Vivaldi antenna

A Vivaldi antenna or Vivaldi aerial[1] or tapered slot antenna[2] is a co-planar broadband-antenna, which can be made from a solid piece of sheet metal, a printed circuit board, or from a dielectric plate metalized on one or both sides.

Pattern of a Vivaldi antenna, made from double-sided printed circuit board material

The feeding line excites an open space via a microstrip line or coaxial cable, and may be terminated with a sector-shaped area or a direct coaxial connection. From the open space area the energy reaches an exponentially tapered pattern via a symmetrical slot line.

A one-piece sheet metal vivaldi antenna undergoing testing in an anechoic chamber

Vivaldi antennas can be made for linear polarized waves or – using two devices arranged in orthogonal direction – for transmitting / receiving both polarization orientations.

If fed with 90-degree phase-shifted signals, orthogonal devices can transmit/receive circular-oriented electromagnetic waves.

Vivaldi antennas are useful for any frequency, as all antennas are scalable in size for use at any frequency. Printed circuit technology makes this type antenna cost effective at microwave frequencies exceeding 1 GHz.

This inexpensive Vivaldi antenna is etched upon a printed circuit board and fed with a soldered-on coaxial cable and SMA connector.

Advantages of Vivaldi antennas are their broadband characteristics (suitable for ultra-wideband signals [3]), their easy manufacturing process using common methods for PCB production, and their easy impedance matching to the feeding line using microstrip line modeling methods.

The MWEE collection of EM simulation benchmarks includes a Vivaldi antenna.[4][5][6][7][8][9]


  1. ^ Peter J. Gibson: The Vivaldi Aerial, 9th European Microwave Conference Proceedings, Brighton, 1979, p. 101–105.
  2. ^ Milligan, Thomas (2005). Modern antenna design (Second ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 512. ISBN 9780471457763. OCLC 85820949.
  3. ^ De Oliveira, A. M.; Perotoni, M. B.; Kofuji, S. T.; Justo, J. F. (2015). "A palm tree antipodal Vivaldi antenna with exponential slot edge for improved radiation pattern". IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 14: 1334. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2015.2404875.
  4. ^ "Vivaldi Antenna". CST Computer Simulation Technology.
  5. ^ "The 2000 CAD Benchmark". Microwave Engineering Europe.
  6. ^ "Design An X-Band Vivaldi Antenna". Microwaves and RF.
  7. ^ "Characterization of Vivaldi antennas utilizing a microstrip-to-slotline transition" (PDF).
  8. ^ "Dual-orthogonal polarized Vivaldi Antenna for Ultra Wideband Applications".
  9. ^ "Vivaldi antenna".