Der Veteran der Labour-Linken, Tony Benn, sagte, der Irak-Krieg habe Blair das "Vertrauen der Nation" gekostet.
- "Goldsmiths academics pay tribute to Tony Benn". Goldsmiths, University of London. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- "Benn sorry for dismissing Assange rape allegations". Liberal Conspiracy. 18 September 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- People's Assembly opening letter Archived 25 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 5 February 2013.
- Tony Benn (25 March 2013). European Union. Oxford Union. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Tony Benn: My fight with leukaemia". The Scotsman. 29 September 2002. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Tony Benn, veteran Labour politician, dies aged 88". The Guardian. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
- "Tony Benn seriously ill in hospital" Archived 27 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 12 February 2014.
- "BBC News – Labour stalwart Tony Benn dies at 88". BBC Online. Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Anderson, Steve (14 March 2004). "Tony Benn dead: Veteran Labour politician passes away aged 88". The Independent. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "British socialist Tony Benn dead at 88". News.com.au. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Tony Benn's funeral takes place in Westminster". BBC. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- Owen Jones (27 March 2014). "Bedfellows and foes unite at Tony Benn's funeral". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Queen approves Tony Benn overnight vigil in Parliament's chapel". BBC. 20 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- "Tony Benn's funeral ends with rendition of The Red Flag". Daily Telegraph. 27 March 2014. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- William Watkinson (27 March 2014). "Tony Benn funeral: Crowds gather for Westminster send-off". Essex Chronicle. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
- Dominiczak, Peter; Swinford, Steve (14 March 2014). "'I hope I didn't cause offence': Tony Benn's message from beyond the grave". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
- Burrows, Saffron (21 December 2014). "He loved so well: a moving tribute to Tony Benn by the actor Saffron Burrows". The Guardian. Stop the War Coalition. Archived from the original on 24 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- "David Cameron and Ed Miliband pay tribute to Tony Benn – video". The Guardian. ITN. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Tributes to former MP Tony Benn from key politicians". BBC News Online. 14 March 2014. Archived from the original on 11 July 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Tony Benn | Biography, Facts, & Radicalism". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 22 June 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- "Happy Birthday Tony Benn, 87" Archived 15 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine, The Times, 3 April 2012.
- "BBC Radio 7 Programmes – The Benn Tapes". BBC. 16 March 2009. Archived from the original on 19 October 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- "Tony Benn: a Biography". www.newstatesman.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
- Goodman, Amy (1 November 2008). "Michael Moore on the Election, the Bailout, Healthcare, and 10 Proposals for the Next President by Michael Moore". Democracy Now!. ZCommunications. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2010 – via the Wayback Machine.
- Mark Brown (5 March 2019). "'The most tremendous result': how Tony Benn celebrated losing to Denis Healey". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- "Suffragettes display". www.parliament.uk. UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Benn's secret tribute to suffragette martyr". BBC News. 17 March 1999. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Plaque to Emily Wilding Davison". www.parliament.uk. Uk Parliament. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "Tony Benn to unveil Islington People's Plaque commemorating the Peasants' Revolt". Islington Borough Council. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Bust celebrates politician's work". BBC News. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Tony Benn remembered 1925 – 2014". Bristol Post. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015.
- "Former Bristol Labour MP Tony Benn opens union HQ". BBC News. 31 October 2012. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "New Bristol Pounds". Bristol Pound. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Benn, Tony; German, Lindsey; Orr, Judith (September 2007). "Interview" (317). Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- White, Michael (14 March 2014). "Tony Benn: the establishment insider turned leftwing outsider". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 April 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
- "Collection – The Rt Hon Tony Benn MP". Art in Parliament. UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 13 October 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2010.
- Boffey, Daniel (15 August 2015). "Jeremy Corbyn's world: his friends, supporters, mentors and influences". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 September 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Murphy, Joe (25 September 2015). "Hilary Benn: Dad would've been thrilled by Jeremy Corbyn's win". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2017.
- Contributions in Parliament by Tony Benn. Hansard, 1925 – 2005.
- Late Developer: Review of Against the Tide: Diaries 1973–1976 by Tony Benn. Author – Paul Foot, 1985.
- Andrew Roth. "Tony Benn Chesterfield and Bristol South East MP". The Guardian, 25 March 2001.
- The Guardian web guide to Benn.. 6 June 2002.
- Face-to-Face with Tony Benn. Freeview video interview by the Vega Science Trust. Recorded in 2005.
- Benn, Tony. "Exclusive Interview". Glastonbury Festival. Archived from the original on 24 May 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2016 – via the Wayback Machine.
- Tony Benn. "Atomic hypocrisy: West is not in a position to take a high moral line". The Guardian, 30 November 2005.
- Interview with Tony Benn – Radio France Internationale. 28 March 2008 – 6-minute audio – Ahead of G20 marches, London.
- Tony Benn on Tony Blair: "He Is Guilty of a War Crime". Video report by Democracy Now!. 21 September 2010.
- Obituary: Tony Benn. BBC News, 14 March 2014.
- Tony Benn: a stalwart of the peace and anti-nuclear movement. Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, 14 March 2014.
- Audio interview with The Guardian.
- His Address to the College Historical Society of Trinity College.
- Private Eye depictions of Benn: "Most Dangerous Man in Britain", "Labour United", "Benn's Triumph", "Foot & Benn Disease", "Would You Buy a New Car From This Man?".
- Tony Benn on Modern Liberty. Tony Benn speaking for The Convention on Modern Liberty. YouTube. 23 February 2009.
- Unofficial Tony Benn quotation site.
- Works by or about Tony Benn at Internet Archive
- Works by Tony Benn at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
- Tony Benn on The Guardian
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- This page is based on the Wikipedia article Tony Benn; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.