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Turner Classic Movies
|Headquarters||Atlanta, Georgia, United States|
(imported feature films are broadcast in their native languages, provided with English subtitling)
|Picture format||1080i HDTV
(downscaled to 480i letterboxed for the SDTV feed)
|Owner||Warner Bros. Entertainment|
|Launched||April 14, 1994 (1994-04-14)|
|Available on most U.S. cable systems||Channel slots may vary|
|Dish Network||Channel 132 (HD)|
|Shaw Direct (Canada)||
|Verizon FiOS||Channel 230 (SD)|
|Bell Fibe TV (Canada)||Channel 292|
|VMedia (Canada)||Channel 327 (HD)|
|TCM.com||Watch TCM (U.S. pay-TV subscribers only)|
|AT&T TV, Hulu with Live TV, Sling TV, YouTube TV|
Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia.
The channel's programming consists mainly of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. (covering films released before 1950), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (covering films released before May 1986), and the North American distribution rights to films from RKO Pictures. However, TCM also licenses films from other studios and occasionally shows more recent films.
The channel is available in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Malta, Latin America, France, Italy, Greece, Cyprus, Spain, the Nordic countries, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia-Pacific.
In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies, Turner Broadcasting System and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, and reincorporated as MGM/UA Communications Co.
The film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon.
Launch and contributions
Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district. The date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988. At the time of its launch, TCM was available to approximately one million cable television subscribers.
The network originally served as a competitor to AMC, which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a virtually identical format to TCM, as both networks largely focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut, uncolorized, and commercial-free format. By 2002, AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films.
In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella, also gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' library of films released after 1950 (which itself includes other acquired entities such as the Lorimar, Saul Zaentz and National General Pictures libraries); incidentally, TCM had already been running select Warner Bros. film titles through a licensing agreement with the studio that was signed prior to the launch of the channel.
In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming entirely to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing.
On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T (who renamed the company WarnerMedia) announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting. TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, and over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros. (the remaining Turner networks will be divided into WarnerMedia Entertainment and WarnerMedia News & Sports divisions). Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due to the company's massive film library.
TCM Young Composers Film Competition
In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network. As of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown, Laugh, and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress.
TCM Classic Film Festival
In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood. Initially hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies and features celebrity appearances, special events, and screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. The festival was postponed in 2020 and moved to a virtual setting in 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Turner Classic Movies essentially operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM (particularly those that will air during the primetime hours), and featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, and Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly One Reel Wonders). In 2007, some of the short films featured on TCM were made available for streaming on TCM's website. Partly to allow these interstitials, Turner Classic Movies schedules its feature films either at the top of the hour or at :15, :30 or :45 minutes past the hour, instead of in timeslots of varying five-minute increments.
TCM's film content has remained mostly uncut and uncolorized (with films natively filmed or post-produced in the format being those only ones presented in color), depending upon the original content of movies, particularly movies released after the 1968 implementation of the Motion Picture Association of America's ratings system and the concurrent disestablishment of the Motion Picture Production Code. Because of this, TCM is formatted similarly to a premium channel with certain films – particularly those made from the 1960s onward – sometimes featuring nudity, sexual content, violence and/or strong profanity; the network also features rating bumpers prior to the start of a program (most programs on TCM, especially films, are rated for content using the TV Parental Guidelines, in lieu of the MPAA's rating system).
The network's programming season runs from March of one year until the following February of the next when a retrospective of Oscar-winning and Oscar-nominated movies is shown, called 31 Days of Oscar. As a result of its devoted format to classic feature films, viewers who are interested in tracing the career development of actresses such as Barbara Stanwyck or Greta Garbo or actors like Cary Grant or Humphrey Bogart have the unique opportunity to see most of the films that were made during their careers, from beginning to end. Turner Classic Movies presents many of its features in their original aspect ratio (widescreen or full screen) whenever possible – widescreen films broadcast on TCM are letterboxed on the network's standard definition feed. TCM also regularly presents widescreen presentations of films not available in the format on any home video release. The current 2020-21 programming season will be extended through April 2021 (when the 31 Days of Oscar festival will air concurrent to the 2021 Oscar Awards, which will broadcast on ABC the same month) due to the current COVID-19 crisis that delayed the annual awards show by two months.
Occasionally, TCM shows restored versions of films, particularly old silent films with newly commissioned musical soundtracks. Turner Classic Movies is also a major backer of the Descriptive Video Service (created by Boston PBS member station WGBH-TV), with many of the films aired on the network offering visual description for the blind and visually impaired, which is accessible through the second audio program option through most television sets, or a cable or satellite receiver.
TCM publishes Now Playing, a monthly guide, originally available through a standalone subscription, which provides daily listings and descriptions for films scheduled to air on Turner Classic Movies in the coming month. The digest-size magazine highlights a featured actor on the cover, and features essays about the "guest programmer" as well as a movie-and-actor themed crossword puzzle. The May 2017 issue, following the death in March 2017 of host Robert Osborne, contained "Remembering Robert Osborne" by Ben Mankiewicz. TCM ceased print publication of Now Playing (which had been one of the few channel-specific program guides that remained in print circulation for most of the 2000s and 2010s) with the August 2017 issue, moving it to an electronic format available via email free of charge.
During the prime time hours, an ident for the "Watch TCM" app is shown after every movie.
TCM's library of films spans several decades of cinema and includes thousands of film titles. Besides broadcasting films owned or licensed by Warner Bros., Turner Classic Movies also licenses films from Universal Studios, Paramount Pictures, The Walt Disney Company (including film content from 20th Century Studios, as well as most of the Selznick International Pictures library), Sony Pictures Entertainment (primarily film content from Columbia Pictures and TriStar Pictures), StudioCanal, and Janus Films.
Also, TCM has aired movies from the 1900s through the 1920s. Although most movies shown on TCM are releases from the 1930s to the 1960s, some are more contemporary – Turner Classic Movies sometimes airs films from the 1970s and 1980s, and occasionally broadcasts movies released during the 1990s, the 2000s and the 2010s.
Hosted and special programming
Most feature movies shown during the prime time and early overnight hours (8:00 p.m. to 2:30 a.m. Eastern Time) were presented by film historian Robert Osborne (who had been with the network since its 1994 launch until 2016, except for a five-month medical leave from July to December 2011, when guest hosts presented each night's films), Ben Mankiewicz presenting primetime films on Wednesday through Sunday evenings, Jacqueline Stewart presenting "Silent Sunday Nights" on Sundays, Tiffany Vasquez presented the films on Saturday afternoons from 2016 to 2018 when Dave Karger began presenting Saturday afternoons and the primetime films on Mondays, and Alicia Malone presenting the films on Sunday afternoons, the primetime films on Tuesdays and "TCM Imports" on Sundays.
TCM regularly airs a "Star of the Month" throughout the year in which most, if not all, feature films from a film star are shown during that night's schedule. February and August are the only months to not have a "Star of the Month" due to special programming months. The network also marks the occurrence of a film actor's birthday (either antemortem or posthumously) or recent death with day- or evening-long festivals showcasing several of that artist's best, earliest or least-known pictures; by effect, marathons scheduled in honor of an actor's passing (which are scheduled within a month after their death) pre-empt films originally scheduled to air on that date. TCM also features a monthly program block called the "TCM Guest Programmer", in which the host is joined by celebrity guests responsible for choosing that evening's films (examples of such programmers during 2012 include Jules Feiffer, Anthony Bourdain, Debra Winger, Ellen Barkin, Spike Lee, Regis Philbin and Jim Lehrer); an offshoot of this block featuring Turner Classic Movies employees aired during February 2011.
The Essentials, with various hosts since 2001, is a weekly film showcase airing on Saturday evenings at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time which spotlights a culturally significant movie and contains a special introduction and post-movie discussion.
One of the weekly blocks is "Noir Alley", featuring film noir movies. It broadcasts on Saturday evenings and repeats on Sunday mornings at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Time and is hosted by Eddie Muller. The channel also broadcasts two movie blocks during the late evening hours each Sunday: "Silent Sunday Nights", which features silent films from the United States and abroad, usually in the latest restored version and often with new musical scores, and hosted by Jacqueline Stewart; and "TCM Imports" (which previously ran on Saturdays until the early 2000s[specify]), a weekly presentation of films originally released in foreign countries and hosted by Alicia Malone. TCM Underground – which debuted in October 2006 – as Saturday late night block which focuses on cult films, the block was originally hosted by rocker/filmmaker Rob Zombie until December 2006 (though as of 2014[update], it is the only regular film presentation block on the channel that does not have a host). TCM Underground recently changed its timeslot - it now airs early Saturday mornings at 2:00 a.m. Eastern Time
Turner Classic Movies suspends its regular schedule twice each year for a special month of film marathons. 31 Days of Oscar is a programming block aired each Oscar season by the U.S. and Asian Turner Classic Movies cable networks during the month of the Academy Awards. Each feature that TCM airs in this block can be either an Oscar winner or nominee.
Another is called "Summer Under the Stars", aired during August which features entire daily schedules devoted to the work of a particular actor, with movies and specials that pertain to the star of the day. In the summer of 2007, the channel debuted "Funday Night at the Movies", a block hosted by actor Tom Kenny (best known as the voice of SpongeBob SquarePants). This summer block featured classic feature films (such as The Wizard of Oz, Sounder, Bringing Up Baby, Singin' in the Rain, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, The Adventures of Robin Hood, and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea) aimed at introducing these movies to new generations of children, and their families.
"Funday Night at the Movies" was replaced in 2008 by "Essentials Jr.", a youth-oriented version of its weekly series, The Essentials (originally hosted by actors Abigail Breslin, and Chris O'Donnell, then by John Lithgow from 2009 to 2011, and then by Bill Hader, starting with the 2011 season), which included such family-themed films as National Velvet, Captains Courageous, and Yours, Mine and Ours, as well as more eclectic selections, such as Sherlock Jr., The Music Box, Harvey, Mutiny on the Bounty, and The Man Who Knew Too Much.
In 2014, the channel debuted "Treasures from the Disney Vault", hosted by Leonard Maltin. This block showcased a compilation of vintage Disney feature films, cartoons, documentaries, episodes of the Walt Disney anthology television series, and episodes of The Mickey Mouse Club. The last scheduled "Treasures from the Disney Vault" aired on September 2, 2019.
In addition to films, Turner Classic Movies also airs original content, mostly documentaries about classic movie personalities, the world of filmmaking and particularly notable films. An occasional month-long series, Race and Hollywood, showcases films by and about people of non-white races, featuring discussions of how these pictures influenced white people's image of said races, as well as how people of those races viewed themselves. Previous installments have included "Asian Images on Film" in 2008, "Native American Images on Film" in 2010, "Black Images on Film" in 2006 "Latino Images on Film" in 2009 and "Arab Images on Film" in 2011. The network aired the film series Screened Out (which explored the history and depiction of homosexuality in film) in 2007 and Religion on Film (focusing on the role of religion in cinematic works) in 2005. In 2011, TCM debuted a new series entitled AFI's Master Class: The Art of Collaboration.
In December 1994, TCM debuted "TCM Remembers", a tribute to recently deceased film personalities (including actors, producers, composers, directors, writers, and cinematographers) which occasionally airs during promotional breaks between films. The segments appear in two forms: individual tributes and a longer end-of-year compilation. Following the recent death of an especially famous film personality (usually an actor or filmmaker), the segment will feature a montage of select shots of the deceased's work.
Every December, a longer, more inclusive "TCM Remembers" interstitial is produced, featuring a selection of audio and video clips interspersed with scenes from settings such as an abandoned drive-in (2012) or a theatre which is closing down (2013). Since 2001, most of the soundtracks for these have been introspective melodies by indie artists such as Badly Drawn Boy (2007) or Steve Earle (2009). 2015's song, "Quickly Now", was written especially for TCM Remembers by Chuck Moore and Reid Hall, and sung by Eryn McHugh.
|2002||Rickie Lee Jones||"Cycles"|
|2003||Sarah McLachlan||"I Will Remember You"|
|2004||Ryan Adams||"Goodnight, Hollywood Blvd."|
|2005||Joe Henry||"Flesh and Blood"|
|2007||Badly Drawn Boy||"Promises"|
|2008||Joe Henry||"God Only Knows"|
|2009||Steve Earle||"To Live is To Fly"|
|2011||OK Sweetheart||"Before You Go"|
|2013||Sleeping at Last||"In the Embers"|
|2014||Kodaline||"All I Want"|
|2015||Eryn McHugh||"Quickly Now"|
|2016||Dan Auerbach||"Goin' Home"|
|2017||The Cardigans||"Lead Me Into The Night"|
|2018||Lord Huron||"When the Night is Over"|
|2020||PRISCA||"Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"|
TCM received a 2013 Peabody Award for its presentation of Mark Cousins' The Story of Film: An Odyssey, a 15-episode documentary about the development and advancement of the medium of motion pictures. Drawing on its exhaustive film library, TCM complemented each episode with short films and feature films from the familiar to the little-seen. The Peabody Award praised TCM's The Story of Film "for its inclusive, uniquely annotated survey of world cinema history".
TCM Vault Collection
The TCM Vault Collection consists of several different DVD collections of rare classic films that have been licensed, remastered and released by Turner Classic Movies (through corporate sister Warner Bros. Home Entertainment). These boxed set releases are of films by notable actors, directors or studios that were previously unreleased on DVD or VHS. The sets often include bonus discs including documentaries and shorts from the TCM library. The initial batch of DVDs are printed in limited quantities and subsequent batches are made-on-demand (MOD).
- Universal Collection – Featuring films licensed by TCM from the Universal Studios vault.
- The Lost RKO Collection – Featuring RKO films from the 1930s.
- TCM Spotlight – A series of DVD boxsets released by Warner Home Video featuring Charlie Chan and stars such as Esther Williams, Errol Flynn, Jean Arthur, Deanna Durbin, and Doris Day.
In October 2015, TCM announced the launch of the TCM Wineclub, in which they teamed up with Laithwaite to provide a line of mail-order wines from famous vineyards such as famed writer-director-producer Francis Ford Coppola's winery. Wines are available in 3-month subscriptions and can be selected as reds, whites, or a mixture of both. From the wines chosen, TCM also includes recommended movies to watch with each, such as a "True Grit" wine, to be paired with the John Wayne film of the same name.
Turner Classic Movies is available in many other countries around the world. In Canada, TCM began to be carried on Shaw Cable and satellite provider Shaw Direct in 2005. Rogers Cable started offering TCM in December 2006 as a free preview for subscribers of its digital cable tier, and was added to its analogue tier in February 2007. While the schedule for the Canadian feed is generally the same as that of the U.S. network, some films are replaced for broadcast in Canada due to rights issues and other reasons. Other versions of TCM are available in France, Greece, Italy, Middle East, Africa, Spain, Asia, Latin America, Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta. The UK version operates two channels, including a spinoff called TCM 2.
- The Great Movie Ride – a former attraction at Disney's Hollywood Studios that was TCM-sponsored.
- TCM 2 – A defunct sister network to the UK & Ireland version of Turner Classic Movies.
- GetTV – an American digital multicast television network owned by Sony Pictures Entertainment, which specializes in classic movies sourced mainly from the Columbia Pictures library.
- Movies! – an American digital multicast television network operated as a joint venture between Weigel Broadcasting and the Fox Television Stations, specializing in classic feature films primarily sourced from the Warner Bros. and Sony Pictures library.
- This TV – an American digital broadcast television network owned by Tribune Broadcasting and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, specializing in feature films (including many classic films) with limited classic television series, including those from the MGM library not owned by Turner.
- The Film Detective - an American internet television service specializing in restored seldom seen titles.
- Fabrikant, Geraldine. "Turner to Sell MGM Assets." The New York Times. June 7, 1986.
- "The Peabody Awards, Institutional Award: Turner Classic Movies (TCM)". Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- Mitchell, Kim; Rod Granger. "Turner launches TCM", Multichannel News, April 18, 1994. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
- Lon Grahnke. "Classic Films Find New Cable Outlet In Turner Empire", Chicago Sun-Times, April 10, 1994. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
- Gerard, Jeremy (1988-10-03). "TV Notes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-18.
- Brown, Rich. "Few tickets for Turner Classic Movies", Broadcasting & Cable, April 18, 1994. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
- "Turner picks up Warner films", Broadcasting & Cable, December 6, 1993. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research:
- Littleton, Cynthia (2019-03-04). "WarnerMedia Shakeup: Bob Greenblatt In, Jeff Zucker and Kevin Tsujihara Gain Turf". Variety. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- Littleton, Cynthia (2019-03-04). "Warner Bros. Wants to Rev Up Kid's Content With Looney Tunes, Hanna-Barbera". Variety. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
- Lumenick, Lou (November 5, 2009). "New TCM Film Festival goes head-to-head with Tribeca". New York Post. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- "TCM Classic Film Festival Postponed until 2022".
- "TCM:NOW PLAYING: A Viewer's Guide to Turner Classic Movies". Palm Coast, Florida: Turner Classic Movies. May 2017. p. 46.
- Canote, Terence Towles (2017-04-22). "A Shroud of Thoughts: TCM To Cease Printing the Now Playing Guide". A Shroud of Thoughts. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
- Brown, Rich. "Turner signs Paramount titles for $30M: new classic movie channel seeks additional packages to supplement MGM/RKO library", Broadcasting & Cable, August 16, 1993. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
- Dempsey, John. "TCM lands passel of pix from Fox", Daily Variety, August 13, 2004. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
- Elliot, Stuart (November 25, 2014). "Disney Pairs Up With Turner to Promote TCM and Great Movie Ride". The New York Times. Retrieved November 26, 2014.)
- Lumenick, Lou (July 11, 2011). "Robert Osborne taking leave from TCM". The New York Post. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012.
- Bibel, Sara (February 22, 2012). "TCM Announces Guest Programmers for 2012, Including Jules Feiffer, Anthony Bourdain, Debra Winger, Ellen Barkin, Spike Lee, Regis Philbin and Jim Lehrer". Press release. Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
- Lais, C. J. (February 1, 2019). "31 Days of Oscar begins ……… NOW!". Times Union. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
- "Disney". TCM.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Treasures from The Disney Vault" (PDF). Turner Communications Group. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Disney Ride". TCM.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- McKenzie, Gina (26 November 2014). "Turner Classic Movies, Walt Disney World Resort and The Walt Disney Studios Team Up to Share Stories Centered on Classic Film" (PDF). Turner Communications Group. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Asian Images on Film Introduction". TCM website. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Native American Images on Film Introduction". TCM website. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "Race & Hollywood: Black Images on Film - TCM Special in May". TCM website. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
"Latino Images in Film -- (TCM Original) Latin, Non-Latin". TCM. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
Hispanic actors talk about casting
- "Reca & Hollywood: Arab Images on Film Tuesdays & Thursdays in July". TCM website. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- Hinckley, David (14 November 2011). "Steven Spielberg and John Williams tell stories by the score about 'Jaws' & 'E.T.' in 'AFI Master Class'". Daily News. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- Maçek, J.C. III (14 January 2013). "'AFI Master Class': Zemeckis and Burgess Break It Down". PopMatters. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- "TCM Remembers 2009". TCM Website. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
- 'Quickly Now' at Apple Podcasts, with songwriting credit information. An interview with Moore about the song was published by TCM December 29, 2015 on their tumblr blog.
- "The Peabody Awards, The Story of Film: An Odyssey (TCM)". Grady College of Journalism and Mass Media, University of Georgia. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- "About TCM Wine Club". Tcmwineclub.com.
- Turner Classic Movies – official site
- Turner Classic Movies (turner.com/tcm/tcmhome.shtml) at the Wayback Machine (archive index)
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