Tunceli

Tunceli
Tunceli in Munzur valley
Tunceli in Munzur valley
Tunceli is located in Turkey
Tunceli
Tunceli
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 39°06′N 39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550Coordinates: 39°06′N 39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550
Country  Turkey
Province Tunceli Province
Government
 • Mayor Mehmet Ali Bul (DBP)
Area
[1]
 • District 881.76 km2 (340.45 sq mi)
Elevation
940 m (3,085 ft)
Population
(2012) [2]
 • Urban
31,469
 • District
35,898
 • District density 41/km2 (110/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
62000
Area code(s) 0428
Licence plate 62
Website Website

Tunceli (pronounced [tundʒeli]; Kurdish: Dêrsimê‎, Zazaki: Desim or Mamekiye) is a city in Turkey. It is the capital of Tunceli Province, located in the middle of Eastern Anatolia Region. Former names of Tunceli include Mamiki (from the Armenian: Mamikon), Kalan, and Dersim.[3]

Etymology

Tunceli, meaning "Iron hand" in Turkish was the name of the Turkish military operation to assimilate (turkify) the people by force.

Geography

Tunceli at 39°06′N 39°33′E / 39.100°N 39.550°E / 39.100; 39.550 is situated just to the north of the intersection point of two rivers, Munzur and Pülümür, both flowing to south. The city is founded in the valley of Munzur which is known for its picturesque appearance. It is surrounded by high mountains called Munzur mountains. The city has a limited means of transport to other cities. The population of the city is 32815 as of 2011.[4] It is one of the least populated province centers of Turkey.

History

During the Ottoman Empire, Tunceli (then known as Kalan) was a part of the region named Dersim. In 1847 Dersim was declared a sanjak (a historical administrative unit smaller than the province). The capital of the sanjak was Hozat. During the Republican period Tunceli Province was established in 1935. In 1946 the former town of Kalan was renamed as Tunceli and it was declared as the capital city of the province.[5]

As a result of the Turkish campaign of "Turkisation" Tunceli became a main target of Turkish officials after the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Tunceli played a role in the Dersim rebellion which has been described by many as a genocide.

Tunceli is famous for excellent rankings in National Education statistics.[6]

Economy

The main economic activity is animal breeding. Wheat is the only notable agricultural product. There are chromium salt and marble deposits. But only salt is produced. There are a few factories based on agriculture.[7]

Climate

Tunceli has a dry-summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dsa) with very hot, dry summers and freezing cold, snowy winters.

Climate data for Tunceli (1960-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
18.1
(64.6)
26.0
(78.8)
32.2
(90.0)
36.6
(97.9)
39.0
(102.2)
43.5
(110.3)
43.5
(110.3)
40.3
(104.5)
35.6
(96.1)
27.0
(80.6)
21.7
(71.1)
43.5
(110.3)
Average high °C (°F) 2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
10.9
(51.6)
17.9
(64.2)
23.9
(75.0)
29.9
(85.8)
35.0
(95.0)
35.2
(95.4)
30.5
(86.9)
22.7
(72.9)
13.4
(56.1)
5.5
(41.9)
19.3
(66.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
5.6
(42.1)
11.9
(53.4)
17.1
(62.8)
22.7
(72.9)
27.3
(81.1)
26.9
(80.4)
21.6
(70.9)
14.7
(58.5)
6.9
(44.4)
1.0
(33.8)
12.8
(55.0)
Average low °C (°F) −5.8
(21.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
0.8
(33.4)
6.2
(43.2)
10.2
(50.4)
14.5
(58.1)
18.9
(66.0)
18.4
(65.1)
13.3
(55.9)
8.2
(46.8)
2.0
(35.6)
−2.4
(27.7)
6.6
(44.0)
Record low °C (°F) −30.3
(−22.5)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−7.1
(19.2)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.3
(41.5)
9.2
(48.6)
7.7
(45.9)
2.6
(36.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
−16.4
(2.5)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−30.3
(−22.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 127.2
(5.01)
109.0
(4.29)
111.2
(4.38)
108.4
(4.27)
70.1
(2.76)
19.0
(0.75)
3.7
(0.15)
2.9
(0.11)
13.9
(0.55)
65.0
(2.56)
104.9
(4.13)
139.6
(5.50)
874.9
(34.46)
Average precipitation days 11.9 12.1 13.0 13.8 12.2 5.2 1.5 1.2 2.6 8.4 9.6 11.8 103.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 105.4 112.0 167.4 192.0 279.0 336.0 368.9 350.3 291.0 213.9 150.0 93.0 2,658.9
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [8]

See also