Voiced dental and alveolar plosives

Voiced alveolar plosive
IPA Number 104
Entity (decimal) d
Unicode (hex) U+0064
Braille ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
Audio sample
source · help
Voiced dental plosive
IPA Number 104 408
Entity (decimal) d​̪
Unicode (hex) U+0064 U+032A
Braille ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)⠠ (braille pattern dots-6)⠹ (braille pattern dots-1456)
Audio sample
source · help

The voiced alveolar, dental and postalveolar plosives (or stops) are types of consonantal sounds used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental plosive, and ⟨⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.

There are only a few languages which distinguishes dental and alveolar stops, Kota, Toda, Venda and some Irish dialects being a few of them.


Features of the voiced alveolar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
  • There are three specific variants of [d]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Dental or denti-alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[1] դեմք / demk’ About this sound[d̪ɛmkʰ]  'face' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Western տալ / dal [d̪ɑl] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Bashkir дүрт / dürt About this sound[dʏʷrt]  'four'
Basque diru [d̪iɾu] 'money' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Belarusian[2] падарожжа/padarožža [päd̪äˈroʐʐä] 'travel' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Bengali দু/dūdh [d̪ud̪ʱ] 'milk' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3] dit [ˈd̪it̪] 'finger' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Wu /da [d̪ɑ̃] 'the Tang dynasty'
Dinka[4] dhek [d̪ek] 'distinct' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with alveolar /d/.
Dutch Belgian ding [d̪ɪŋ] 'thing' Laminal denti-alveolar.
English Dublin[5] then [d̪ɛn] 'then' Laminal denti-alveolar. Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [d͡ð] instead.[5] See English phonology
Southern Irish[6]
Geordie[7] Word-initial allophone of /ð/; may be realized as [ð] instead.[7]
Ulster[8] dream [d̪ɹim] 'dream' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /d/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
Esperanto mondo [ˈmondo] 'world' See Esperanto phonology
French[9] dais [d̪ɛ] 'canopy' Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Georgian[10] კუ [ˈkʼud̪i] 'tail' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Georgian phonology
Hindustani[11] दू / دودھ‎/dūdh [d̪uːd̪ʱ] 'milk' Laminal denti-alveolar. Hindustani contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Irish dorcha [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə] 'dark' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Irish phonology
Italian[12] dare [ˈd̪äːre] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Japanese[13] 男性的 / danseiteki [d̪ä̃ɰ̃se̞ːt̪e̞kʲi] 'masculine' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Japanese phonology
Kashubian[14] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[15] дос [d̪os̪] 'friend' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[16] drudzis [ˈd̪rud̪͡z̪is̪] 'fever' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Marathi गड/dagaḍ [d̪əɡəɖ] 'stone' Laminal denti-alveolar. Marathi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Nepali दि/din [d̪in] 'daytime' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali Phonology
Odia /daśa [d̪ɔsɔ] 'ten' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Pashto ﺪﻮﻩ‎/dwa [ˈd̪wɑ] 'two' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Polish[17] dom About this sound[d̪ɔm]  'home' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[18] Many dialects dar [ˈd̪aɾ] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. May palatalize or lenite in certain environments, depending on dialect. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi Gurmukhi ਦਾਲ/dāl [d̪ɑːl] 'lentils' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Shahmukhi دال/dāl
Russian[19] два/ dva [ˈd̪wɑ] 'two' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with a palatalized alveolar variant. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[20] дуга / duga [d̪ǔːgä] 'rainbow' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[21] danes [ˈd̪àːnəs̪] 'today' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Spanish[22] hundido [ũn̪ˈd̪ið̞o̞] 'sunken' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Turkish dal [d̪äɫ] 'twig' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23][24] дерево/derevo [ˈd̪ɛrɛβ̞ɔ] 'tree' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[25] sifatida [siɸætidæ] 'as' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Zapotec Tilquiapan[26] dan [d̪aŋ] 'countryside' Laminal denti-alveolar.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe дахэ/daahė [daːxa] 'pretty'
Assyrian ܘܪܕܐ werda [wεrda] 'flower' Predominant in the Urmia, Jilu, Baz, Gawar and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [ð̞] in other varieties.
Bengali ডা/ḍab [d̠ab] 'green coconut' True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. Usually transcribed in IPA as [ɖ]. See Bengali phonology.
Czech do [do] 'into' See Czech phonology
Dutch[27] dak [dɑk] 'roof' See Dutch phonology
English Most speakers dash About this sound[ˈdæʃ] 'dash' See English phonology
Finnish sidos [ˈsido̞s] 'bond' See Finnish phonology
Greek ντροπή / dropí [dro̞ˈpi] 'shame' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew דואר‎/ do'ar [ˈdo̞.äʁ̞] 'mail' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian adó [ˈɒdoː] 'tax' See Hungarian phonology
Kabardian дахэ/ daahė [daːxa] 'pretty'
Korean 아들 / adeul [ɐdɯl] 'son' See Korean phonology
Kurdish Northern diran [dɪɾä:n] 'tooth' See Kurdish phonology
Central ددان/ dadân [dædä:n]
Southern دیان/dîân [diːä:n]
Luxembourgish[28] brudder [ˈb̥ʀudɐ] 'brother' More often voiceless [t].[28] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay Standard (incl. Malaysian) dahan [dähän] 'branch' See Malay phonology
Kelantan-Pattani [dahɛː] See Kelantan-Pattani Malay
Maltese dehen [den] 'wit'
Thai ดาว/ dāw [daːw] 'star'
Welsh diafol [djavɔl] 'devil' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian doarp [ˈdwɑrp] 'village'
Yi /dda [da˧] 'competent'
Yonaguni 与那国 / dunan [dunaŋ] 'Yonaguni'


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic دين‎/diin [diːn] 'religion' Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the dialect. See Arabic phonology.
English Broad South African[30] dawn [doːn] 'dawn' Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[30][31][32]
Scottish[31] [dɔn]
Welsh[32] [dɒːn]
German Standard[33] oder About this sound[ˈoːdɐ] 'or' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[33] See Standard German phonology
Norwegian Urban East[34] dans [d̻ɑns] 'dance' Partially voiced or fully voiceless [t]. Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[34] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[35] اداره‎/edāre [edaːre] 'office' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[35] See Persian phonology
Slovak[36][37] do About this sound[d̻ɔ̝] 'into' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[36][37] See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[38] dag [dɑːɡ] 'day' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[38] May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology

See also