Universiade

Universiade
FISU flag2.svg
Status active
Genre sporting event
Frequency biennial
Location(s) various
Inaugurated 1959 (1959) (summer)
1960 (1960) (winter)
Organised by FISU

The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation (FISU). The name is a combination of the words "University" and "Olympiad". The Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games; however, this latter term can also refer to competitions for sub-University grades students. The Universiade is the largest multi-sport event in the world apart from the Olympic Games.[1] The most recent games were in 2019: the Winter Universiade was in Krasnoyarsk, Russia while the Summer Universiade was held in Naples, Italy. The 2021 Winter Universiade will take place in Lucerne, Switzerland, with new dates to be announced soon[2] , and the 2021 Summer Universiade will be held in Chengdu, China between 18 and 29 August 2021.

Precursors

The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation (FISU), which now hosts the Universiade. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing (and passing) a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport. This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event.[3]

Opening ceremony of the 2017 Summer Universiade

At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name.[3] Petitjean, and later the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants (CIE), was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships. This was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year later and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games. The CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.[4][5]

A student football match held at the 3rd World Festival of Youth and Students

A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany.[4] The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath also led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged. The Union Internationale des Étudiants (UIE) incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947–1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries.[6]

After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week. The Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were initially Western-led sports competitions.[4]

Division between the largely Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE eventually began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games. This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France (which remained neutral to the split), but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade. It was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had previously been a European competition became a truly global one, with the inclusion of Brazil, Japan and the United States among the competing nations. The increased participation ultimately led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship.[3][4]

Precursor events

Precursor events
Year Event Organiser Host city Host country
1923 International Universities Championships CIE Paris  France
1924 Summer Student World Championships CIE Warsaw  Poland
1927 Summer Student World Championships CIE Rome  Italy
1928 Summer Student World Championships CIE Paris  France
1930 International University Games CIE Darmstadt  Germany
1933 International University Games CIE Turin  Italy
1935 International University Games CIE Budapest  Hungary
1937 International University Games CIE Paris  France
1939 International University Games CIE Monte Carlo  Monaco
1939 International University Games CIE Vienna  Germany
1947 International University Games CIE Paris  France
1947 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Prague  Czechoslovakia
1949 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Budapest  Hungary
1949 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Merano  Italy
1951 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE East Berlin  East Germany
1951 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Luxembourg  Luxembourg
1953 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Bucharest  Romania
1953 Summer International University Sports Week FISU Dortmund  West Germany
1955 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Warsaw  Poland
1955 Summer International University Sports Week FISU San Sebastián  Spain
1957 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Moscow  Soviet Union
1957 World University Games CIE Paris  France
1959 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Vienna  Austria
1962 World Festival of Youth and Students UIE Helsinki  Finland

Summer World University Games

Location map

Editions

Overview of Universiade events
Games Year Host country
(as recognized by FISU)
Host city Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
1 1959  Italy Turin Giovanni Gronchi 26 August – 7 September 45 985 7 60  Italy
2 1961  Bulgaria Sofia Dimitar Ganev 25 August – 3 September 32 1270 9 68  Soviet Union
3 1963  Brazil Porto Alegre Paulo de Tarso Santos 30 August – 8 September 27 917 9 70  Soviet Union
4 1965  Hungary Budapest István Dobi 20–30 August 32 1729 9 74  Hungary
5 1967  Japan Tokyo Hirohito 27 August – 4 September 30 937 10 83  United States
6 1970  Italy Turin Giuseppe Saragat 26 August – 6 September 40 2080 9 82  Soviet Union
7 1973  Soviet Union Moscow Leonid Brezhnev 15–25 August 72 2765 10 111  Soviet Union
8 1975  Italy Rome Giovanni Leone 18–21 August 38 450 1 38  Soviet Union
9 1977  Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–28 August 78 2939 10 101  Soviet Union
10 1979  Mexico Mexico City José López Portillo 2–13 September 85 2974 10 97  Soviet Union
11 1981  Romania Bucharest Nicolae Ceauşescu 19–30 July 86 2912 10 133  Soviet Union
12 1983  Canada Edmonton Charles, Prince of Wales 1–12 July 73 2400 10 118  Soviet Union
13 1985  Japan Kobe Akihito 24 August – 4 September 106 3949 11 123  Soviet Union
14 1987  Yugoslavia Zagreb Lazar Mojsov 8–19 July 122 6423 12 139  United States
15 1989  West Germany Duisburg Helmut Kohl 22–30 August 79 1785 4 66  Soviet Union
16 1991  Great Britain Sheffield Anne, Princess Royal 14–25 July 101 3346 11 119  United States
17 1993  United States Buffalo Bill Clinton 8–18 July 118 3582 12 135  United States
18 1995  Japan Fukuoka Akihito 23 August – 3 September 118 3949 12 144  United States
19 1997  Italy Sicily Oscar Luigi Scalfaro 20–31 August 122 3582 10 129  United States
20 1999  Spain Palma de Mallorca Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo 3–13 July 114 4076 12 142  United States
21 2001  China Beijing Jiang Zemin 22 August – 1 September 165 6757 12 170  China
22 2003  South Korea Daegu Roh Moo-hyun 21–31 August 174 7180 13 189  China
23 2005  Turkey Izmir Ahmet Necdet Sezer 11–22 August 133 7816 15 195  Russia
24 2007  Thailand Bangkok Vajiralongkorn 8–18 August 150 12000 15 236  China
25 2009  Serbia Belgrade Mirko Cvetković 1–12 July 145 5379 15 203  Russia
26 2011  China Shenzhen Hu Jintao 12–23 August 165 7999 24 306  China
27 2013  Russia Kazan Vladimir Putin 6–17 July 162 10442 27 351  Russia
28 2015  South Korea Gwangju Park Geun-hye 3–14 July 142 12885 21 274  South Korea
29 2017  Chinese Taipei1 Taipei Tsai Ing-wen 19–30 August 145 11397 22 272  Japan
30 2019  Italy Naples Sergio Mattarella 3–14 July 112 5971 18 220  Japan
31 2021  China Chengdu 18-29 August 18 268
32 2023  Russia Yekaterinburg 8-19 August 18

1 The Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan) is recognised as Chinese Taipei by the FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China.

Top 10 medal table

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 513 440 402 1355
2  China 443 308 253 1004
3  Russia 438 360 425 1223
4  Soviet Union 407 330 250 987
5  Japan 353 337 436 1126
6  South Korea 245 201 237 683
7  Italy 195 208 260 663
8  Ukraine 176 184 176 536
9  Romania 168 140 155 463
10  Germany 117 162 217 496
11  Hungary 116 93 111 320
12 Flag of Poland (with coat of arms).svg Poland 97 118 140 355
13  France 91 125 187 403
14  Chinese Taipei 85 98 119 302
15  Cuba 72 70 73 215
16 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom 69 106 120 295
17  Australia 56 52 77 185
18  Canada 49 100 129 278
19  Belarus 49 54 69 172
20  North Korea 40 30 43 113
Totals (20 nations) 3779 3516 3879 11174

Winter World University Games

Location map

Editions

Winter World University Games editions
Games Year Host country Host city Opened by Dates Nations Competitors Sports Events Top nation
Total Men Women
1 1960  France Chamonix Charles de Gaulle 28 February – 6 March 16 145 5 13  France
2 1962   Switzerland Villars Paul Chaudet 6–12 March 22 330 6 12  West Germany
3 1964  Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Antonín Novotný 11–17 February 21 410 5 15  West Germany
4 1966  Italy Sestriere Giuseppe Saragat 5–13 February 29 434 6 19  Soviet Union
5 1968  Austria Innsbruck Franz Jonas 21–28 January 26 589 7 23  Soviet Union
6 1970  Finland Rovaniemi Urho Kekkonen 3–9 April 25 591 7 24  Soviet Union
7 1972  United States Lake Placid Richard Nixon 26 February – 5 March 23 410 7 25  Soviet Union
8 1975  Italy Livigno Giovanni Leone 6–13 April 15 191 2 13  Soviet Union
9 1978  Czechoslovakia Špindlerův Mlýn Gustáv Husák 5–12 February 21 347 7 16  Soviet Union
10 1981  Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 25 February – 4 March 28 347 7 19  Soviet Union
11 1983  Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 17–27 February 28 347 7 21  Soviet Union
12 1985  Italy Belluno Sandro Pertini 16–24 February 34 7 30  Soviet Union
13 1987  Czechoslovakia Štrbské Pleso Gustáv Husák 21–28 February 21 347 6 25  Czechoslovakia
14 1989  Bulgaria Sofia Todor Zhivkov 2–12 March 21 347 8 40  Soviet Union
15 1991  Japan Sapporo Naruhito 2–10 March 34 8 40  Japan
16 1993  Poland Zakopane Lech Wałęsa 6–14 February 41 8 36  Japan
17 1995  Spain Jaca Juan Carlos I 18–28 February 41 9 35  South Korea
18 1997  South Korea Muju-Jeonju Kim Young-sam 24 January – 2 February 48 9 51  Japan
19 1999  Slovakia Poprad-Vysoké Tatry Rudolf Schuster 22–30 January 40 8 52  Russia
20 2001  Poland Zakopane Aleksander Kwaśniewski 7–17 February 41 9 52  Russia
21 2003  Italy Tarvisio Renzo Tondo 16–26 January 46 10 59  Russia
22 2005  Austria Innsbruck-Seefeld Heinz Fischer 12–22 January 50 1,500 11 68  Austria
23 2007  Italy Turin George Killian 17–27 January 48 11 72  South Korea
24 2009  China Harbin Liu Yandong 18–28 February 44 2,326 12 81  China
25 2011  Turkey Erzurum Abdullah Gül 27 January-6 February 52 1,880 11 66  Russia
26 2013  Italy Trentino Ugo Rossi 11–21 December 50 1,725 12 79  Russia
27 2015  Slovakia Štrbské Pleso-Osrblie Andrej Kiska 24 January – 1 February 43 1,551 11 68  Russia
 Spain Granada Felipe VI 4–14 February
28 2017  Kazakhstan Almaty Nursultan Nazarbayev 29 January – 8 February 57 1,604 12 85  Russia
29 2019  Russia Krasnoyarsk Vladimir Putin 2–12 March 58 3,000 11 76  Russia
30 2021   Switzerland Lucerne TBC [7] 10 68
31 2023  United States Lake Placid[8] 12–22 January 10

Winter Universiade All Time Top 10 medal table

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Russia 208 189 174 571
2  Soviet Union 111 96 70 277
3  South Korea 105 77 71 253
4  Japan 95 105 97 297
5  China 78 65 76 219
6  Czechoslovakia 52 49 25 126
7  Italy 51 57 59 167
8  France 51 50 55 156
9 Flag of Poland (with coat of arms).svg Poland 49 58 64 171
10  Austria 49 47 53 149
11 Civil Ensign of Switzerland.svg Switzerland 39 32 39 110
12  United States 33 48 56 137
13  Ukraine 33 42 40 115
14  Germany 29 23 28 80
15  Kazakhstan 28 25 32 85
16  Czech Republic 25 27 41 93
17  Slovenia 22 25 24 71
18  Belarus 20 24 20 64
19  Slovakia 20 20 27 67
20  Canada 19 30 30 79
Totals (20 nations) 1117 1089 1081 3287

See also

References

  1. ^ "Summer Universiade". www.fisu.net. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  2. ^ "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade postponed, will not take place in January 2021". FISU. 31 August 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Bell, Daniel (2003). Encyclopedia of International Games. McFarland and Company, Inc. Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina. ISBN 0-7864-1026-4.
  4. ^ a b c d World Student Games (pre-Universiade). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2010-12-10.
  5. ^ FISU History. FISU. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
  6. ^ World Student Games (UIE). GBR Athletics. Retrieved on 2014-12-09.
  7. ^ "Lucerne 2021 Winter Universiade postponed, will not take place in January 2021". FISU. 31 August 2020.
  8. ^ "Lake Placid set to host 2023 Winter Universiade after MoU signed with FISU". Inside the Games. 6 March 2018.

External links

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