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Wall and tower
Tower and Stockade (Hebrew: חוֹמָה וּמִגְדָּל, translit. Homa u'migdal, lit. "wall and tower") was a settlement method used by Zionist settlers in Mandatory Palestine during the 1936–39 Arab Revolt. The establishment of new Jewish settlements was legally restricted by the Mandatory authorities, but the British generally gave their tacit accord to the Tower and Stockade actions as a means of countering the Arab revolt. During the course of the Tower and Stockade campaign, some 57 Jewish settlements including 52 kibbutzim and several moshavim were established throughout the country. The legal base was a Turkish Ottoman law that was in effect during the Mandate period, which stated that no illegal building may be demolished if the roof has been completed.
During the Arab Revolt, these settlements provided safe havens on land that had been officially purchased by the KKL-JNF, protected Jewish populations, particularly in remote areas, on these Jewish-owned land and maintained "facts on the ground." These settlements would eventually be transformed into fortified agricultural settlements, and served for security purposes (as defences against Arab raiders) as well as creating contiguous Jewish-populated regions, which would later help determine the borders of the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
All of the major settlement groups (mostly kibbutzim and moshavim) took part in the campaign, which consisted of assembling a guard tower with a fence around it. While many of these settlements were not officially approved by the British Mandate authorities, existing settlements were not dismantled according to the Turkish Ottoman law still valid at the time. Due to the threat of immediate attack, at least as much as to any need of complying to the clauses of this law, the construction of the Tower and Stockade settlements had to be finished very quickly, usually in the course of a single day. What is less well known is the fact that the British authorities were rather lax at implementing restrictions against such Jewish activities at a time when their main security concern was the Arab revolt, thus wall and tower settlements were always created by day, not by night - against some still prevailing myths. In the very different political and security climate of the final months of the Mandate, a similar act of creating facts on the ground happened in April 1948 at Bror Hayil, when much of the work was indeed done during the night.
The invention of the Wall and tower system is attributed to Shlomo Gur, founding member of Kibbutz Tel Amal (now Nir David), and was developed and encouraged by the architect Yohanan Ratner (see Russian-language article here ). The system was based on the fast construction of pre-fabricated wooden moulds, which would be filled with gravel and enclosed with barbed wire fencing. In average, the enclosed space formed a yard of 35 x 35 metres (1 dunam). Within this protected yard, the pre-fabricated wooden observation tower and the four sheds sheltering the initial 40 settlers were erected. The constructions were located within eyesight of neighbouring settlements and with accessibility for motor vehicles.
57 were constructed between the last days of 1936 and October 1939.
Tower and Stockade settlements by date of establishment:
- Kfar Hittim, 7 December 1936
- Tel Amal (now Nir David), 10 December 1936
- Sde Nahum, 5 January 1937
- Sha'ar HaGolan, 31 January 1937
- Masada, 31 January 1937
- Ginosar, 25 February 1937
- Beit Yosef, 9 April 1937
- Mishmar HaShlosha, 13 April 1937
- Tirat Tzvi, 30 June 1937
- Moledet (called "Bnei Brit" and "Moledet-Bnei Brit" between 1944-1957), 4 July 1937
- Ein HaShofet, 5 July 1937
- Ein Gev, 6 July 1937
- Maoz Haim, 6 July 1937
- Kfar Menachem, 27 July 1937
- Sha'ar HaNegev (renamed Kfar Szold before it moved altogether to the Galilee in 1942; site resettled in 1944 as Hafetz Haim), 15 August 1937
- Tzur Moshe, 13 September 1937
- Usha, 7 November 1937
- Hanita, 21 March 1938
- Shavei Tzion, 13 April 1938
- Sde Warburg, 17 May 1938
- Ramat Hadar, 26 May 1938
- Alonim, 26 June 1938
- Ma'ale HaHamisha, 17 July 1938
- Tel Yitzhak, 25 July 1938
- Beit Yehoshua, 17 August 1938
- Ein HaMifratz, 25 August 1938
- Ma'ayan Tzvi, 30 August 1938
- Sharona, 16 November 1938
- Geulim, 17 November 1938
- Eilon, 24 November 1938
- Neve Eitan, 25 November 1938
- Kfar Ruppin, 25 November 1938
- Kfar Masaryk, 29 November 1938
- Mesilot, 22 December 1938
- Dalia, 2 May 1939
- Dafna, 3 May 1939
- Dan, 4 May 1939
- Sde Eliyahu, 8 May 1939
- Mahanayim, 23 May 1939
- Shadmot Dvora, 23 May 1939
- Shorashim, 23 May 1939
- Hazore'im, 23 May 1939
- Tel Tzur (now Moshav Nahalat Jabotinsky in Binyamina), 23 May 1939
- Kfar Glikson, 23 May 1939
- Ma'apilim, 23 May 1939
- Mishmar HaYam (now Afek), 28 May 1939
- Hamadiyah, 23 June 1939
- Kfar Netter, 26 June 1939
- Negba, 12 July 1939
- Gesher, 13 August 1939
- Beit Oren, 1 October 1939
- Amir, 29 October 1939
- Ayalon, 1939
- 11 points in the Negev
- Settlement of the Thousand
- Tegart fort
- Gecekondu, night-time building loophole in modern Turkey
- Rotbard, Sharon. Wall and Tower - The Mold of Israeli Adrikalut. In: Territories, KW - Institute for Contemporary Art, Berlin, 2003, p.162., ISBN 3-88375-734-9
- Illana Shamir; Shlomo Shavit (December 1987). The Young Readers' Encyclopedia of Jewish History. Viking Kestrel. p. 79. ISBN 0670817384.
- Dana Adams Schmidt (April 21, 1948). "Big convoy fights way to Jerusalem". New York Times. p. 18.
- Segal, Rafi & Weizman, Eyal (editors) (2003) A civilian occupation. The politics of Israeli architecture. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-549-5. p.57 (Rotbard, Sharon. Wall and tower (Homa u'migdal). The mold of Israeli architecture).
- Weizman/Rotbard. p.47
- Israel Foreign Affairs: PM Olmert's Speech at the Mishmar HaCarmel Ranch Events, November 3, 2015
- "Jabotinsky, Vladimir" in Encyclopaedia Judaica, 2d edition, volume 11, p. 14
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