The image is from Wikipedia Commons
Tsyklon-3 on display in downtown Dnipro
|Country of origin||Soviet Union (Ukraine)|
|Height||39.27 m (128.83 ft)|
|Diameter||3 m (9.8 ft)|
|Mass||189,000 kg (416,000 lb)|
|Payload to LEO||4,100 kg (9,000 lb)|
|Launch sites||Plesetsk Cosmodrome LC-32|
|First flight||24 June 1977|
|Last flight||30 January 2009|
|First stage – 11K69|
|Thrust||3,032 kN (681,620 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||301 sec|
|Burn time||120 seconds|
4 / UDMH
|Second stage – 11S692|
|Thrust||941 kN (211,545 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||318 sec|
|Burn time||160 seconds|
4 / UDMH
|Third stage – 11S693|
|Thrust||78.70 kN (17,694 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||317 sec|
|Burn time||125 seconds|
4 / UDMH
A derivative of the R-36 ICBM, and a member of the Tsyklon family, Tsyklon-3 made its maiden flight on 24 June 1977, and was retired on 30 January 2009. The Ukrainian-built Tsyklon rockets were retired in favour of future all-Russian carrier rockets, such as the Angara, and because they were fuelled by toxic hypergolic propellants.
Ukraine was developing a commercial derivative of the Tsyklon-3, the Tsyklon-4. The development of Tsyklon-4 ended in 2015 after Ukraine's development partner Brazil pulled out of the project. Tsyklon-4 never made it to launch pad.
Another successor to the Tsyklon rockets, Cyclone-4M (based on Tsyklon-4 desings), is under development as of 2021 for use in the commercial market.
2013 loss of Ecuadorian satellite after impact with Tsyklon-3 space debris
On 23 May 2013 at approximately 05:38 UTC, the Ecuadorian satellite NEE-01 Pegaso passed very close to the spent upper stage of a 1985 Tsyklon-3 rocket over the Indian Ocean. While there was no direct collision between the satellite and upper stage, Pegaso is believed to have suffered a "glancing blow" after passing through a debris cloud around the Tsyklon stage and striking one of the small pieces. After the incident, the satellite was found to be "spinning wildly over two of its axes" and unable to communicate with its ground station. Efforts to reestablish control of Pegaso failed, and on 28 August 2013 the decision was made by EXA and the Ecuadorian government to declare the satellite as lost.
- Barbosa, Rui C. (2009-01-30). "Russian Tsyklon-3 bows out with CORONAS launch". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
- APMC - Космические войска обеспечили реальность сроков сдачи в эксплуатацию перспективного РКК "Ангара" (Russian)
- "Satellite collides with Soviet-era rocket". Al Jazeera. 24 May 2013. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Ecuador tries to fix satellite after space debris crash". BBC News. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
- "Pegasus satellite was declared 'lost' by EXA". Ecuador Times. 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
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