Voiced alveolar fricative

The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described.

  • The symbol for the alveolar sibilant is ⟨z⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z. The IPA letter ⟨z⟩ is not normally used for dental or postalveolar sibilants in narrow transcription unless modified by a diacritic (⟨⟩ and ⟨⟩ respectively).
  • The IPA symbol for the alveolar non-sibilant fricative is derived by means of diacritics; it can be ⟨ð̠⟩ or ⟨ɹ̝⟩.
Voiced coronal fricatives
Dental Denti-
alveolar
Alveolar Post-alveolar
Retracted Retroflex Palato-
alveolar
Alveolo-
palatal
Sibilant plain ʐ ʒ ʑ
Non-sibilant ð ð̠/ð͇/ɹ̝ ɻ̝
tapped ɾ̞/ɹ̝̆

Voiced alveolar sibilant

Voiced alveolar fricative
z
IPA Number 133
Encoding
Entity (decimal) z
Unicode (hex) U+007A
X-SAMPA z
Braille ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
Audio sample
source · help
Voiced laminal dentalized alveolar sibilant
Voiced laminal predorsal alveolar sibilant
Voiced alveolar retracted sibilant
Encoding
Entity (decimal) z​̺
Unicode (hex) U+007A U+033A

The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages, but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia.

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • There are at least three specific variants of [z]:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [z] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) about half of English speakers use a non-retracted apical articulation.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʒ] or laminal [ʐ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] զարդ About this sound[z̪ɑɾt̪ʰ]  'decoration'
Azerbaijani[3] z [z̪ɔʁ] 'sprout'
Belarusian[4] база [ˈbäz̪ä] 'base' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[5] езеро [ˈɛz̪ɛro] 'lake' Contrasts with palatalized form.
Czech[6] zima [ˈz̪ɪmä] 'winter' See Czech phonology
English Multicultural London[7] zoo [z̪ʏˑy̯] 'zoo' See English phonology
French[8][9] zèbre [z̪ɛbʁ] 'zebra' See French phonology
Hungarian[10] zálog [ˈz̪äːl̪oɡ] 'pledge' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[11] [example needed]
Kazakh[12] заң/zan' [z̪äŋ] 'law'
Kyrgyz[13] заң
Latvian[14] zars [z̪ärs̪] 'branch' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[15] зошто [ˈz̪ɔʃt̪ɔ] 'why' See Macedonian phonology
Mirandese daprendizaige [d̪əpɾẽd̪iˈz̪ajʒ(ɯ̽)] 'learning' Contrasts seven sibilants altogether, preserving medieval Ibero-Romance contrasts.
Polish[1][16] zero About this sound[ˈz̪ɛrɔ]  'zero' See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most speakers Estados Unidos [isˈt̪ad̪uz̪‿ʉˈnid͡zᶶ(ˢ)] 'United States' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[17] zar [z̪är] 'dice' See Romanian phonology
Russian[18] заезжать / zaezžat' About this sound[z̪əɪˈʑʑætʲ]  'to pick up' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19][20] зајам / zajam [z̪ǎːjäm] 'loan' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak zima [ˈz̪imä] 'winter'
Slovene[21] zima [ˈz̪ìːma] 'winter'
Turkish[8][22] z [ɟø̞̈z̪] 'eye' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23] зуб [z̪ub] 'tooth' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[24] koza [ˈkoz̪ä] 'goat' See Upper Sorbian phonology
Uzbek[25] zafar 'victory'
Vietnamese Hanoi[26] da [z̪äː] 'skin' See Vietnamese phonology
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe зы About this sound[ˈzə]  'one'
Albanian zjarr [zjar] 'fire'
Arabic Standard[27] زائِر [ˈzaːʔir] 'visitor' See Arabic phonology
Assamese লকীয়া [zɔlɔkija] 'chili'
Assyrian ܙܢ̱ܓܐ zìga [ziɡa] 'bell'
Bengali নামা [namaz] 'Salah' See Bengali phonology
Breton iliz [iliz] 'church'
Chechen зурма / zurma [zuɾma] 'music'
Dutch[28][29] zaad [z̻aːt̻] 'seed' Laminal; may have only mid-to-low pitched friction in the Netherlands.[28][29] See Dutch phonology
Emilian and Romagnol raån [raːz̺ʌŋ] 'reason' Palatalized apical; may be [ʐ] or [ʒ] instead.
English zoo About this sound[zuː] 'zoo' Absent from some Scottish and Asian dialects. See English phonology
Esperanto kuzo [ˈkuzo] 'cousin' See Esperanto phonology
Georgian[30] არი [ˈzɑɾi] 'bell'
Greek Athens dialect[31] ζάλη / záli [ˈz̻ali] 'dizziness' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew זאב [zeˈʔev] 'wolf' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani Hindi ज़मीन [zəmiːn] 'land' See Hindustani phonology
Urdu زمین
Japanese[32] 全部 / zenbu [zembɯ] 'everything' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian зы About this sound[ˈzə]  'one'
Kalaw Lagaw Ya zilamiz [zilʌmiz] 'go'
Kashmiri ज़ानुन / زانُن [zaːnun] 'to know'
Malay beza [bezə] 'difference'
Maltese żelu [zelu] 'zeal'
Marathi [zər] 'if' See Marathi phonology.
Occitan Limousin jòune [ˈzɒwne] 'young' See Occitan phonology
Persian گوز [guz] 'fart'
Portuguese[33] casa [ˈkazɐ] 'house' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ [zɪnˈd̪əgi] 'life'
Spanish Andalusian comunismo [ko̞muˈnizmo̞] 'Communism' Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants, when it is not debuccalized to [h ~ ɦ]. Present in dialects which realize /s/ as a non-retracted alveolar fricative. Before /d/ it is dental [z̪].
Latin American
Filipino
Mexican isla [ˈiz.lä] 'island' Some northern dialects. Corresponds to /s/ in other Mexican dialects, and to /θ/ in Peninsular Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Swahili lazima [lɑzimɑ] 'must'
West Frisian[34] sizze [ˈsɪzə] 'to say' It never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
Yi / ssy [zɹ̩˧] 'generation'
Yiddish zien [zin] 'son'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[35] guanaz [ɡʷanaz] 'went to grab'

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[36][37] zel [ˈz̺ɛɫ] 'zeal' Apical. See Catalan phonology
Galician mesmo [ˈme̞z̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪].
Greek[38] μάζα / za [ˈmɐz̠ɐ] 'mass' See Modern Greek phonology
Italian Central Italy[39] caso [ˈkäːz̠o] 'case' Present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[39] most of Umbria[39] (save Perugia and the extreme south)[39] and Le Marche south of the Potenza.[39]
Northern Italy[40][41] Apical.[42] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line.[43][44] See Italian phonology
Sicily[39] Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[39]
Low German[45] [example needed]
Maldivian zaraafaa [z̺aˈraːfaː] 'giraffe'
Mirandese eisistir [e̞jz̺is̺ˈtiɾ] 'to exist' Apical. Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ⟨ch⟩ //, ⟨x⟩ /ʃ/, ⟨g⟩/⟨j⟩ /ʒ/, ⟨c⟩/⟨ç⟩ //, ⟨z⟩ /z̪/, ⟨s⟩/-⟨ss⟩- //, -⟨s⟩- /z̺/
Occitan Gascon casèrna [kaz̺ɛrno] 'barracks' See Occitan phonology
Languedocien ser [bez̺e] 'to see'
Piedmontese amis [aˈmiz̠] 'friend' Apical. See Piemontese phonology
Portuguese Coastal Northern European [example needed] Merges with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Inland Northern European [example needed] Apical. Contrasts with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Spanish Andean mismo [ˈmiz̺mo̞] 'same' Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪]. See Spanish phonology
Castilian
Paisa Region
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[46] sauber [ˈzäʊ̯bɐ] 'clean' Varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[46] See Standard German phonology
Italian Standard[47] caso [ˈkäːzo] 'case' Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[47] See Italian phonology
Ticino[42] Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[48] Both variants may be labiodentalized.[42] See Italian phonology

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative

Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
ð̠
ð͇
ɹ̝
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ð​̠
Unicode (hex) U+00F0 U+0320
Audio sample
source · help
Voiced alveolar tapped fricative
ɾ̞
ɹ̝̆
IPA Number 124 430
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized), it can represent the sound as in a number of ways including ⟨ð̠⟩ or ⟨ð͇⟩ (retracted or alveolarized [ð], respectively), ⟨ɹ̝⟩ (constricted [ɹ]), or ⟨⟩ (lowered [d]).

Few languages also have the voiced alveolar tapped fricative, which is simply a very brief apical alveolar non-sibilant fricative, with the tongue making the gesture for a tapped stop but not making full contact. It can be indicated in the IPA with the lowering diacritic to show that full occlusion does not occur. Flapped fricatives are theoretically possible but are not attested.[49]

Features

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aragonese Pyrenean[50] aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Tapped; common realization of /ɾ/.[50]
Czech[51] čtyři [ˈt͡ʃtɪɹ̝ɪ] 'four' May be a fricative trill[51] or a tap fricative instead.[52] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Dahalo[53] [káð̠i] 'work' Apical; only weakly fricated. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d̠/, and may be an approximant [ð̠˕] or simply a plosive [d] instead.[54]
Danish[55] Few speakers[56] ved [ve̝ð̠] 'at' Laminal.[55] Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda; much more often realized as an approximant.[56] See Danish phonology
Dutch[57] voor [vöːɹ̝] 'for' One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear. See Dutch phonology
Emilian Bolognese chè [ˈkɛːð̠] 'case' Laminal
English Scouse[58] maid [meɪð̠] 'maid' Allophone of /d/. See English phonology
South African[59][60] round [ɹ̝æʊ̯nd] 'round' Apical,[60] present in some urban dialects.[59] See South African English phonology
Icelandic[61][62] bróðir [ˈprou̯ð̠ir] 'brother' Usually apical,[61][62] may be closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
Italian Sicily[63] terra [ˈt̪ɛɹ̝ä] 'earth' Apical; corresponds to /rr/ in standard Italian.[63] See Italian phonology
Manx mooar [muːɹ̝] 'big' Common word-final realization of /r/.
Spanish[64] Aragonese aire [ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞] 'air' Tapped; possible realization of /ɾ/.[64] See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[65][66] vandrare [²vän̪ːd̪ɹ̝äɹɛ] 'wanderer' Allophone of /r/ around the Stockholm area. See Swedish phonology
Tacana[67] [example needed] Tapped.[67]
Turkish[68] rüya [ˈɾ̞ÿjä] 'dream' Tapped; word-initial allophone of /ɾ/.[68] See Turkish phonology

See also

Copyright