Visa requirements for United States citizens

A United States passport with biometric chip.

Visa requirements for United States citizens and non-citizen nationals are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of the United States.

As of 10 January 2021, holders of a United States passport could travel to 185 countries and territories without a travel visa, or with a visa on arrival. The United States passport currently ranks[Note 1] 7th in terms of travel freedom (tied with the passports of Belgium, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, and the UK) according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

COVID-19 Restrictions

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, several countries have imposed temporary travel restrictions on United States citizens or persons arriving from the United States.[2]

  •  Argentina – Admission refused, except residents.
  •  Austria – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Australia – Admission refused.
  •  Bahamas - Admission permitted with prior completion of Travel Health Visa Application, which requires a negative COVID-19 test.[3]
  •  Bangladesh – Medical certificate and 14-day institutional quarantine required.
  •  Belgium – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Bermuda – 14-day self-quarantine required.
  •  Botswana – Admission refused.
  •  Brazil – Admission restricted via land borders. Entry via air unrestricted. [4]
  •  Brunei – Admission refused.
  •  Bulgaria – Admission refused unless exempted from the entry restrictions ordered by the Ministry of Health on 3 August 2020. Long-term visa or residence permit holders are permitted to enter, but must self-isolate for 14 days unless arriving from the EU/EEA after a two-week stay there.
  •  Cambodia – Admission refused.
  •  Canada – Admission refused for nonessential travel, except residents (who must self-isolate for 14 days).
  •  Chile – Admission refused for nonessential travel.
  •  China – Admission refused for nonessential travel. Admission granted to those with valid residence permits for work, family visitation, or personal emergencies; crew-members of international flights, vessels, or trains with valid visas; or those with diplomatic, service, or courtesy visas. Those with valid visas of any type issued after March 26, 2020 are not refused entry. All visa waiver policies suspended, including visa-free transit and visa-free entry to Hainan Province. All travelers entering on commercial flights are required to submit evidence of a negative RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 at least three days before boarding their flight. Other types of tests for the virus are not accepted.[5][6][7][8]
  •  Croatia – Now open
  •  Cyprus – Admission refused for travelers arriving from the US and some other countries.[9]
  •  Colombia – Admission refused until August 31, except residents (who must self-isolate for 14 days).
  •  Costa Rica – Health Pass and proof of health insurance required for entry.[10]
  •  Czech Republic – Admission refused.
  •  Denmark – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods. Entry refused into Greenland and Faroe Islands until April 13.
  •  El Salvador – Admission refused, except accredited diplomats and legal residents.
  •  Estonia – Admission refused effective March 17. Right of entry will remain for citizens and those with a right of residence, as well as foreign citizens whose next of kin live in Estonia. Transit is allowed for foreigners not showing signs of COVID-19. A mandatory two-week quarantine will be set for anyone entering the country.
  •  France – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Georgia – Admission refused until April 21st, except dependents of citizens and diplomats.
  •  Germany – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Greece – Admission to Schengen Area refused until further notice, except residents, family members of EU/Greek citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Guatemala – Admission refused.
  •  Hong Kong – Admission refused.
  •  Honduras – Admission refused.[11]
  •  Hungary – Admission refused.
  •  Iceland – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  India – Admission refused.
  •  Indonesia – Admission refused.
  •  Ireland – Self-isolation required. [12]
  •  Israel – Admission refused, except for new immigrants with an Aliyah visa. All arriving individuals must be tested at the airport. They must then be housed in a government funded hotel or remain under home isolation for 10 days. Arrivals will then take a second test and upon confirmation of a negative result will be released from the isolation. If an arrival refuses then the arrival must remain in isolation for an additional 4 days.
  •  Italy – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Japan – Admission refused, except those with valid re-entry documentation and those meeting certain family, professional, or medical criteria.[13]
  •  Jordan – Valid health insurance, a PCR test taken on arrival, and an tracking app download is required for entry.[14]
  •  Latvia – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Liechtenstein – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Lithuania – Admission refused, except those with residence permit.
  •  Luxembourg – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Macau – Admission refused.
  •  Malaysia – Admission refused for nonresidents. Quarantine required for residents.
  •  Malta – 14-day quarantine required.
  •  Mexico – Admission refused by land for nonessential travel.
  •  Mongolia – Admission refused.
  •  Netherlands – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  New Zealand – Admission refused for nonresidents. 14-day managed quarantine required for residents. [15]
  •  North Korea – Admission refused.
  •  Norway – Admission refused.
  •  Oman – Tourist visas suspended until April 30.
  •  Panama – Admission refused.
  •  Philippines – Admission refused, except spouses and children of Filipino nationals. [16]
  •  Poland – Admission refused, except for those possessing residence or work permits. 14 days quarantine required.
  •  Russia – Admission refused.
  •  Singapore – Admission refused for nonresidents. Quarantine required for residents.
  •  Slovakia – Admission refused for nonresidents. Quarantine required for residents.
  •  Slovenia – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  South Africa – visitors who have been in, transited through, or are nationals of several designated "high-risk countries" (including the United States) are not allowed to enter.[17]
  •  South Korea – Mandatory 14-day self-quarantine upon arrival.[18]
  •  Spain – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Suriname – Admission refused.
  •  Sweden – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •   Switzerland – Admission to Schengen Area refused from noon 17 March until April 30, except residents, family members of EU citizens, medical personnel, and people responsible for transport of goods.
  •  Tajikistan – Admission refused.
  •  Thailand – Admission refused, except residents.
  •  Tunisia – Proof of negative PCR test and mandatory 14 day quarantine on arrival required.[19]
  •  Turkmenistan – Admission refused.
  •  Ukraine – Self-quarantine or COVID-19 test required on arrival.[20]
  •  UAE – Visa issuance suspended for non-diplomatic passport holders.
  •  UK – Self-Isolation required. [21]
  •  Venezuela – Admission refused.
  •  Vietnam – Admission refused. E-visa will be resumed after July 1.[22]

Visa requirements map

Visa requirements

General visa requirements of sovereign countries towards United States citizens:

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees) Reciprocity
 Afghanistan Visa required[23][24]
  • Visitors born in Afghanistan do not require a visa.
  • Visitors arriving via military air need to legalize their stay if they wish to leave via commercial airline.
  • All visitors are fingerprinted.[25]
 Albania Visa not required[26][27] 1 year[28] X
 Algeria Visa required[29][30]
  • Persons may be denied entry if entering with a passport containing visas or stamps issued by Israel.
 Andorra Visa not required[31] 3 months[32][33]
 Angola eVisa[34][35][36] 30 days
  • Visitors who have been granted an online pre-visa or have requested such pre-visa from the consulates of Angola abroad, are then issued with a visa on arrival at the country's border check points.
  • For a maximum total stay of 90 days within a one year period.[37]
  • Besides having printed confirmation that a visa will be issued upon arrival, passengers must: have a return/onward ticket, and have a hotel reservation confirmation.[38]
X
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[39][40] 6 months[41]
  • Stringent application of rules regarding proof of sufficient funds, return ticket and accommodation.[42]
X
 Argentina Visa not required[43] 90 days
  • Extendable up to 180 days.
  • Visitors are fingerprinted and photographed upon entry.
X
 Armenia Visa not required[44] 180 days X
 Australia eVisa[45] 90 days
  • 90 days on each visit in 12-month period if granted[46]
  • May enter using SmartGate.[47]
 Austria Visa not required[48][49] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[50] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Azerbaijan eVisa / Visa on arrival[53] 30 days[54]
  • If intending to stay in the Republic of Azerbaijan for more than ten days, the visitor must register at the State Migration Service of the Republic of Azerbaijan within three days upon arrival in Azerbaijan.[55]
  • Applicants of Armenian ancestry or with Armenian visas in their passport may not obtain a visa.[56]
  • Can obtain a 30 days visa on arrival only if arriving on a direct flight of Azerbaijan Airlines from New York City.[57]
X
 Bahamas Visa not required[58][59] 8 months
  • Passport Card or Enhanced Drivers License valid for Sea Travel
X
 Bahrain eVisa / Visa on arrival[60] 14 days[61]
  • Visa also obtainable online[62]
X
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[63] 30 days[64] X
 Barbados Visa not required[66][67] 6 months[68] X
 Belarus Visa not required[69] 30 days X
 Belgium Visa not required[74] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[75] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Belize Visa not required[76][77] 30 days[78]
  • Departure tax applies.[79]
X
 Benin eVisa[80][81] 90 days X
 Bhutan Visa required[83]
  • $250 per day is a non-negotiable minimum daily tariff paid by all visitors to Bhutan.
  • Visas are issued only to tourists booked with a local licensed tour operator.[84]
 Bolivia Visa not required[85][86] 90 days[87] X
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[88][89] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
  • Registration with the local police within 24 hours of arrival is mandatory.[90]
X
 Botswana Visa not required[91][92] 90 days
  • 90 days within any year period[93]
X
 Brazil Visa not required[94][95] 90 days
  • Up to 90 days per visit, but no more than 180 days per year.
X
 Brunei Visa not required[96][97] 90 days
 Bulgaria Visa not required[98][99] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period[100] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
X
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[101] 1 month X
 Burundi Visa required[103]
  • Visitors are fingerprinted
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[104] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[105]
  • All visitors are fingerprinted on arrival and departure.[106]
X
 Cameroon Visa required[107]
 Canada Visa not required[109][110] 6 months
  • Anyone with a criminal record (including misdemeanors or alcohol-related driving offenses in the US) may not be able to enter Canada without first obtaining an approval for rehabilitation[111] or a Temporary Resident Permit (TRP).[112]
  • Passport Card, NEXUS card, or Enhanced Drivers License valid for Land and Sea Travel
 Cape Verde Visa not required[113] 30 days
  • Must register online at least five days prior to arrival.[114]
X
 Central African Republic Visa not required[115][116][117] 180 days X
 Chad Visa required[119][120]
 Chile Visa not required[123] 90 days[124][125]
 China Visa required[126]
  • Registration mandatory within 24 hours of arrival;[127]
  • All visitors are fingerprinted on arrival and departure between the ages of 14 and 70.
  • Visas for U.S. citizens are valid for up to 10 years.[129]
 Colombia Visa not required[130][131] 90 days
  • Extendable up to 180-days stay within a one-year period[132]
  • Colombian-born U.S. citizens and U.S. citizens traveling with children may face special exit requirements.[133]
X
 Comoros Visa on arrival[134][135] X
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[136][137]
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[139][140]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[142] 90 days
  • Departure tax applies.[143]
X
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[144] 3 months X
 Croatia Visa not required[146][147] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period. Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  • Registration with the local police within 24 hours of arrival is mandatory.[148]
X
 Cuba Tourist Card required[149] 30 days
  • Tourist travel was historically prohibited under U.S. law for U.S. citizens, permanent residents, and others subject to U.S. jurisdiction.[150] Under the Cuban Assets Control Regulations, all persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction are not permitted to travel to Cuba, and must be licensed in order to engage in any travel-related transactions pursuant to travel to, from, and within Cuba. In July 2015, the United States resumed diplomatic relations with Cuba. Discussions on lifting the travel ban have initiated. On June 16, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced new travel restrictions.[151][152]
  • Tourist Card can be extended up to maximum 60 days with a fee.
 Cyprus Visa not required[153][154] 90 days X
 Czech Republic Visa not required[156][157] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[158] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Denmark Visa not required[159][160] 90 days
  • US citizens can enter Denmark for up to 90 days every six months, regardless of whether they have stayed in other Schengen countries (except other Nordic countries) prior to entry into Denmark.[161]
  • Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Djibouti eVisa[162] 31 days
X
 Dominica Visa not required[163][164] 6 months
  • Departure tax applies.[165]
X
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[166][167] 30 days
  • Extendable up to 90 days
  • Passport Card or Enhanced Drivers License valid for Sea Travel
X
 Ecuador Visa not required[168] 90 days
  • Extendable for another 90 days, per year[169]
X
 Egypt eVisa / Visa on arrival[170] 30 days X
 El Salvador Visa not required[173][174] 3 months X
 Equatorial Guinea Visa not required[175] 90 days X
 Eritrea Visa required[177]
  • Airport departure tax applies.[178]
 Estonia Visa not required[179][180] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[181] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Eswatini Visa not required[182] 30 days
  • Extendable up to 60 days[183]
X
 Ethiopia eVisa / Visa on arrival[184] up to 90 days
  • Visitors are fingerprinted
X
 Fiji Visa not required[187] 4 months[188] X
 Finland Visa not required[189][190] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[191] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 France Visa not required[192][193] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area (in Regions of France)[194] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  • A bilateral agreement pre-dating the Schengen area may allow 90 days of stay in France regardless of days spent in other Schengen countries.[195][196][197][198]
 Gabon eVisa / Visa on arrival[199] 6 months X
 Gambia Visa required[202][203]
 Georgia Visa not required[205] 1 year
  • Visitors must hold proof of health insurance.
X
 Germany Visa not required[206] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[207] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Ghana Visa required[208][209]
 Greece Visa not required[211][212] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[213] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Grenada Visa not required[214][215] 3 months
  • Extensions possible
X
 Guatemala Visa not required[216] 90 days
  • An exit tax must be paid when departing by air.[217]
X
 Guinea eVisa[218] up to 5 years X
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[220] 90 days[221]
  • Visitors must apply for a visa on arrival in advance or online.[222]
X
 Guyana Visa not required[223] 3 months[224] X
 Haiti Visa not required[225][226] 3 months X
 Honduras Visa not required[227] 3 months
  • Departing airport tax applies.
X
 Hungary Visa not required[228][229] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[230] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Iceland Visa not required[231][232] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[233] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 India eVisa[234] 180 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 2] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 3][235]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
  • $100 fee along with bank surcharge of 2.5%[236]
  • Confirmation has to be shown at the border where a visa on arrival is issued.
  • Visitors are fingerprinted.
  • American citizens are eligible for a ten-year, multiple-entry tourist visa.[237]
  • American citizens of Pakistani heritage are not eligible for a ten-year, multiple-entry tourist visa, and must apply for a regular visa.
X
 Indonesia Visa not required[238][239] 30 days X
 Iran Visa required[240]
  • Iranian visas must be obtained from the Special Interests section of the Embassy of Pakistan, Washington, D.C. or an Iranian embassy all around the world [241]
  • US visitors are fingerprinted and photographed upon entry.[242]
  • Independent travelers must be accompanied by an authorized guide at all times.
  • Tourist visa not required for Kish Island.[243]
 Iraq Visa required[244]
  • Some U.S. citizens must obtain an exit stamp at a Residency Office before departing the country.
  • Some visitors who plan to stay for more than 10 days must also obtain a residency stamp.[245]
  • Visitors who come as part of a government-sponsored tour, upon presentation of proper paperwork from the government, may receive a visa on arrival at Baghdad International Airport for $80 + 1250 Iraqi dinar. Visitors are not required to obtain any other permits, including for Iraqi Kurdistan, or submit blood tests.[246]
 Ireland Visa not required[247][248] 3 months
  • Strict application of immigration rules regarding providing proof of the trip purpose, sufficient funds, return ticket and accommodation.[249]
 Israel Visa not required[250] 3 months
  • Admission temporarily refused due to the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
  • Dual nationals of Israel and the United States who don't have an Israeli passport, including infants, may be required to obtain an Israeli passport in order to leave Israel.[251]
  • Entry prohibited for any person "who knowingly issues a public call for boycotting Israel".[252]
X
 Italy Visa not required[253][254] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[255] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Jamaica Visa not required[256] 6 months
  • There is a departure tax for travelers, which is regularly included in airfare.[257]
X
 Japan Visa not required[258] 90 days
  • All visitors are fingerprinted[259]
 Jordan Visa on arrival[260] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival obtainable at most international ports of entry and at most international land border crossings (except King Hussein/Allenby Bridge crossing).[261]
  • Iris scan is taken on arrival and departure[262]
X
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[263][264] 30 days
  • As part of the no-visa pilot program in period 15 July 2014 – 15 July 2015. In June 2015 this program was extended until December 31, 2017.[265][266]
X
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[267] 3 months X
 Kiribati Visa not required[269] 30 days
  • Airport Embarkation Tax applies.[270]
X
 North Korea Travel restricted[271][272][273]
  • U.S. passports holders must obtain a special passport validation from the U.S. federal government before travel.
 South Korea Visa not required[274] 90 days
  • All visitors are fingerprinted.[275]
 Kuwait eVisa / Visa on arrival[276] 3 months X
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[277] 60 days[278] X
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[279][280] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 4] and at 13 border crossings[Note 5] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[281] Visa on arrival facility will be gradually phased out at various border crossings starting January 2020.[282]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through the following entry points — Wattay International Airport and the First Thai–Lao Friendship Bridge
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.
X
 Latvia Visa not required[283][284] 180 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[285] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  • A bilateral agreement pre-dating the Schengen area allows an additional 90 days of stay in Latvia (to a total of 180) regardless of days spent in other Schengen countries.[286]
 Lebanon Free visa on arrival[287] 1 month
  • Extendable for 2 additional months.
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket
X
 Lesotho Visa not required[288] 14 days
  • Extendable up to 180 days.[289]
X
 Liberia Visa required[290]
 Libya Visa required[292]
  • Visitors travelling to Libya for touristic purposes are required to convert US$1,000 or equivalent on arrival.
  • Holders of passports bearing an Israeli visa or entry/exit stamps from Israel are not allowed to enter Libya.[293]
 Liechtenstein Visa not required[294] 90 days
 Lithuania Visa not required[296][297] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area. Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  • Mandatory medical insurance.[298]
 Luxembourg Visa not required[299][300] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[301] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[302] 90 days X
 Malawi eVisa / Visa on arrival[303][304]
  • From 1 October 2015 visitors are generally advised to obtain a visa in advance.[305]
X
 Malaysia Visa not required[306] 3 months
  • All visitors are fingerprinted on arrival and departure.[307]
  • Immigration offenses, such as visa overstaying, are punishable by caning.
X
 Maldives Free visa on arrival[308][309] 30 days
  • Extendable up to 90 days.
X
 Mali Visa required[310][311]
 Malta Visa not required[313][314] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[315] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Marshall Islands Visa not required[316] unlimited
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[318] X
 Mauritius Visa not required[320] 90 days[321] X
 Mexico Visa not required[322][323] 180 days
  • Visitors must obtain a Forma Migratoria Multiple. There is no charge for a tourist FMM for stays of less than 7 days when entering by land. For visitors staying more than 7 days up to 180 days and entering by land the cost is 575 Mexican Pesos. An FMM is required for all visitors entering via air, regardless of length of stay, and the cost is included in the travelers airfare and remitted by the airline.[324][325]
  • Passport Card or Enhanced Drivers License valid for Land and Sea Travel
X
 Micronesia Visa not required[326] unlimited[327]
  • All states except Yap have a departure fee.[328]
  • U.S. citizens may live and work freely in Micronesia under the Compact of Free Association.
  • There is no limit to the length of time U.S. citizens can remain in the FSM.[329]
 Moldova Visa not required[330] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period
  • Registration upon arrival is mandatory.[331]
X
 Monaco Visa not required[332] 90 days
 Mongolia Visa not required[335] 90 days
  • Registration required after 30 days.[336]
X
 Montenegro Visa not required[337] 90 days
  • Registration with the local police within 24 hours of arrival is mandatory.[338]
X
 Morocco Visa not required[339] 3 months[340] X
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[341] 30 days[342] X
 Myanmar eVisa[343] 28 days X
 Namibia Visa not required[344] 3 months[345] X
 Nauru Visa required[346]
  • Visas are issued with validity of 30 days.[347]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[348] 90 days
  • Obtainable at Tribhuvan International Airport and certain land borders.
  • Total of no more than 150 aggregate days in any given calendar year.[349]
  • Also available Multiple Entry 5 years Tourist Visa
X
 Netherlands Visa not required[350][351] 90 days
 New Zealand Electronic Travel Authority[353] 90 days[354]
  • May enter using eGate.[355]
  • International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy must be obtained alongside Electronic Travel Authority.[356]
 Nicaragua Visa not required[357] 90 days
  • A tourist card must be purchased upon arrival.[358]
X
 Niger Visa required[359][360]
 Nigeria Visa required[362][363]
 North Macedonia Visa not required[364] 90 days
  • Registration with the local police within 24 hours of arrival is mandatory[365]
X
 Norway Visa not required[366][367] 90 days
  • 3 months within a 6-month period, regardless of previous time spent in other Schengen countries, but including time spent in other Nordic countries[368][369]
  • Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Oman eVisa[370] 30 days
  • Holders of a visa or entrance stamp of the Emirate of Dubai that is valid for at least 21 days are visa exempt.[371]
  • Holders of a visa for Qatar that is valid for travel to Oman and valid for at least one month are visa exempt when arriving directly from Qatar.[372]
  • Iris scan is taken on arrival.[262]
X
 Pakistan Online Visa[373]
  • Online Visa eligible.[374]
  • Electronic Travel Authorization to obtain a visa on arrival for business purposes.[375]
X
 Palau Visa not required[376] 1 year[377]
 Panama Visa not required[378] 180 days
  • Denial of entry or transit to any person who has a criminal conviction.[379]
X
 Papua New Guinea Free eVisa / Visa on arrival[380] 60 days
  • Extendable for 30 days[381]
  • Visa on arrival is issued free of charge.
X
 Paraguay Visa on arrival[382] 90 days
  • U.S. citizens arriving by air may obtain a visa on arrival at Silvio Pettirossi International Airport in Asuncion. This is a multiple entry visa with a validity of up to 10 (ten) years. If entering elsewhere, a visa must be obtained in advance from the embassy or consulate.[383]
X
 Peru Visa not required[384] 183 days
  • Determined on arrival[385]
X
 Philippines Visa not required[386][387] 30 days
  • Naturalized US citizens of former Philippine nationality (balikbayan) allowed to stay for one year.
X
 Poland Visa not required[388] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area. Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  • Dual nationals must use their Polish passport[389]
  • A bilateral agreement pre-dating the Schengen area allows a stay in Poland regardless of days spent in other Schengen countries.[390][391][198]
 Portugal Visa not required[392][393][394] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area[395] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Qatar Visa not required[396] 30 days X
 Romania Visa not required[397][398] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period.[399] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
X
 Russia Visa required[400]
  • 72-hour visa-free for international cruise ship/ferry passengers only if travelling with an organized tour and accompanied at all times by a tour operator.
  • Registration required after 7 business days.[401][402]
  • American citizens may receive multiple entry visas valid for three years.[403]
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[404][405] 30 days X
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[407][408] 3 months X
 Saint Lucia Visa not required[409][410] 6 weeks X
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[411] 1 month[412] X
 Samoa Visa not required[413] 60 days
  • Departure tax applies.[414]
X
 San Marino Visa not required[415][416]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Visa not required[417] 15 days X
 Saudi Arabia eVisa / Visa on arrival[419][420] 90 days X
 Senegal Visa not required[421] 90 days X
 Serbia Visa not required[423] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period[424]
X
 Seychelles Free Visitor's Permit on arrival[425] 3 months
  • Extendable up to a year[426]
X
 Sierra Leone Visa on arrival[427] X
 Singapore Visa not required[429] 90 days[430]
  • All visitors are fingerprinted on arrival and departure[431]
 Slovakia Visa not required[432][433] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area. Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  • Medical insurance required.
  • Sufficient funds of $50 per person per day required.
  • Registration within 3 working days required.[434]
 Slovenia Visa not required[435][436] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area. Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  • Registration with the local police within 72 hours of arrival is mandatory.[437]
 Solomon Islands Free Visitor's permit on arrival[438] 3 months
  • 3 months within 12 months[439]
X
 Somalia Visa on arrival[440] X
 South Africa Visa not required[441] 90 days
  • Holders of passports without 2 blank pages may be refused entry.[442]
X
 South Sudan Electronic Visa[443] X
 Spain Visa not required[446][447] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area.[448] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[449] 30 days[450] X
 Sudan Visa required[451][452]
  • Holders of passports that contain visas or entry/exit stamps for Israel will likely be refused entry.
  • Exit visa required.
  • Registration within 3 days mandatory.[453]
 Suriname E-tourist card[454] 90 days
  • Multiple entry eVisa is also available.[455]
X
 Sweden Visa not required[456][457] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area.[458] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
  Switzerland Visa not required[459][460] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period in the Schengen Area.[461] Beginning in January 2021, ETIAS system will become mandatory for all Non-EU international travellers.[51][52]
 Syria Visa required[462][463]
  • Registration required within 15 days.
  • Departure tax applies at all borders.
  • Persons with passports bearing Israeli visas or entry/exit stamps are not allowed to enter.[464]
  • Visas are not currently available to United States residents.[465]
 Tajikistan eVisa[466][467] 45 days
  • If arriving from a country that has a Tajik diplomatic mission a visa should be obtained in advance.
  • eVisa holders can enter through all border points.[468]
X
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[469][470][471] 3 months
  • Ordinary visa available on arrival for $100[472]
X
 Thailand Visa not required[473] 30 days
  • Maximum two visits annually if not arriving by air.
X
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[474] 30 days
  • For arrivals by air only[475]
X
 Togo Visa on arrival[476] 7 days[477] X
 Tonga Free visa on arrival[478][479] 31 days X
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa not required[480] 90 days[481] X
 Tunisia Visa not required[482] 90 days[483] X
 Turkey eVisa[484][485] 3 months X
 Turkmenistan Visa required[486]
  • Departure fee applies.[487]
  • 10-day visa on arrival if holding letter of invitation issued by a company registered in Turkmenistan with a prior approval from the Foreign Ministry.[488]
 Tuvalu Free visa on arrival[489] 1 month
  • Extendable up to 3 months[490]
  • Visa on arrival is issued free of charge.
X
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[491] 90 days
  • Determined at the port of entry.
  • Must apply online at least 2 business days or more prior to travel.[492] As of March 2017, airlines were refusing passengers permission to board flights to Uganda if they did not have a print-out of the document showing that they had successfully applied for an eVisa. Ugandan immigration authorities also may require additional documentation, including proof of a return plane ticket and detailed tour itinerary in Uganda.
  • International Certificate of Vaccination required.[493]
X
 Ukraine Visa not required[494] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period[495]
X
 United Arab Emirates Free visa on arrival[496][497] 30 days
  • Extension possible with a fee
  • Iris scan taken on arrival
  • U.S. passport holders can sign up for E-Gate access on arrival/departure at Dubai International Airport
X
 United Kingdom Visa not required[498][499] 6 months[500]
 Uruguay Visa not required[501] 3 months[502] X
 Uzbekistan eVisa[503][504] 30 days
  • 5-day visa-free transit when in transit at the international airports on condition of holding a confirmed onward ticket for a flight to a third country.[505]
  • Registration within 3 days is mandatory.[506]
X
 Vanuatu Visa not required[507] 30 days
  • Extendable up to 120 days[508]
X
  Vatican City Visa not required[509] X
 Venezuela Visa required[510]
 Vietnam eVisa[510] 30 days X
 Yemen Visa required[514][515]
  • Registration mandatory.
  • Exit visa required for stays over 30 days.[516]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[517] 90 days X
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[520] 3 months
  • Tourism purposes only.[521]
  • Electronic visa also available.[522]
X

Territories or administrative subdivisions with different visa policies

Visa requirements for United States citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries not mentioned in the list above, recognized administrative subdivisions that operate on different visa policies and restricted zones:

Africa
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Eritrea outside Asmara Travel permit required To travel in the rest of the country, a Travel Permit for Foreigners is required (20 Eritrean nakfa).[523]
 Ascension Island eVisa[524][525] 3 months
  • 3 months within any year period
 Saint Helena Visitor's Pass required Visitor's Pass granted on arrival valid for 4/10/21/60/90 days for 12/14/16/20/25 pound sterling.[526]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[527]
 Mayotte Visa not required[528] 90 days
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Undefined Undefined visa regime in the Western Sahara controlled territory.
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[529][530]
 Réunion Visa not required[531] 90 days
 Sudan outside Khartoum Travel permit required All foreigners traveling more than 25 kilometers outside of Khartoum must obtain a travel permit.
Sudan Darfur Travel permit required Separate travel permit is required.[532]
Asia
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[533]
China Hainan Visa not required when travelling as part of a tour group Visa not required for 15 days for traveling as part of a tourist group (2 or more people)[534][535]
 Hong Kong Visa not required 90 days[536] Admission refused unless travelling from Mainland China, Macao or Taiwan or a resident of Hong Kong. Before March 24 2020, Americans were granted a 90-day visa free stay.
India Protected and restricted areas of India PAP/RAP required Protected Area Permit (PAP) required for whole states of Nagaland and Sikkim and parts of states Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh. Restricted Area Permit (RAP) required for all of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and parts of Sikkim. Some of these requirements are occasionally lifted for a year.[537][538][539][540][541][542]
 Iraqi Kurdistan Visa on arrival Visa on arrival for 15 days is available at Erbil and Sulaymaniyah airports.[244]
Kazakhstan Baikonur & Priozersk Special permission required Special permission required for the city of Baikonur and surrounding areas in Kyzylorda Oblast, and the town of Priozersk near Almaty.[543]
Iran Kish Island Visa not required Visitors to Kish Island do not require a visa.[242]
 Macau Visa not required 30 days[544]
Malaysia Sabah and Sarawak Visa not required These states have their own immigration authorities and passport is required to travel to them, however the same visa applies.[545]
 Maldives outside Malé Permission required Tourists are generally prohibited from visiting non-resort islands without the express permission of the Government of the Maldives.[546]
Saudi Arabia Mecca and Medina Special access required Non-Muslims and those following the Ahmadiyya religious movement are strictly prohibited from entry.
India North Sentinel Island Restricted zone
 Palestine Visa not required Travel to Gaza Strip may be restricted .[547]
Taiwan Taiwan Visa not required 90 days[548] Visitors fingerprinted
Tajikistan Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province OIVR permit required OIVR permit required (15+5 Tajikistani Somoni) and another special permit (free of charge) is required for Lake Sarez.[549][550][551]
China Tibet Autonomous Region TTP required Tibet Travel Permit required (10 US Dollars).[552][553][554]
Turkmenistan Closed cities of Turkmenistan Special permit required A special permit, issued prior to arrival by Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is required if visiting the following places: Atamurat, Cheleken, Dashoguz, Serakhs and Serhetabat.[555]
United Nations Korean Demilitarized Zone Restricted zone
United Nations UNDOF Zone and Ghajar Restricted zone
Vietnam Phú Quốc Visa not required 30 days[512]
 Yemen outside Sana’a or Aden Special permission required Special permission needed for travel outside Sana’a or Aden.[516]
Caribbean and North Atlantic
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Anguilla Visa not required 3 months[556]
 Aruba Visa not required 90 days 90 days within any year period[557][558]
90 days in Aruba, Caribbean Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten combined
 Bermuda Visa not required 6 months Decided on arrival.[559]
Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) Visa not required 90 days 90 days within any year period[560][561]
90 days in Aruba, Caribbean Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten combined
 British Virgin Islands Visa not required 30 days Extensions possible[562]
 Cayman Islands Visa not required 6 months[563]
Colombia San Andrés and Leticia Tourist Card on arrival Visitors arriving at Gustavo Rojas Pinilla International Airport and Alfredo Vásquez Cobo International Airport must buy tourist cards on arrival.[564]
 Curaçao Visa not required 90 days 90 days within any year period[565]
90 days in Aruba, Caribbean Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten combined
France French West Indies Visa not required 3 months French West Indies refers to Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy[566]
Denmark  Greenland Visa not required[567]
Venezuela Margarita Island Visa required All visitors are fingerprinted.[568]
 Montserrat Visa not required 6 months
 Sint Maarten Visa not required 90 days 90 days in 1 year[569][570]
90 days in Aruba, Caribbean Netherlands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten combined
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa not required 90 days[571]
Europe
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Abkhazia Visa required[572]
Flag of the Greek Orthodox Church.svg Mount Athos Special permit required Special permit required (4 days: 25 euro for Orthodox visitors, 35 euro for non-Orthodox visitors, 18 euro for students). There is a visitors' quota: maximum 100 Orthodox and 10 non-Orthodox per day and women are not allowed.[573][574]
Ukraine ATO zone Special permission required[575]
Belarus Brest and Grodno Visa not required 10 days[576]
 Crimea Visa required Visa issued by Russia is required.[577]
 Novorossiya Restricted area Crossing from Ukraine requires visit purpose to be explained to Ukrainian passport control on exit and those who entered from Russia are not allowed to proceed further into Ukraine.[578]
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Visa not required 3 months[579][580]
United Nations UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus Access Permit required[581] Access Permit is required for travelling inside the zone, except Civil Use Areas.
 Faroe Islands Visa not required[567]
United Kingdom  Gibraltar Visa not required[582]
 Guernsey Visa not required[583]
 Isle of Man Visa not required[584]
Norway Jan Mayen Permit required[582] 24 hours Permit issued by the local police required for staying for less than 24 hours[585] and permit issued by the Norwegian police for staying for more than 24 hours.[586]
 Jersey Visa not required[587]
 Kosovo Visa not required 90 days[588]
 Artsakh Visa required[589][590] Travellers with Artsakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Artsakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[591]
Russia Closed cities of Russia Special authorization required Several closed cities and regions in Russia require special authorization.[402]
 South Ossetia Visa not required Multiple entry visa to Russia and three-day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[592][593]
 Svalbard Visa not required[594] Unlimited Anyone may live and work freely in Svalbard per the Svalbard Treaty.
 Transnistria Visa not required 24 hours Registration required after 24h.[595][596]
Oceania
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
United States American Samoa American Samoa Freedom of movement Unlimited
  • Proof of citizenship is required for entry.
  • U.S. citizens may live and work freely in American Samoa.[597]
Australia Ashmore and Cartier Islands Special authorisation required Special authorisation required.[598]
France Clipperton Island Special permit required Special permit required.[599]
 Cook Islands Visa not required 31 days[600]
Fiji Lau Province Special permission required Special permission required.[188]
 French Polynesia Visa not required 90 days 90 days within any 180-day period[601]
United States Guam Guam Freedom of movement Unlimited U.S. citizens and American Samoan citizens may live and work freely in Guam. Proof of citizenship is required for entry.[602][603]
 Niue Visa on arrival 30 days[604]
United States Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands Freedom of movement Unlimited U.S. citizens and American Samoan citizens may live and work freely in the Northern Mariana Islands. Proof of citizenship is required for entry.[605]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days Visa free and landing fee US$35 or tax of US$5 if not going ashore.[606][607][608]
 Tokelau Entry permit required[609]
United States United States Minor Outlying Islands Special permits required Special permits required for Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll and Wake Island.[610][611][612][613][614][615][616]
South America
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
Bandera Provincia Galápagos.svg Galápagos Pre-registration required Online pre-registration is required. Transit Control Card must also be obtained at the airport prior to departure.[617]
France French Guiana Visa not required 3 months[618] International Certificate of Vaccination required.
South Atlantic and Antarctica
Visitor to Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Falkland Islands Visa not required Visa is not required.[619]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[620][621]
 Antarctica Special permits required Special permits required for  Bouvet Island,  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[622][623][624][625][626][627][628][629][630][631][632][633]

Passport card

The United States Passport Card can be used as an alternative to the passport booklet only when travelling to and from Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, and Caribbean islands at maritime ports-of-entry or land border crossings. The card is not valid for air travel whatsoever; if traveling by air, the passport book is required.[634]

APEC Travel Business Card

The APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) is meant to facilitate travel for U.S. citizens engaged in verified business in the APEC region.[635]

The U.S. ABTC should enable access to a dedicated fast-track lane for expedited immigration processing at some participating foreign APEC member airports.[636] U.S. APEC Business Travel Card holders may also use the Global Entry kiosks at participating airports upon their U.S. return.[637] However, the U.S. APEC Business Travel Card cannot be used in lieu of a visa to enter an APEC member country in the way that some other countries’ APEC cards can be used in lieu of visas. This is because the U.S. has decided not to participate in the visa reciprocity part of the program because the US government is unwilling to waive visa interviews.[638] The program was initially set to expire on 30 September 2018, but the November 2017 signing of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards Act of 2017 (S. 504) ensured it would permanently remain.[639]

Consular protection of U.S. citizens abroad

The United States has the most diplomatic missions of any country in the world.
See also List of diplomatic missions of the United States and List of diplomatic missions in the United States.

The Department of State regularly publishes travel warnings or travel alerts.

Non-visa restrictions

Blank passport pages

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[640] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination

An International Certificate of Vaccination required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[641]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[642]

Passport validity length

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[643] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[644] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[645]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova, and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland and the United Kingdom also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, and South Africa.

As of Jan 2021, Maldives waived off 6 month passport validity requirement to 1 month.

Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay. Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[646][647] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[648]

Criminal record

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[649] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record.

Persona non grata

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[650]

Israeli stamps

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[651] Lebanon,[652] Libya,[653] Sudan,[654] Syria,[655] and Yemen[656] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[657]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity

Entry Permit to the " Nagorno-Karabakh Region" issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the government of Azerbaijan not only bars entry of Armenian citizens, but also all citizens and nationals of any other country who are of Armenian descent, into the Republic of Azerbaijan.[658][659]

Azerbaijan also strictly bans any visit by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[660] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[661] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[662] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Upon request, the authorities of the separatist regime (self-determined and largely unrecognized Republic of Artsakh) may attach their visa and/or stamps to a separate piece of paper in order to avoid detection of travel to their territory.

Biometrics

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[663]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[664][665] Argentina,[666] Brunei, Cambodia,[667] China,[668] Ethiopia,[669] Ghana, Guinea,[670] India, Japan,[671][672] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[673] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[674] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[675] Singapore, South Korea,[676] Taiwan, Thailand,[677] Uganda[678] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),[679] [680] [681] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[682]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[683] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[684][685] The United States Department of Homeland Security has announced plans to greatly increase the biometric data it collects at US borders.[686] In 2018, Singapore began trials of iris scanning at three land and maritime immigration checkpoints.[687][688]


Foreign travel statistics

These are the numbers of visits by U.S. nationals to various countries in 2015 (unless otherwise noted):

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Data for 2016
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb Data for 2017
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Data for 2014
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Counting only guests in tourist accommodation establishments.
  5. ^ a b c Data for 2013
  6. ^ a b c d Data for arrivals by air only.
  7. ^ a b Data for 2012
  8. ^ Excluding one-day visits
  9. ^ a b c d Data for 2010
  10. ^ Data for 2007
  11. ^ Data for 2009
  12. ^ Data for 2005
  13. ^ Data for arrivals by air only.
  14. ^ a b Data for 2015

See also

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